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Pugio Bruti Resources

Free resources for the book Pugio Bruti – A Crime Story in Easy Latin.

· Expressions, Illustrations, easter eggs, glossary

For even more resources (Latin video lessons, exercises, commentary) check out the Pugio Bruti Online Course.

Further down on this page you’ll find resources for the Latin book Pugio Bruti – A Crime Story in Easy Latin. It is a crime story with a limited vocabulary (350 words) set in ancient Rome. To accompany the book there is an audiobook and an extensive online video course.


Paper back

  • Read a compelling and excicing story.
  • Understand Latin as Latin without translating every word.
  • Internalize words and grammar.

Audio book

  • Practice instant understanding.
  • Learn the restored classical pronunciation.
  • Listen to Latin anywhere and everywhere on the go.

Online Course

  • Discover the book with video lessons in Latin.
  • Practice your understanding with quizzes.
  • Master the book with dialogues.

 Pugio Bruti Study Guide

Do you want some suggestions on how to study Pugio Bruti — A Crime Story in Easy Latin? Click below to download a brief guide that outlines a step-by-step approach to using Pugio Bruti while learning Latin.


Click the button below to download a short step-by-step guide for studying Pugio Bruti and its audiobook. It outlines how to gradually work through the book to get the most out of it.

The approach has been tried and tested, but feel free to make any changes to it that would suit you in your studies.

Good luck in your studies!


Useful Latin expressions from Pugio Bruti

Below you will find a list of useful Latin expressions and words used in Pugio Bruti – A Crime Story in Easy Latin. Every expression is translated into English. Remember however when using the expressions in Latin to always consider the context.

If you have the Pugio Bruti course, remember to consult the commentary on each chapter, There is much detailed information expressions and constructions there.



Abeat in malam rem! To hell with him!

Accede huc. Come here.

Ain' tu? Really?


Bene narras. I’m glad to hear that! Good news!


Conversus abiit. He turned around and walked away.


Di boni! Good Lord(s)!

Domi. At home

Dormitum iit. He/she went to bed. 


Ei in mentem venit… It occurred to him that…

Ei non est tempus. He doesn't have time.

Eodem tempore quo... At the same time as…

Est quod tibi narrem. I have something to tell you.

Expectavit dum Terentia abiret. He/She waited for Terentia to go away. 


Foras egressus est. He stepped outside.

Foris expectavit. He waited outside.

Foris. Outside.


Heus tu! Hey you!

Humi iacet. He/she is lying on the ground.


Ianua foras ferebat. The door led outside.

Illo ipso die. On that very day.

Illud solum vidi…the only thing I saw was…

In mentem venit pugionis. The dagger came to mind. 


Lineae ex macula currunt. The lines run/extend out from the stain. 


Male narras! I'm sorry to hear that. That is bad news!

Mediā viā. In the middle of the street.

Mitte pugionem. Let go of the dagger.

Multi aderant homines. There was a lot of people there. 

Multo post. Much later.


Nemo est qui id nesciat. There is none who doesn’t know that. (Everyone knows that.)

Nesciebant quid facerent. They didn’t know what to do.

Nihil mihi est quod tibi dem. I have nothing to give you.

Non longe a caupona aberat. He wasn’t far from the tavern.

Numquid vis? Anything else?

Nunc ipsum. Right now. 


Opus est mihi plaustro. I need the cart.


Parvis erat manibus. He had small hands.

Paulo ante. A little earlier.

Per hunc pugionem iuro. I swear by this dagger.

Per oculos iuro. I swear by (my) eyes.

Post longum tempus: after a long time

Proximus adolescenti sedet. He is sitting next to the young man. 


Qua est facie? What does he look like?

Qui sciam? How am I supposed to know?

Qui scis? How do you know?

Quid ad te? What’s it to you?

Quid hoc rei est? What is this? (What’s going on?)

Quid malum non respondes? Why the hell aren’t you answering?

Quid narras? What are you talking about?

Quid nunc faciam? What am I supposed to do now?

Quid, malum, narras? What the hell are you saying?!

Quod sciam. As far as I know.


Rogas?! How can you ask that?!


Secum cogitat. He/she is thinking to himself/herself.

Sed quid tum? so what?

Speciem mendici prebere solebat. He usually looked like a beggar. 


Tantum est. That’s all.

Tantum scio. That’s all I know.

Tempus est me abire. It is time for me to leave.

Tibi dico. I’m talking to you.

Tunicam exuit. He/she took off the tunic. 

Tunicam induit. He puts on the tunic.


Ut iam tibi dixi. As I’ve already told you.


Venter maxime dolet. His stomach hurt a lot. 

Vide quid agas! Be careful! Think about what you are doing.

Vinum poscit. He orders wine. 

Visne quod bibas? Would you like something to drink?


Pugio Bruti illustrations

Below you’ll find all the illustrations from Pugio Bruti, drawn by Amelie Rosengren. Many teachers have asked for them to use in class do discuss or describe. Feel free to use them but do not post them elsewhere.




Pugio Bruti Easter Eggs

Have you read Pugio Bruti carefully? Did you find all these easter eggs?

Throughout the book there are more or less subtle references to works from Roman antiquity. These come in the form of variations of famous quotes, and even entire sentences from a range of authors, e.g. Ennius and Ovid.

Below you will find a list of them. If you haven’t found them yet, you could re-read each chapter while looking for them and then check back here.



“Tempus est me, Terentia, abire.” (p. xiii)

Terence lying on his death bed utters these words to his daughter Terentia. It is a subtle reference to Socrates’ last words as given by Cicero in his Tusculanae Disputationes: “tempus est,” inquit “iam hinc abire me, ut moriar, vos, ut vitam agatis.” (the time has now come,” he says, “to go away, I to die, you to go live your lives”.)  Cic. Tusc. Disp. 1.99.

“Omnia nostra—aurum, equos, alia multa—unus homo nobis abstulit.” (p. xiv)

This is a reference to the line from from Ennius Annales, about Fabius Maximus Cunctator. The original line is quoted by Cicero in his De Senectute (“On Old Age”):

Unus homo nobis cunctando restituit rem.

“One man, by delaying, restored the state to us.”

(Cic. Off. 1.84)

Capitulum quintum

“Hic est Lucius, asinus meus optimus, immo, aureus.” (p. xxv)

Terentia having woken up in a stable is confronted by a donkey, whose name she learns is Lucius. This is a very unsubtle reference to Apuleius’ work Metamorphoseon libri, also called Asinus aureus, which tells the tale of Lucius who by magic was turned into a donkey.

Capitulum quintum decimum

“Nihil est,” respondit Clodius, “mecum tacitus loquebar.” “Cave,” inquit Oenus, “cum homine malo loqueris.” (p. xlviii)

These words are uttered by Oeneus, the inn-keeper, when Clodius says he is just talking to himself. The exchange is taken from a letter by Seneca in which he quotes Crates’ words:

Crates, cum vidisset adulescentulum secreto ambulantem, interrogavit quid illic solus faceret. “Mecum” inquit “loquor.” Cui Crates “cave,” inquit, “rogo et diligenter attende: cum homine malo loqueris”.

When Crates noticed a young man walking by himself, he asked him what he was doing all alone. “I am communing with myself,” replied the young man. “Be careful, then,” said Crates, “and take good heed; you are talking with a bad man!”

(Sen. Ep. 1) 

Capitulum alterum et vicesimum

Tum tunicam auro imposuit ne quis malus reperire posset aurum. (p. lxviii)

Brutus’ son having acquired a cart, places the gold in it. To prevent anyone from seeing it, he covers it with his tunic. This line refers to a line from Catullus, but for the poet it is kisses not gold that is to be hidden:

conturbabimus illa, ne sciamus,

aut nequis malus invidere possit,

cum tantum sciat esse basiorum.

“We will mix them [the kisses], so that we know [how many there are], nor any malicious person be envious of them, when he knows that our kisses are so many.”

(Cat. 5)

Capitulum sextum et vicesimum

“Aurum est error.” (p. lxxvii)

As Clodius and Ursula are leaving for Gaul, Ursula asks what the reason for the sudden flight is. Clodius responding says only these words. In the story they refer to the stolen gold and a mistake Clodius thinks that he has committed. The words are a reference to the famous lines from Ovid’s Tristia:

perdiderint cum me duo crimina, carmen et error,

alterius facti culpa silenda mihi:

“Though two crimes, a poem and a blunder have brought me ruin, of my fault in the one I must keep silent.”

(Ov. Trist. 2.1)

Capitulum septimum et vicesimum

Sic eat quicumque homo mihi aurum auferet! (p. lxxviii)

Terentia, having stabbed Clodius, utters these words. They are inspired by a famous line from Livy. The victorious Horatius returning from battle kills his sister because she was mourning the death of her husband, killed in battle by Horatius. Having killed her he exclaims:

Sic eat quaecumque Romana lugebit hostem!

“So perish every Roman woman who mourns a foe!”

(Liv. 1.26)


Latin-English glossary

Below you will find a full Latin-Enlish glossary of every word form in the book.

This wordlist gives the English equivalent of each Latin word form in Pugio Bruti — A Crime Story in Easy Latin. For example, if you look up videret it will give the translation appropriate to the particular occurrences of the form in the text. So, under videret, you may find, "to see"from e.g. hoc fecit ut videret, "she did this to see"and "could see"from e.g. cum nihil videret "since she could not see anything."

You could use this glossary as a word-for-word translation of Pugio Bruti, but it is really meant as a supplemental aid to be used only when needed.




ā                                         from, by

ab                                       from, by

abeat in malam rem          may he/she go to hell! (lit May he/she go to the bad thing)

aberat                                 he/she/it was far away from

abeundum                         have/has to go

abeuntem                           (while) going away

abeuntī                              as he/she was going away

abī                                      go away!

abībant                              they were going/walking away/leaving

abībat                                 he/she was going/walking away/leaving

abībō                                  I'll go/leave

abierat                                he/she had gone away/left

abiērunt                             They went away/left

abiisset                               he/she had gone away/left

abiistī                                 you went away/left

abiit                                   he/she went away/left

abīn' in malam rem?         will you just go to hell?!

abīre                                   to go away

abīret                                 to go away

ablātō                                 stolen/taken

ablātus est                          has been/was stolen/taken

abstergēre                          to wipe off     

absterserat                          had wiped 

abstersit                             wiped

abstulerat                           had taken/stolen

abstulerit                           has taken/stolen

abstulī                                I stole/ I have stolen

abstulisse                           had stolen

abstulistī                            you stole/ you have stolen

abstulit                              he/she stole/has stolen

abtersō                               having been wiped

accēde hūc!                        come here!

accēdentis                          (of someone) approaching

accessit                               approached/walked up to

ad                                       to, toward, at

aderant                              were there/were present 

adest                                  is here

adiuvā                                help

adiuvābant                         were helping/were of help

adiuvābisne                        will you help?

adiuvāre                             help 

adiuvat                               he/she/it helps

adiuvetne                           helps

adiūvī                                 I helped

adiūvisset                           had helped

adiūvistī                             you helped

adnuēbat                            he/she nodded/was nodding

adnuit                                nodded

adulēscēns                          young man

adulēscente                        young man

adulēscentem                     young man

adulēscentēs                       young men

adulēscentī                         to/for the young man

adulēscentis                       of the young man/young man's

aedēs                                  house, building

aedibus                              house, building

aedium                               of the house/building; house's

Aëtiī                                   Aetius'

affer                                   bring!

affer                                   bring (me)

afferās                                bring

agās                                    you are doing; vide quid agas! Think about what you are doing (threat)

age!                                    come on!

agēbās                                were doing

agō                                     see'grātiās tibi agō'

ain’?                                   really? is that so?

aiō                                      I do say

ais                                      are you saying

Alexandrīam                      Alexandria, city in Egypt

alia                                     another; other things 

aliae                                   other

aliam                                  another; aliam post aliam,one after the other

aliī                                      some, other 

aliīs                                    other

aliō                                     another 

aliquem                              someone

aliquid                               something

aliquis                                someone

aliud                                  another; nihil aliud,nothing else

alium                                 another 

alter                                   the other; alter alterum,each other 

alterā                                  another, the other

alterum                              another; seealter

amplius                              further, more

an                                       or

ancilla                                female servant, slave girl

ancillā                                female servant, slave girl

ancillam                             female servant, slave girl

ancillās                               female servants, slave girls

ancillīs                               female servants, slave girls

ante                                    before, in front of

ante                                    earlier, previously, before

antequam                           before

ānulīs                                 rings

ānulōs                                rings

aperīrī                                open

apertā                                 having been opened; open

aperta est                           was opened

apertō                                having been opened; open

apertōs                               open

apertus est                         was opened

aperuerat                           had opened

aperuit                               opened

argenteī                              of silver

argenteum                         of silver

argenteus                           (made) of silver

asina                                  Asina, name of Oeneus' tavern

asinā                                  Asina, name of Oeneus' tavern

asinam                               Asina, name of Oeneus' tavern

asinō                                  donkey 

asinōrum                           of donkeys

asinōs                                 donkeys

asinum                               donkey 

asinus                                 donkey 

at                                       but; (in dialogue) then, and

Athēnās                              to Athens

attulī                                  I brought

attulit                                 You brought

audī!                                  listen!

audiēbat                             was listening/listened

audīn’?!                              Do you hear?!

audiō                                 I hear (you)

audītā                                having been heard

audīvī                                 I heard

audīvit                               he/she/ it heard

auferet                               he/she/it steal

auferret                              to steal

Augustī                              Augustus'

Augustō                             from Augustus

Augustum                          Augustus

Augustus                            Augustus

aurea                                  golden

aureae                                golden

aureīs                                 golden

aureōs                                golden

aureus                                golden

aurī                                    of gold

aurō                                   gold

aurum                                gold

aut                                     or

autem                                but, however, on the other hand, etc


barbā                                  beard

barbae                                beards

barbam                              beard

bene                                   well

bibās                                  to drink

bibēbam                             was drinking

bibēbat                              was drinking

bibere                                to drink

biberet                               to drink

bibisset                              had drunk

bibit                                   drank

Bombius                            Bombius

bona                                   good

bonī                                   good

bonōs                                 good

bonus                                 good

brevem                               short

brevī                                  short

brevis                                 short

Brūtī                                  Brutus'

Brūtus                                Brutus


cadentem                           falling

Caesar                                Caesar

Caesarem                           Caesar

calor                                   heat, warmth

calōrem                              heat, warmth

candidam                           (shining) white

capillō                                hair

capillōs                              hair

capillus                              hair

capite                                 head

capitī                                  on the head

capitis                                of the head

caput                                  head

caupō                                 innkeeper

caupōna                             inn, bar

caupōnā                             inn, bar

caupōnae                           of the inn, bar/inns, bars

caupōnam                          inn, bar

caupōnem                          inn, bar

caupōnīs                            inns, bars

cavē                                    beware, look out

cecidit                                fell

cēlābat                               was hiding

cēlāret                                was hiding

cēlat                                   is hiding

cēlāvit                                hid

celeriter                              quickly, fast

celerius                              faster

celerrimē                            very fast

Circī Maximī                     Of Circus Maximus

Circum Maximum            Circus Maximus

circumspexit                      looked around

circumspiceret                   to look around

circumspiciēbant               were looking around

clāmābat                            was screaming

clāmāns                              screaming

clāmantem                         screaming

clāmantī                             to x screaming

clāmās                                you are screaming

clāmātum est                     there was yelling, ie people yelled

clāmāvit                             screamed

clausā                                 having been closed

clauserat                            had closed

clausit                                closed

Clōdī                                 Clodius

Clōdiī                                Clodius'

Clōdiō                               to Clodius

Clōdium                            Clodius

Clōdius                              Clodius

cōgitā                                 think

cōgitābat                            was thinking

cōgitāns                             thinking

cōgitante                            thinking

cōgitāvit                             thought

cōnātus es                          you tried

cōnātus est                         he tried

conclāve                             room

conclāvī                             room

conclāvis                            of the room

cōnor                                 I try

cōnsēdit                             sat down

cōnsīde                              sit down!

cōnsīderet                          to sit down

cōnsistentem                     sitting down

cōnspectā                           having been seen

cōnspectō                          having been seen

cōnspexit                           caught sight of

cōnspicerentur                   could be seen

cōnspicerētur                     to be seen

cōnspiciēbantur                 were visible, could be seen

cōnstiterat                         had stopped

cōnstitit                             stopped

conversa                             having turned around

conversō                            having been turned

conversus                           having turned around

convertērunt                      turned (around)

convertit                            turned (around)

cruenta                              bloody, covered in blood

cruentā                              bloody, covered in blood

cruentam                           bloody, covered in blood

cruentō                              bloody, covered in blood

cruentōs                             bloody, covered in blood

cruentum                           bloody, covered in blood

cruentus                             bloody, covered in blood

cucurrerat                          had run

cucurrī                               I ran

cucurristī                           you ran

cucurrit                              ran

cui                                      for whom

cuius                                  whose

cum                                   with, together with

cūr                                     why?

curre                                  run!

currēbant                           were running

currēbat                             was running

currentem                          running

currere                               to run

cūstōdēs                             guards

cūstōdibus                         guards

cūstōs                                 guard


dā!                                      give!

dabō                                   I will give

dare                                    give 

daret                                  to give 

dē                                       down from

dēbēbat                              should

dēbēre                                should

dēbēs                                  you should

dēbet                                  should

dēbuit                                should

dederis                               give

dedit                                  gave

dem                                   I can give you

dēscendendum est             have to get off

dēscendit                           got off

deum                                 god

dī                                       gods

dīc                                      speak!

dīcam                                 I will say

dīcēbat                               was saying

dīcent                                (they) will say

dīcere                                 to say, speak, refer to

dīceret                                could say

dīcis                                   you say

dīcitur                                is said to

dīcō                                    I say, I speak, I refer to

diē                                      day; alio dieanother day

diēs                                    day; days

diū                                     long, for a long time

diūtius                               longer, for a longer time

dīves                                  rich

dīvitem                              rich

dīvitēs                                rich

dīxerat                               had said

dīxī                                    I said, I told (you)

dīxistī                                 You said

dīxit                                   (he/she) said

dolēbat                               (he/she/it) was hurting

doleō                                  I am sad, I am sorry (for)

dolēret                               (he/she/it) was hurting

domī                                  at home

domō                                 from the house

domum                              home, house

domūs                                of the house

dōna                                  gifts

dōnum                               gift

Dōrippa                             Dorippa

dormiēbat                          was sleeping

dormiendum est                have to sleep

dormiente                          sleeping

dormīre                              (to) sleep

dormītum                          to sleep

dormīverat                         had slept

dormīvistī                          you (have) slept

duās                                   two

dūceret                               (would) lead

dūcet                                  will lead

ductūrum esse                   will lead

dum                                   while, as long as, until

duo                                    two

duōbus                               two; by two

duōs                                   two

dūxerant                            had led

dūxit                                  led


ē                                         from, out of, out from

ea                                       those (things), that, 

eā                                       her, of, with that

eādem                                the same

eam                                    her, it

eat                                      may he go

ecce                                    look!

effūdī                                 I poured out

effūdistī                             you poured out

effūdit                                poured out

effūdit                                (he/she) poured out

effundī                               being poured out

effundis                             you are pouring out

effūsō                                 having been poured out

effūsum                             having been poured out

ego                                     I

ēgrediendum est                have to leave

ēgressa                               having stepped out, left

ēgressa es                           you went out, stepped out

egressa est                          she went out

ēgressam                            having stepped out

ēgressī sumus                     we left

ēgressus                              having stepped out

ēgressus est                        he stepped out

eī                                        him, her

eius                                    his, hers, its

enim                                  for

eō                                       to that place, there

eō                                       him, it, that

eōdem                                the same

eōs                                     them

equī                                    horses

equīs                                  horses

equōrum                            of the horses

equōs                                 horses

equum                               horse

erant                                  were

erat                                    were

errat                                   is wrong

errāvī                                 I was wrong

errāvimus                           We were wrong

errō                                    I am wrong

error                                   mistake, error

es                                       you are

esse                                    to be

essent                                 were

esset                                   were

essetne                               whetherwere

est                                      he/she/it is

estne                                  is it?

et                                        and, also

et…et                                both…and

etiam                                 even, also; still 

eum                                   him, it

eumque                              and…it

eundem                             the same

eundum est                        have to go

eunt                                   go

euntem                              going

euntēs                                going

ex                                       from, out of, out from

excitāre                              to rouse, to wake

excitāta erat                       she had been awoken

excitāta est                         she was awoken

excitātus est                       he was awoken

exclāmāvit                         shouted

exspectābant                      were waiting

exspectandum sit               have to wait

exspectant                          are waiting

exspectāre                          to expect, wait, wait for

exspectāret                         to wait

exspectāvit                         waited

exuit                                  took off


facerent                              to do

faceret                                to do

faciam                                I will (do); shall do

faciē                                   appearance; qua facie est? What does he/she/it look like?

faciem                                face, appearance

faciendum esse                  had to be done

factō                                   having been made

fēcī                                     I did, acted

fēcimus                              (we) did

fēcisse                                had done

fēcistī                                 you did; you have done

fēcit                                    (he/she/it) made, did

fēmina                               woman

fēminae                              woman's; from the woman

fēminam                            woman

ferēbat                               lead

fīlia                                    daughter

fīliā                                    daughter

fīliam                                 daughter

fīliī                                     of the son

fīliō                                    for, to the son

fīlium                                 son 

fīlius                                  son 

flāva                                   yellow

flāvā                                   yellow

flāvae                                 yellow

flāvam                                yellow

flāvās                                  yellow

flāvī                                    yellow

flāvō                                   yellow

flāvum                               yellow

fluēbat                               flowed

fluēbat                               was flowing; ei sanguis e ventre capite fluit, he/she is bleeding from the head (lit For him/herblood is flowing from the head)

fluit                                    flows

forās                                   outside, out

forīs                                   outside

forō                                    market-place, square

fortasse                              perhaps, maybe

forum                                market-place, square

frīgus                                 cold

fuerat                                 had been

fūgerat                               had run away, fled

fugiēbat                             was running away

fugientem                          running away

fugimus                             we are running away

fūgit                                   (he/she) ran away

fuimus                               we were

fuisse                                  have been; had been

fuistīne                              you were?

fuit                                     (he/she/it) was


Galliā                                 Gaul (roughly moderns France)

Galliam                              Gaul (roughly moderns France)

geram                                 I will wear

gerēbat                               (he/she/it) was wearing

gerere                                 to wear

geris                                   you are wearing

gerit                                   (he/she) is wearing

geritne                               does he/she/it wear?

gradū                                 step; gradum fēcit, took a step

Graecum                            Greek, Grecian

Graecus                             Greek, Grecian

grātiamhabeō                     I am grateful

grātiās tibi agō                   thank you


habēbant                            (they) had

habēbat                              (he/she/it) had

habēbit                              (he/she/it) will have

habēmus                            we have 

habent                               they have 

habeō                                 I have

habēre                                to have

habēs                                  you have 

habet                                  he/she/it has 

habuerant                          (they) had had

habuisse                             had

hāc                                     this 

hae                                     these

haec                                   this (woman); these things 

hanc                                   this

hās                                     these

hercle                                 by Hercules! 

heus                                   hey!

hic                                      this 

hīc                                      here; at this moment

hīs                                      (with) these

hoc                                     this, 

hōc                                     this

homine                              man, person

hominem                           man, person

hominēs                             people

hominibus                         people

hominis                             of the person, man

hominum                          of people

homō                                 man, person

hōs                                     these

hūc                                     here, to this place

humī                                  on the ground

hunc                                  this

huncine                             this one?


ī!                                        go!

iacēbat                               (he/she/it) was lying

iacēns                                 lying

iacentem                            lying

iacēre                                 to lie

iacet                                   (he/she/it) is lying

iam                                    already

iānua                                  door

iānuā                                  by the door

iānuae                                to the door; doors

iānuam                              door

iānuīs                                 doors

ībant                                  (they) were going

ībat                                    (he/she/it) was going

ibi                                      there

ībimus                               we will go

ībit                                     (he/she/it) will go

id                                       that

idem                                  the same (thing)

īdem                                  the same

ierat                                   (he/she/it) had gone

iērunt                                 (they) went

iīs                                       them

iīsdem                                the same

iisse                                    (to think that she) went

iit                                       (he/she/it) went

illa                                      she

illae                                    they, those

illam                                  her; that

ille                                      he; that

illī                                      for him, his; from her

illīs                                     those; illis temporibusin those days

illīus                                   of that

illō                                     that

illud                                   that

illum                                  him, that

immō                                 in fact, no rather

impōneret                          to puton

impositā                             having been placed

impositīs                            having been placed

imposuit                            (he/she) put

imprūdēns                         thoughtless, through carelessness

imprūdēns (aliquid facere)   to do something by mistake

īmus                                   (we) are going

in                                       in at, on

in                                       into, to, against

induis                                you put on

induit                                 (he/she) put on

indūtum                            dressed in

indūtus                              dressed in

ingredientem                     entering

ingressa est                        (she) entered

ingressī sunt                      (they) entered

ingressus est                       (he) entered

inquam                              I say 

inquit                                 he/she says/said

īnspexit                              (he/she) looked into

intellegēbat                        (he/she) understood

intellegere                          understand

intellegit                            (he/she) understands

intellegō                             I understand

intellēxī                              I have understood

intellēxit                            (he/she) realized, understood

interfēcerit                         (he/she) killed

interfēcī                             I have killed

interfēcisse                         to have killed

intrāvērunt                        (they) entered

intrāvit                               (he/she) entered

intuēbātur                         (he/she) was looking at…

intuēns                               looking at…

intuentēs                            looking at…

intuentī                              for someone looking at…

intuēre                               look at

intuērī                                look at

intuēris                              you look at

intuita esset                       she had look at

intuita est                          she look at

intuitī sunt                        (they) looked at

intuitus est                        (he) looked at

Iovem                                Jupiter

ipsa                                    myself, itself

ipse                                    (he) himself

ipsī                                     from himself

ipsō                                    very, exact

ipsum                                 this exact one; nunc ipsum right now

īrāta                                   angry

īrātior                                angrier

īrātīs                                   with angry

īrātissimam                        very angry

īrātissimus                         very angry

īrātus                                 angry

īre                                      (to) go

īrent                                   to go

īret                                     was going

is                                        he

ita                                      so, in that way; just so, yes

itaque                                 so, thus

Iūlium                               Julius

Iuppiter                             Jupiter, God of the sky

iūrō                                    I swear

iuxtā                                  next to


lapide                                 with a stone

lapidem                              stone

lapidēs                               stones

lapis                                   (with) stone

Latīnē                                in Latin, Latin

lectō                                   bed

licetne?                              may I?

licuit                                  was allowed

līneae                                 lines

līneās                                 lines

līneīs                                  lines

locō                                    place

locum                                place, spot

locūta est                           (she) spoke

locūtus erat                        (he) had spoken

locūtus est                         (he) spoke

Londīniī                            in London

Londīnium                        to London

longā                                  long

longē                                  far; far away

longissimam                      longest, really long

longius                               longer; further

longum                              long

longus                                long

loquēbar                            I was speaking

loquēbātur                         (he/she) was speaking

loquentem                         speaking

loquentēs                           speaking

loqueris                              you are speaking

loquī                                  speak

loquitur                             (he/she) speaks

lūcēbant                             (they) were shining

lūcēbat                               was shining

lūcent                                are shining

lūcente                               shining

Lūcium                              Lucius, name of the ass 

Lūcius                                Lucius, name of the ass 

lūmen                                light

Lutetia                               Paris

Lutetiae                             in Paris

Lutetiam                            (to) Paris


macula                               spot, stain

maculā                               spot, stain

maculae                             spots, stains

maculam                            spot, stain

maculās                              spots, stains

maculīs                              with spots, stains

magna                                large

magnā                                large

magnī                                large

magnīs                               (with) large

magnō                               large

magnum                            large, great

magnus                              large, great

maius                                 greater, larger

malam                                see abin'

male                                   badly; wrong

malō                                  bad

malum                               bad; quid, malum… what the hell…

malumne                           (is) it bad?

malus                                 bad

manē                                  stay! wait!

manēre                               to stay, to wait, to remain

manibus                             with (his/her) hands

mānsit                                (he/she) stayed

manū                                 (with) the hand

manum                              hand

manūs                                hands

Mārs                                  Mars, God of War

Martem                             Mars, God of War

maximam                          great

maximē                              greatly

maximō                             large, big

mē                                      me

mea                                    my

meā                                    my

meae                                  my

mēcum                               with me

media                                 middle of, middle

mediā                                 middle of, middle

mediam                             middle of, middle

mediō                                middle of, middle

medium                             middle of, middle

melius                                better

meminerō                          I will remember

meminī                              I remember

meministīne                      do you remember?

mendīcī                             beggars, of the beggar

mendīcō                            beggar

mendīcum                         beggar

mendīcus                           beggar

mēnsa                                table

mēnsā                                table

mēnsam                             table

mentem                             mind; alicuiin mentem venit it occurred to someone

mentīris                             you are lying

mentītam esse                    having lied

mentītur                            (he/she) is lying

meō                                    my

meum                                my

meus                                  my, mine

mī                                      my

mihi                                   (for) me

minister                             server

ministrō                             (to the) server

ministrum                         server

mīsērunt                            (they) let go

mīsī                                    I sent

mīsistī                                you sent

mīsit                                  sent

missō                                 having let go of

mitte!                                 let go of!

mittere                               let go of

mitterent                           send

modo                                 only, just, just now

modō                                 way

moriar                                I will die

mortua es / est                   you are/she is dead; she died

mortuam                           dead

mortuō                              dead

mortuum esse                    dead

mortuus                             dead

mōverat                             had moved

mōvērunt                           moved

mōvit                                 moved

mox                                   soon

multa                                 many (things)

multās                                many

multī                                  many

multō                                 by much, much

multōs                               many

multum                             much

multumne                          much…?


nārrā!                                 tell me!

nārrandī                             to tell

nārrantī                              telling

nārrāre                               to tell

nārrās                                 you are talking about; bene narras, good news!

nārrāverat                          had said

nārrāvit                              toldabout

nārrem                               to tell you; est quod tibi narrem, I have something to tell you

nē                                       so that…not

nēminem                           no one

nēmō                                 nobody, no one

neque                                 nor, and…not; neque…neque,neither…nor

nesciat                               does not know

nesciēbant                          did not know

nesciēbat                            did not know

nesciō                                I don't know

nescīre                               to not know

nescīs                                 you don't know

nescit                                 he/she don't know

nigram                               black

nigrō                                  black capillo nigro with black hair

nihil                                   nothing, not…anything

nimis                                  too

nōbīs                                  for us; from us

nōbīscum                           with us

nocte                                  at night

noctēs                                nights

noctibus                             nights

noctū                                 at night, by night

nōlēbat                              (he/she) did not want to

nōlō                                   I don't want, I refuse

nōluī                                  I did non want to

nōmen                               name

nōmine                              by the name of

nōn                                    not

nōnne…?                           do you not…? Isn’t? etc

nōstīn’?                              do you know?

nostra                                 our things

nōverat                              (he/she) knew

novī                                   new

nōvī                                   I know

nōvit                                  (he/she) knows

novō                                  new

nox                                    night

nūlla                                  no, no one

nūllam                               no, no one

nūllī                                   no; from no…

nūllō modō                        in no way, not at all

num                                   whether

nummīs                             coins

nummō                              coin

nummōs                            coins

nummum                          coin

numquam                          never

numquid vis,                     have you anything further to say? was there anything else? do you want me further?

nunc                                  now

nunciam                            right now, now

nusquam                            nowhere


ō                                        O, oh!

obscūra                              dark

obscūrā                              dark

obscūrae                            dark

obscūram                           dark

obscūrās                             dark

obscūrīs                             dark

obscūrō                              dark

obscūrum                          dark

oculī                                  eyes

oculīs                                 eyes

oculōs                                eyes

oculum                              eyes

Oeneum                            Oeneus, name of the inn-keeper

Oeneus                              Oeneus, name of the inn-keeper

offendit                              (he) ran into

ōlim                                   once, at one time

omne                                 all (of which)

omnem                              the whole

omnēs                                all

omnia                                everything, all

optimē                               excellently, extremely well

optimum                           excellent, best

optimus                             excellent, best

opus est                             there is need


pallida                                pale

pallidus                              pale

pariēs                                 wall

pariete                                wall

parietem                            wall

parietēs                              walls

parietī                                wall

parietibus                           walls

parietis                               of the wall

parva                                  small, little

parvā                                  small, little

parvae                                small, little

parvam                               small, little

parvās                                small, little

Parve                                  Parvus (name)

parvīs                                 small, little

parvō                                 small, little

parvum                              small, little

parvus                                small, little

pater                                  father

patre                                  father

patrem                               father

patrī                                   to the father

patris                                  father's, of father

paulisper                            for a little time, for a little while

paulō                                 a little

per                                     through, over, (in swearing)by

percusserat                         (he/she) had struck, stabbed

percussisset                        (he/she) had struck

percussit                            (he/she) struck, stabbed

percussus erat                    (he) had been struck, stabbed

percutere                           to strike, to stab

pergite!                              continue!

perīculōsa                          dangerous

perīculōsae                         dangerous

perīculōsam                       dangerous

perīculōsissima                  very dangerous

perīculōsum                       dangerous

perrēxit                              (he/she) continued

placēbant                           were pleasing; barbae placebant, she liked beards

placēbat                             was pleasing; Porta Capena ei non placebat, He did not like Porta Capena

placent                               are pleasing; tunicae non placent, I do not like yellow tunics

placet                                 is pleasing

plānē                                  clearly, absolutely

plaustrī                              cart's, of cart

plaustrō                             cart

plaustrum                          cart

plēna                                  full

plēnā                                  full

plēnam                               full

plēnō                                 full

plēnum                              full

plēnus                                full

pōcula                                cups

pōculō                               cup

pōculum                            cup

pontem                              bridge

Pontem Aemilium             The Aemilia Bridge

poposcit                             (he/she) asked for

Porciae                               Porcia's, of Porcia (Porcia was Brutus' wife)

porta                                  gate

portā                                  gate

Porta Capēna                    Porta Capena

Portā Capēnā                    Porta Capena

Porta Flūmentāna             Porta Flumentana

portam                               gate

Portam Capēnam              Porta Capena

Portam Flūmentānam       Porta Flumentana

portīs                                 gates

poscēbat                             (he/she) was asking for

positō                                 having been placed, put down

posse                                  (to) be able to

posset                                 (he/she) could

possim                               can; nihil est quod reperire non possim, there is nothing that I cannot find

possum                              I can, I'm able, I may

post                                    later, afterward; post,prep with acc,behind, after

posteā                                afterwards, thereafter

posuerat                             (he/she) had placed, put

posuistī                              you placed, put

posuit                                (he/she) placed, put down

poterat                               (he/she) could

poterimus                          we will be able to

poterō                                I will be able to

potesne                              can you?

potuī                                  I could, I was able to

prae                                    in front of

praebēbant                         held forth; speciem alicuius rei praebere, look like something

praebent                            speciem praebent, they look like (lit Hold forth the appearance of something)

praebēre                             speciem praebere, look like

praebētur                           species Circi Maximi praebetur, it looks like Circus Maximus (lit The appearance of Circus Maximus is held forth)

praetereuntem                   passing by

praeterībat                         was passing by

praeteriērunt                     passed by

praeteriit                            passed by

prehendent                        (they) will seize, arrest

prehenderet                       seize

prehendērunt                     (they) seized

prehendī                            I seized; being seized

prehendistīne                     did you seize, grab hold of?

prehendit                           (he/she) grabbed

profectō                             surely, certainly, indeed

prōme!                               take out!

prōmpsit                            (he/she) took out

prōmptōs                           having been taken out

prōmptum                         having been taken out

prope                                 near, almost

proximā                             last; proxima nocte, last night

proximam                          closest, nearby

proximī                              of the closest, next to

proximīs                            the last few, couple of

proximō                             close, nearby

proximum                         closest, next to

proximus                           closest, next to

puer                                   boy

puerō                                 to the boy

puerum                              boy

pūgiō                                 dagger

pūgiōne                             dagger, with the dagger

pūgiōnem                          dagger

pūgiōnēs                            daggers

pūgiōnis                             of the dagger

pugnāre                             to fight

pugnātis                             (you) are fighting

pugnāverat                         (he/she) had fought

pugnāvit                            (he/she) fought

pugnō                                with the fist

pulcher                              beautiful, handsome

pulcherrimus                     very beautiful, very handsome 

pulchrōs                             beautiful, handsome

pulchrum                           beautiful, handsome

pūrā                                   clean

pūrae                                 clean

pūram                                clean

pūrior                                cleaner

pūriōrēs                             cleaner

pūrō                                   clean

putābam                            I thought

putābant                            (they) thought

putābat                              (he/she) thought

putābunt                            (they) will think

putās                                  you think

putāvī                                I thought

putō                                   I think


quā                                     which; with which

quae                                   which

quaeram                             I will look for, search for

quaerendum erat               had to search for

quaerere                             to search for, to look for

quaereret                           should look for

quaeris                               you are looking, searching for

quaerit                               (he/she) is looking, searching for

quaerō                                I search for, I look for

quaerunt                            (they) are looking, searching for

quaesīvit                            (he/she) searched, looked for

quāle?                                what sort, what (is) it like?

quālēs                                the kind that

quālis                                 what sort, what (is) it like?

quam                                 which, than, how 

quamquam                        although

quās                                   which

quasi                                  as if

quem                                 whom, which

quī                                     who, which, what

quī                                     how?

quibus                                by which

quīcumque                        whoever, whatsoever, whatever

quid                                   what

quis                                    who

quō                                    where, where to?

quō                                    (by, in) which

quōcum                             with whom

quod                                  that, because, since

quōmodo                           how

quoque                              also, too


raeda                                  carriage, coach

raedā                                  carriage, coach

raedam                               carriage, coach

raedārum                           of carriages, of coaches

raedās                                 carriages, coaches

rē                                       thing, affair, matter

rēctē                                   rightly, correct

recuperābō                         I will recover, get back

recuperāre                          to recover, to get back

recuperāret                        (was supposed) to recover

recuperāvī                          I have recovered

recuperem                          Should I recover

recuperent                         to recover, to get back

redī!                                   come back!

rediī                                   I returned

rediisset                             (he/she) had returned

rediit                                  (he/she) returned

redīre                                 to go back, to return

redīte!                                come back!

reī                                      of thing, of affair, of fact, of matter, of circumstance

relictā                                 having been left behind

relictum                             having been left behind

relinquō                             I leave

relīquī                                I left

relīquimus                         we left

relīquit                               (he/she) left

rem                                    thing, affair, fact, matter, circumstance

reperiendā                         finding

reperiendō                         finding

reperient                            (they) will never find

reperīre                              to find

reperīret                             to find

reppererō                           find (will have found)

repperī                               I have found

repperisse                           have found

repperistī                           you have found

repperistīne                       have you found?

rēs                                      thing, affair, fact, matter, circumstance

respondē!                           answer!

responderit                        responded

respondēs                           you respond

respondit                           (he/she) responded

respōnsum                         answer, response

restābant                            were left, remaining

restābat                              was left, remaining

restat                                  is left, remaining

rogā!                                   ask!

rogābō                               I will ask

rogāre                                to ask, to ask for

rogās                                  you ask

rogāverat                            (he/she) had asked

rogāvī                                 I asked

rogāvit                               (she) asked

rogō                                   I ask

Rōma                                 Rome

Rōmā                                 Rome

Rōmae                               In Rome

Rōmam                              Rome

Rōmānō                             Roman

Rōmānum                         Roman

ruber                                  red

rubra                                  red

rubrā                                  red

rubram                               red

rubrās                                red

rubrī                                  red

rubrīs                                 red

rubrō                                 red

rubrum                              red

rūrsus                                 again


sacculō                               small sack

sacculum                           small sack

saepe                                  often

salvē!                                  hello!

sanguine                            from blood

sanguinem                         blood

sanguinis                           (of) blood; multum sanguinis, much blood 

sanguis                               blood

scelesta                               crooked, criminal

scelestae                             of crooked, criminal

scelestam                           crooked, criminal

sceleste                               crooked, criminal

scelestī                               crooked, criminal (people)

scelestīs                              to criminals

scelestissima                       very crooked, criminal

scelestō                              crooked, criminal

scelestōs                             crooked, criminal

scelestum                           crooked, criminal

scelestus                             crooked, criminal

sciam                                 I know; qui sciam, How should I know, be sure?

sciēbam                              I knew

sciēbat                                (he/she) knew

sciō                                    I know 

scīre                                   to know

scīs                                     you know

scīsne?                                do you know?

scit                                     he/she knows

sē                                       himself, herself

sēcum                                with himself, herself; secum cogitavit, he/she though to him/herself

secūta erat                         she had followed

secūta sum/es/est               I followed, you followed, she followed

secūtus est                         he followed

sed                                     but

sedēbant                            (they) were sitting

sedēbat                               (he/she) was sitting

sedēns                                sitting

sedentem                           sitting

sedentī                               sitting

sēderat                               (he/she) had sat

sedēre                                 to sit

sedēret                               (he/she) was sitting; to sit

sedet                                  he/she is sitting

sēdit                                   (he/she) sat

sellā                                    chair

sellam                                chair

sellīs                                   chairs

semper                               always, all the time

sene                                    old man

senem                                old man

senex                                  old man

senī                                    to the old man

sequēbātur                         (he/she) was following

sequere!                              follow!

sequerētur                          to follow

sequeris                              you are following

sequerisne?                         are you following?

sequī                                  (to) follow

sī                                        if, though

sibi                                     for him, herself; his, hers

sīc                                      in this way, so

significant                          (they) mean

significārent                       (what) they meant

significat                            (he/she/it) means

sim                                     I am

similem                              similar, like

similēs                                similar, like

similis                                similar, like

sine                                    without

sint                                     are

sīs                                       you are

sit                                       (he/she/it) is

sitne?                                  is (he/she/it)?

sōl                                      the sun

sōla                                    alone

sōlam                                 only

sōlās                                   only

sōle                                    the sun

solēbat                               used to, be accustomed to

sōlem                                 the sun

soleō                                  I usually…, am accustomed to

solēre                                 to be accustomed, to do something often

solēsne                               do you usually…?

solet                                   (he/she) usually…, is accustomed to

soletne                               does (he/she) usually…, is (he/she/it) accustomed to?

sōlī                                     alone, only

sōlī                                     (to) the sun

sōlibus                               suns

sōlum                                 only

sonitū                                by the sound, noise

sonitum                             sound, noise

speciem alicuius reī praebēre       to give the impression of something, to look like something

speciēs                                appearance

stābat                                 (he/she/it) was standing

stabulō                               stable

stabulum                           stable

stantēs                                standing

stāre                                   to stand

stās                                     you are standing

statim                                right away, immediately

stetērunt                            (they) stood

stetit                                  (he/she/it) stood

suā                                     her, his

suae                                    her, his

suam                                  her, his

suās                                    her, his

subīrāta                              somewhat angry, irritated

subīrātus                            somewhat angry, irritated

subitō                                suddenly

subrīdēns                           smiling

subrīsit                               (he/she) smiled

Subūram                            an area of the city of Rome

suīs                                     his, hers, its

sum                                    I am

sūme!                                 take!

sumne?                               am I?

sumpsit                              (he/she) took (up)

sūmptā                               having been taken

sūmptīs                              having been taken

sūmptō                              having been taken

sūmptum                           having been taken

sumus                                we are

sunt                                    (they/there) are

suō                                     (with) his

super                                  on, (spread) over

surgere                               to rise, to get up 

surrēxit                              (he/she) stood up

suspexit                              (he/she) looked up

suum                                  his, hers, its


tacē!                                   quiet!

tacēbant                             (they) were silent

tacēbat                               (he/she) was silent

tacēs                                   you are silent

tacita                                  silent

tacitam                              silent

tacitō                                 silent

tacitum                              silent

tacitus                                silent

tacuērunt                           they were silent

tacuit                                 (he/she) was silent

tam                                    so

tamen                                however, still, yet

tandem                              finally, at last

tantīs                                  such, great

tantum                               only; so much

tantus                                 so great, such

tē                                        you

tempore                             time; eodem tempore, at the same time

temporibus                        illis temporibus, in those days

tempus                               time

tenēbant                            (they) were holding

tenēbat                               (he/she) was holding

tenebrae                             darkness

tenebrās                             darkness

tenebrīs                              darkness

tenēns                                holding

tenēre                                 to hold

tenet                                  (he/she) is holding

Terentia                             Terentia

Terentiā                             Terentia

Terentiae                           Terentia's, of Terentia; to Terentia

Terentiam                          Terentia

Terentiī                             Terentius'

Terentius                           Terentius

Tiberī                                The river Tiber in Rome

Tiberim                             The river Tiber in Rome

Tiberis                               The river Tiber in Rome

tibi                                     for you, to you

trahēbat                             (he/she/it) was dragging, pulling

trahēbātur                          (he/she/it) was being dragged, pulled

trahere                               to drag, pull

trahī                                   being dragged, pulled

trāns                                   across, over

trāxērunt                            (they) dragged, pulled

trāxit                                  (he/she/it) dragged, pulled

trēs                                     three

tū                                       you, yourself

tua                                     your

tuā                                     your

tuae                                    your

tuam                                  your

tum                                    then, next, at that time; in dialogue, indicating a change of speaker

tūne?                                  you?

tunica                                tunic

tunicā                                tunic

tunicae                               tunics

tunicam                             tunic

tunicās                               tunics

tuum                                  your

tuus                                    your

tuusne                                yours?


ubi                                     where; as, conjwhen

umbra                                shadow

umbram                             shadow

umbrās                               shadows

ūna                                    one

ūnā                                    one

ūnam                                 one

unde                                  from where, from which place

ūnum                                 one

ūnus                                   one

urbe                                   city

urbem                                city

urbis                                  of the city, the city's

urbs                                    city

Ursula                                Ursula

Ursulae                              Ursula's, of Ursula; to Ursula

ut                                       (comparative) as; that, in order that; (result)that


vacua                                 empty

vacuae                                empty

vacuam                              empty

vacuīs                                 empty

vacuō                                 empty

vacuum                              empty

valē                                    goodbye!

valet                                   (he/she) is well

vehementer                        violently, fiercely

velit                                    wants

velle                                   wants, to want

vellet                                  wanted

vēnerat                               (he/she/it) had come

vēneris                               you come, will have come

vēnī                                    I came

veniēbant                           would come

venientēs                            coming

venīre                                 to come

vēnisset                              (he/she/it) had come

vēnistī                                you came

venit                                  (he/she/it) comes

vēnit                                  (he/she/it) came; in mentem mihi venit; I realized, it came into my mind

veniunt                              (they) come

venter                                stomach

ventre                                stomach

ventrem                             stomach

ventrī                                 stomach

via                                      street

viā                                      street

viae                                    of the street / streets 

viam                                   street

Viam Appiam                    Via Appia, a road in Rome-

Viam Aurēliam                  Via Aurelia, road in Rome

viārum                               of the streets 

viās                                     streets

vidē!                                   look!

videat                                 (he/she/it) sees

vidēbam                             I was seeing

vidēbantur                         (they) seemed

vidēbāris                            you seemed

vidēbat                               (he/she/it) saw

vidēbātur                           (he/she/it) seemed

vidēbō                                I will see

videntur                             (they) seem

videō                                  I see 

videor                                I seem

vīderāsne…?                      Had you seen…?

vīderat                               (he/she/it) had seen

vidēre                                 (to) see

vidērem                              I saw

vidēret                               (he/she/it) saw; to see

vidērētur                            (he/she/it) seemed

vīderint                              (they) see, will have seen

vidētur                               (he/she/it) seems

vīdī                                    I saw, have seen

vīdisse                                had seen

vīdistī                                 you saw, have seen

vīdistīne                             have you seen?

vīdit                                   (he/she) saw

viīs                                     (on) streets

vīn’…?                               do you want…?

vīna                                    types of wine

vīnī                                    of wine

vīnō                                   wine

vīnum                                wine

vir                                      man

virī                                     man's, of man; men

virō                                    man

virum                                 man

vīs                                      you want

vīsa est                               (she/it) seemed

vīsne                                  do you want…?

vīvam                                 I will live

vīvere                                 live

vīvō                                    I live 

vix                                      hardly, barely

vocantī                               calling

vocātō                                having been called

vocāvit                               (he/she/it) called

volēbat                               (he/she) wanted

volō                                    I want

vult                                    (he/she) wants