Horae Latinae

Studies In Synonyms and Syntax, by Robert Ogelvie

For everybody eager to learn Latin, we proudly present Latinitium’s digital edition of Horae Latinae by Robert Ogelvie, originally published posthumously in 1901.

Here you will find almost 500 English words and expressions with detailed descriptions of how to best render them in Latin, and with copious quotes from classical authors illustrating the usage. It is thus an excellent complement to the English–Latin dictionary by Smith & Hall.

For more resources on Latin synonyms, see our blog post A guide to Dictionaries of Latin synonyms!

Tips, updates, and learning material.


a or an first (adverb) play
abandon first who if you please
about flee poet
abroad flow poetry
access to forget poisoned
accompany former—latter politics
of one’s own accord freedman as—as possible
accurate great friend poverty
accuse on the front power
accuser fruitful prejudice
across garden present
advocate general pretend
affirm grateful prevail on
African gratification prevent
after Greeks pride
afterwards grief priest
again happen prithee
age happiness promise
ago hasten proof
all but health prove
along the river hear province
also hear well publicly
altar heart quarrel
although high rather than
angry hither and thither really
animal hitherto refer
annual hold refuse
any one honour reign
Apennines hope relations
appeal horse remember
appear on horseback remove
apple host report
appoint a dictator hour represent
arm how resign office
arms however rest
army hunger the rest
as if return
as far as if not reward
as to ignorant rightly
as well as immortal river
assemble with impunity robber
assembly in an author Roman
assuredly indeed rose
attain influence royal
audience inhabit rule
author inhabitants rustic
baggage insanity safe
banker instead of same as
bargain international law I say
because invade I will not say
become inveigh against as they say
before is to be scarcely
before (adverb) joy sculpture
before (of place) judge seat
begin justice second
belief kill secretly
believe know seize
besides we know self
beware of know how sell
beyond Lacedaemonian serious
blame land services
blood last ship
bloodless too late shore
bloody lately shortly
in a book Latin show
books laugh sickness
both learn siege
both—and at least sight
bridge legislator silent
bring leisure sing
build lend six hundred
burn much less sloping
but letter smell
by in a letter soldier
canvassing liberty some
carry life some one
cattle light sometimes
cause lightning soul
cease like speak
certain likely speak against
character little staff
children how little statue
cold live stay
command long (adjective) step
commit long (adverb) storm (verb)
common for a long while strength
conceal no longer style
confess lose subjects
conscience love such
conscious lungs suitable
consul Macedonian sustain
consult magnanimity sword
content majesty take away
continue make a speech take up arms
contract man tempest
control how many territory
corn forced march than
country marriage thankfulness
fellow-countryman marry that of
cousin master the
crime mean theory
crown from memory this (that)
cui bono? in memory of three
custom mind throne
daily (adjective) modesty time
daily (adverb) money one time
day more at the same time
two days more than title
the dead more than once too
deal with many more towards
death morning trade
debt the morrow trader
defend mortal travel
deny most tributary
deserve multitude in triumph
despise name troops
despoil namely trust
die nation truth
different natural uncle
diligence necessity undertake
dislodge neck unjustly
divide new of us
doubt by night in vain
dream noble vote
dress nor wall
drink and not wander about
drunk do not want
drunkenness not even wanting
each not one water
each other not so very way
earthly not to say on the way
either—or nothing when (interrogative)
embark nothing but whenever
employed now where
enemy oath whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
enjoy obey whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
enough obstructionist which?
entreat obtain while
envy oh that! for a while
epidemic old age white
especially omit whoever
estate one why not?
even one of wisdom
ever one more with
everywhere only with one
for example not only not within
exception open without
exile openly witness
expect opinion word
expense or work at
express or not workman
extend orator world
face otherwise worse
fail our would be
famous own wound
fault palace wretch
favour passenger a year after
for fear paternal yes and no
feast people yesterday
few perhaps yield
how few persuade you
first (adjective) places younger
a or an how little
abandon live
about long (adjective)
abroad long (adverb)
access to for a long while
accompany no longer
of one’s own accord lose
accurate love
accuse lungs
accuser Macedonian
across magnanimity
advocate majesty
affirm make a speech
African man
after how many
afterwards forced march
again marriage
age marry
ago master
all but mean
along the river from memory
also in memory of
altar mind
although modesty
angry money
animal more
annual more than
any one more than once
Apennines many more
appeal morning
appear the morrow
apple mortal
appoint a dictator most
arm multitude
arms name
army namely
as nation
as far as natural
as to necessity
as well as neck
assemble new
assembly by night
assuredly noble
attain nor
audience and not
author do not
baggage not even
banker not one
bargain not so very
because not to say
become nothing
before nothing but
before (adverb) now
before (of place) oath
begin obey
belief obstructionist
believe obtain
besides oh that!
beware of old age
beyond omit
blame one
blood one of
bloodless one more
bloody only
in a book not only not
books open
both openly
both—and opinion
bridge or
bring or not
build orator
burn otherwise
but our
by own
canvassing palace
carry passenger
cattle paternal
cause people
cease perhaps
certain persuade
character places
children play
cold if you please
command poet
commit poetry
common poisoned
conceal politics
confess as—as possible
conscience poverty
conscious power
consul prejudice
consult present
content pretend
continue prevail on
contract prevent
control pride
corn priest
country prithee
fellow-countryman promise
cousin proof
crime prove
crown province
cui bono? publicly
custom quarrel
daily (adjective) rather than
daily (adverb) really
day refer
two days refuse
the dead reign
deal with relations
death remember
debt remove
defend report
deny represent
deserve resign office
despise rest
despoil the rest
die return
different reward
diligence rightly
dislodge river
divide robber
doubt Roman
dream rose
dress royal
drink rule
drunk rustic
drunkenness safe
each same as
each other I say
earthly I will not say
either—or as they say
embark scarcely
employed sculpture
enemy seat
enjoy second
enough secretly
entreat seize
envy self
epidemic sell
especially serious
estate services
even ship
ever shore
everywhere shortly
for example show
exception sickness
exile siege
expect sight
expense silent
express sing
extend six hundred
face sloping
fail smell
famous soldier
fault some
favour some one
for fear sometimes
feast soul
few speak
how few speak against
first (adjective) staff
first (adverb) statue
first who stay
flee step
flow storm (verb)
forget strength
former—latter style
freedman subjects
great friend such
on the front suitable
fruitful sustain
garden sword
general take away
grateful take up arms
gratification tempest
Greeks territory
grief than
happen thankfulness
happiness that of
hasten the
health theory
hear this (that)
hear well three
heart throne
high time
hither and thither one time
hitherto at the same time
hold title
honour too
hope towards
horse trade
on horseback trader
host travel
hour tributary
how in triumph
however troops
hunger trust
if truth
if not uncle
ignorant undertake
immortal unjustly
with impunity of us
in an author in vain
indeed vote
influence wall
inhabit wander about
inhabitants want
insanity wanting
instead of water
international law way
invade on the way
inveigh against when (interrogative)
is to be whenever
joy where
judge whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
justice whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
kill which?
know while
we know for a while
know how white
Lacedaemonian whoever
land why not?
last wisdom
too late with
lately with one
Latin within
laugh without
learn witness
at least word
legislator work at
leisure workman
lend world
much less worse
letter would be
in a letter wound
liberty wretch
life a year after
light yes and no
lightning yesterday
like yield
likely you
little younger


“Absolute excess” is expressed by nimis and nimium; “proportional excess” by a comparative, accompanied an ablative, followed by quam ut (rarely qui) or quam pro. Too many, nimis multi; too often, nimium saepe; an hour too soon, hora citius; two days too late, biduo serius; the shoe is too large, calceus est nimis magnus; the shoe is too large for the foot, calceus est maior quam pro pede. Nimium, though frequent in Cicero, occurs rarely in Livy, never in Caesar.

  • L. 22, 51 Hannibali nimis laeta res est visa maiorque, quam ut eam statim capere animo possit.
  • Phil. 11, 1 quae tamen poena in civis nimis crudelis putabatur.
  • Fin. 5, 27 at nemo nimium beatus est; nemo beato beatior.
  • Par. 3 histrio, si versus pronuntiatus est syllaba una brevior aut longior, exsibilatur.
  • L. 10, 14 minor caedes quam pro tanta victoria fuit.
  • L. 21, 29, 2 proelium atrocius quam pro numero pugnantium (lit., than in proportion to) editur.
  1. Too much, too great, excessive is more often made by nimius. Too much zeal, nimium studium, or nimis magnum studium; too great power, nimia potentia; too few, parum multi, Planc. § 18 Holden. The neuter “nimium” occurs as a substantive, sometimes even “nimis” (in one passage in Cicero, Or. 51, nimis insidiarum, too much contrivance).

    • Off. 1, 6 alterum est vitium, quod quidam nimis magnum studium conferunt (it is another fault that some evince too much zeal).
    • L. 39, 55 seniores nimiam lenitatem populi Romani castigarunt.
    • Verr. 5, 59 meum enim crimen avaritiae te nimiae coarguit.
    • Fam. 2, 9, 2 nimio gaudio paene desipiebam (I am almost beside myself with excessive joy).
    • N. Pel. 3 nimia fiducia quantae calamitati solet esse!
    • Or. 22 magis offendit nimium quam parum.
    • Ov. F. 6, 115 haec loca lucis habent nimis.
  2. The comparative is also used of a considerable, or excessive degree. Themistocles use to live too freely, Themistocles liberius vivebat (= more freely than was becoming).

    • Fam. 6, 6 at in eius persona multa fecit asperius.
    • Sen. 16 haec ipsa, quae dixi, sentio fuisse longiora.
    • Sall. I. 4 verum ego liberius altiusque processi.
  3. The positive of certain adjectives and adverbs has sometimes like intensive force, e.g., maturus, too ripe; angustus, too narrow; arduus, too hard; brevis, too short; sero, too late.

    • Verr. 1, 60 longum est dicere (it would take too long to tell; nimis longum is never used in this sense).
    • Or. 10 nihil difficile amanti puto (I think nothing too hard to a lover).

Too = also is quoque, or (sometimes) idem. You too, Brutus, tu quoque Brute; a philosopher and a poet too, philosophus idemque poeta.

  • Ter. Phorm. 5, 6, 18 (858) oh, tu quoque aderas. Phormio? (O! you are here too, Phormio? the imperfect expresses surprise).
  • Brut. 79 splendida et grandis et eadem in primis faceta oratio (and very witty too).


Contra, as an opponent; erga, as a friend (so always in Cicero, Caesar, and Sallust; it occurs in a hostile sense in Plaut., Ter., Nepos, Livy, Tacitus, and later writers); in or adversus, as either.

  • Verr. 2, 4 non minus acres contra me fuerunt (were no less bitterly disposed towards me).
  • Am. 16 ut eodem modo erga amicum adfecti simus, quo erga nosmet ipsos (that we should be disposed in the same way towards friends as towards ourselves).
  • N. D. 2, 23, 60 divina bonitas erga homines (the divine goodness towards men).
  • Verr. 5, 62, 161 eorum benivolentiam erga se diligentiamque conlaudat.
  • Tac. H. 4, 49 provinciam et militem alienato erga Vespasianum animo fuisse.
  • Tac. H. 2, 99 odiorum invidiaeque erga Fabium Valentem admonebatur.
  • Off. 3, 31 Manlius perindulgens fuit in patrem; idem acerbe severus in filium.
  • Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 133 comis in uxorem (kind to his wife).
  • Fam. 14, 1, 4 Pisonis humanitas, virtus, amor in omnis nos.
  • Att. 6, 6, 2 non enim ista largitio fuit in cives, sed in hospites liberalitas.
  • N. D. 3, 34, 84 ad impietatem in deos in homines adiunxit iniuriam.
  • N. D. 1, 41 est enim pietas iustitia adversum deos.
  • Fam. 11, 27 quonam modo gererem me adversus Caesarem, usus tuo consilio sum (I have followed your advice as to the way I should bear myself towards Caesar).
  • L. 27, 1, 5 labare iis adversus Poenum fidem senserat.
  • L. 29, 8, 2 ob egregiam fidem adversus Romanos.


Merx, articles of trade, the goods or wares; mercatura, trading, the calling of a merchant (mercator). He carried on trade, mercaturam fecit. Trade, profession = ars. He made money by his trade, pecuniam ex arte sua confecit; he was by trade a money-lender, argentariam fecit (Off. 3, 14, 58 Holden); let every one practice the profession he knows, quam quisque norit artem, in hac se exerceat.

  • Rab. Post. 14 visae merces, fallaces quidem et fucosae.
  • Verr. 5, 56 ut intellegeretur ex mercibus (the cargoes), quibus ex locis navigarent.
  • L. 45, 6 mercaturas in ea regione fecerat.
  • Rosc. A. 46 mitto hasce vulgares artes, coquos, pistores, lecticarios (I pass over these common occupations, cooks, bakers, litter-bearers).


Mercator, a dealer in wares; negotiator, a dealer in money. The mercator travelled in the provinces with his goods, and trafficked with the natives; the negotiator resorted to the provinces to lend money upon interest, and sometimes to buy up corn or other produce on speculation.

  • Verr. 2, 78 mercator, an negotiator, an arator.
  • Planc. 26 negotiatoribus comis, mercatoribus iustus eram visus.


Proficisci, with reference to the starting-point or the destination, to start for; iter facere, with reference to the progress of the journey.

  • Ac. 2, 31 ex hoc loco Puteolos proficiscitur.
  • Caes. 6, 3 in Senones proficiscitur magnisque itineribus eo pervenit.
  • Att. 5, 20, 2 confestim iter in Ciliciam feci per Tauri pylas.
  • Caes. 1, 15 ita dies circiter quindecim iter fecerunt.
  • N. Dat. 4 dies noctesque iter faciens Taurum transiit.

Proficisci a or ab = to proceed or emanate from. These things proceed from God, haec a Deo proficiscuntur; the disciples of Zeno, qui a Zenone profecti sunt.

  • Tus. 2, 27 nihil potest esse aequabile, quod non a certa ratione proficiscatur.


Vectigales, strictly applied to those who paid a certain percentage of the produce of their lands, cattle, or other property, while the stipendiarii paid a definite money tribute. The majority of the Roman provinces paid a fixed tribute, certum vectigal, or stipendium, but Sicily and Asia paid tithes, which varied with the amount bid for them by the publicani, who farmed them.

  • P. C. 5 vectigalis multos ac stipendiarios liberavit.
  • L. 41, 17 stipendiariis veteribus duplex vectigal imperatum exactumque; ceteri frumentum contulerunt.


Dux urbem triumphans ingressus est, the general entered the city in triumph, i.e., triumphing. Dux urbem in triumpho ingressus est, the general entered the city in the triumph, i.e., he was not necessarily himself triumphing.

  • L. 6, 4 Camillus in urbem triumphans rediit.
  • L. 45, 39 Perseus oravit ne in triumpho duceretur.


Copiae, troops, as an aggregate of military force; milites, troops, as an aggregate of individual soldiers. Dux milites (not copias) corpora curare iussit. Many troops, magnae (not multae) copiae; few troops, parvae or exiguae (not paucae) copiae; more troops, maiores (not plures) copiae.

  • L. 26, 48 Scipio in castra legiones reduxit, fessosque milites curare corpora iussit.
  • Caes. C. 1, 52 militum vires inopia frumenti deminuerat.
  • Deiot. 8 antea quidem maiores copias alere poterat; nunc exiguas vix tueri potest.
  • Mur. 9 magnas copias hostium fudit.


Confido tibi, I trust in your strength; credo tibi, I trust in your honesty.

  • L. 2, 45 consules magis non confidere, quam non credere suis militibus (the consuls believed in their soldiers’ loyalty, but they doubted their courage).
  • Caes. 1, 40 huic legioni Caesar propter virtutem confidebat maxime.
  • Att. 7, 8 vehementer hominem contemnebat, et suis et rei publicae copiis confidebat.
  • Planc. 23 neque tu haec habes neque eis confidis (you neither know these things for certain nor do you depend upon them).
  • Att. 8, 13, 2 illum, quo antea confidebant, metuunt, hunc amant quem timebant.
  • Caes. C. 3, 109 Caesaris copiae nequaquam erant tantae, ut eis, extra oppidum si esset dimicandum, confideret.
  • L. 21, 4 neque milites alio duce plus confidere aut audere (there was no officer under whom the soldiers felt more confidence or showed more pluck).

Confidere (like fidere) takes dative or ablative, the dative usually of personal objects, regularly of personal pronouns. Diffidere is always followed by the dative.

  • Phil. 5, 1 nisi vestrae virtuti constantiaeque confiderem.
  • Caes. 7, 50 cum hostes loco et numero, nostri virtute confiderent.
  • Am. 5 ego vero non gravarer, si mihi ipse confiderem (I should not object, if I had confidence in myself).
  • Serv. ap. Fam. 4, 5, 6 Hofmann plura me ad te de hac re scribere pudet, ne videar prudentiae tuae diffidere.


Veritas, truth in a general and abstract sense; verum, that which is true, the reality, the fact. What is truth? quid est veritas? he spoke the truth, verum dixit; he investigates truth, veritatem investigat; he investigates the truth (of something), verum investigat.

  • Or. 3, 57 in omni re vincit imitationem veritas.
  • Div. 1, 13 sic enim se profecto res habet, ut numquam perfecte veritatem casus imitetur.
  • L. 22, 39 veritatem laborare nimis saepe aiunt, extingui numquam.
  • Tus. 5, 24 primum ingenio eximio sit necesse est; deinde ad investigandam veritatem studio incitato.
  • Tus. 3, 21 verum dicentibus facile cedam.
  • Clu. 63 non id agi, ut verum inveniretur.

In truth, in reality, re or re vera, opposed to in appearance or in name (specie, verbo).


Patruus, by the father’s side; avunculus, by the mother’s side. The patruus was the proverbial type of severe propriety.

  • Hor. S. 2, 3, 88 ne sis patruus mihi (don’t come the uncle over me. Cf. C. 3, 12, 2 patruae verbera linguae, the lashes of an uncle’s tongue).


Suscipere, to undertake, is used of any work one takes in hand; recipere, to undertake and pledge one’s word, become responsible for.

  • Or. 2, 24 magna offensio vel neglegentiae susceptis rebus, vel perfidiae receptis.
  • Verr. 2, 1 ego tamen hoc onere suscepto et recepta causa Siciliensi amplexus animo aliquanto amplius.
  • Caecil. 8 ego in hoc iudicio mihi Siculorum causam receptam, populi Romani susceptam esse arbitror.
  • Att. 13, 1, 2 … ob eam causam, quae suscepta est, cuius festinationem mihi tollis, quoniam de aestate polliceris vel potius recipis.
  • Verr. 2, 73, 179 meminero me non sumpsisse, quem accusarem, sed recepisse, quos defenderem.
  • Fam. 10, 21 omnia ei et petenti recepi et ultro pollicitus sum.
  • Balb. 7 peto a vobis ut me officii potius quam dicendi studio hanc suscepisse operam ac munus putetis.


Iniuste, unjustly, in a moral sense, opposed to iuste; iniuriâ, unjustly, without good cause or reason, opposed to iure.

  • R. P. 3, 18 nulla est tam stulta civitas, quae non iniuste imperare malit quam servire iuste.
  • Off. 3, 18 qui non defendit iniuriam neque propulsat, cum potest, iniuste facit.
  • Fin. 2, 18 quam multa vero iniuste fieri possunt quae nemo possit reprehendere!
  • Off. 2, 7 Lacedaemonios iniuste imperantes nonne repente omnes fere socii deseruerunt?
  • L. 39, 36 nec iure an iniuria caesi sint argumentari refert.
  • Verr. 2, 61 non quaero iure an iniuria sint inimici.
  • Off. 3, 19 vir bonus nocet nemini, nisi lacessitus iniuria.
  • Rosc. A. 6 neque enim, iudices, iniuria metuebat.
  • L. 3, 15 ut exsules iniuria pulsos reduceret.


Nostrum, of us, partitively, of our number; maior pars nostrum, the majority of us; nostri, of us, collectively, of ourselves; vive memor nostri, live mindful of us; melior pars nostri numquam moritur, the better part of us never dies; observantissimus est nostrum, he is the most devoted of us, i.e., among us; observantissimus est nostri, he is most devoted to us. Vestrum and vestri are similarly distinguished.

  • Sull. 2 quis nostrum adfuit Vargunteio?
  • Rosc. A. 19 nemo nostrum est, quin sciat (there is not one of us who does not know).
  • Ter. Phor. 1, 3, 20 (172) nostri nosmet paenitet (we are sorry for ourselves).
  • Fin. 2, 22 vir optimus nostrique amantissimus (a most excellent man, and a very loyal friend of mine).
  • Cat. 4, 9 habetis ducem memorem vestri, oblitum sui (you have a general who thinks of you, and forgets himself).
  1. The form in “um” alone is used in connexion with omnium. Though we say “memoria nostri,” we must say “memoria omnium nostrum”. Cf. Cat. 1, 7 patria communis est parens omnium nostrum; Cat. 4, 1 video in me omnium vestrum oculos esse conversos. “Nostrum” may be explained as dependent on omnium = of all of us.—(See Reid, Sull. 11.) Cf. omnium in the following: Cat. 1, 4 de nostro omnium interitu cogitant; Cat. 4, 2 ad vestram omnium caedem.

  2. All of us, nos omnes. All of us know, omnes scimus; three hundred of us have sworn, trecenti iuravimus; some young fellows of us used to meet, aliquot adulescentuli coibamus; most of us remember, plerique meminimus (L. 45, 39).

  3. Both of us laughed, uterque nostrum risit, or ambo risimus. Both of us thought ourselves bound to take that matter in hand, uterque nostrum id sibi (not nobis) suscipiendum putavit (Sull. 4).


Frustra, in vain, with reference to the disappointment of the agent; nequiquam, in vain, with reference to the failure of the object aimed at; irritus, in vain, fruitless, used adjectively of the thing.

  • Rosc. C. 14 frustra tempus contero (= I feel I am wasting time).
  • Sen. 23 ita vixi ut non frustra me natum existimem.
  • L. 2, 25 frustra id inceptum Volscis fuit (the result of that enterprise was a disappointment to the Volsci).
  • Enn. ap. Fam. 7, 6 qui ipse sibi sapiens prodesse non quit, nequiquam sapit (is wise in vain, but not implying that the sapiens himself comes to that conclusion).
  • Quinct. 25 dic, Naevi, diem; pudet dicere; verum et sero et nequiquam pudet.
  • Hor. C. 1, 3, 21 nequiquam deus abscidit prudens Oceano dissociabili terras.
  • L. 22, 20 urbe biduum summo labore nequiquam oppugnata, ubi in spem irritam frustra teri tempus animadversum est, in naves se receperunt (when they had assaulted the city for two days with all their might, but in vain, on finding that they were wasting time on a hopeless task, they retired to their ships).


Sententia, the deliberative vote or motion of a senator or judge; suffragium, simple voting as the expression of one’s will and pleasure, “yes” or “no,” used of the people in their comitia. Avoid votum, which is strictly a vow, or a prayer involving a vow.

  • Senat. 3, 6 nihil iudices sententiis, nihil populus suffragiis, nihil hic ordo auctoritate declaravit.
  • Att. 4, 1 factum est senatus consultum in meam sententiam.
  • Mil. 38 vos oro obtestorque, iudices, ut in sententiis ferendis quod sentietis, id audeatis.
  • L. 23, 10 omnes in eam sententiam ierunt.
  • Mil. 6 divisa sententia est (a separate vote was taken i.e., upon each part of the proposed resolution).
  • Fam. 1, 2, 1 quatenus de religione dicebat … Bibulo adsensum est; de tribus legatis frequentes ierunt in alia omnia (voted with the noes).
  • Verr. 4, 45 servus sententiis omnibus absolvitur.
  • Fam. 15, 12 te populus R(omanus) cunctis suffragiis consulem facturus est.
  • Cat. 2, 8 magis mihi videntur vota facturi contra rem publicam, quam arma laturi.


Murus is the general term for a wall as a species of mason-work, but is often used distinctively of a city wall, the special word for which is moenia. Paries, the wall of a house, especially a partition-wall, sometimes used in a disparaging sense for walls in general. Parietinae, walls that are falling to ruins, dilapidated walls. Maceria, the wall of an enclosure, a garden wall (this word does not occur in Cicero).

  • L. 21, 11 Saguntini murum interiorem ab nondum capta parte urbis ducunt.
  • Cat. 1, 5 magno me metu liberabis, dum modo inter me atque te murus (the city wall) intersit.
  • L. 21, 10, 10 Carthaginis moenia quatit ariete.
  • Quinct. 11, 38 si quid in controversiam veniret, aut intra parietes aut summo iure experiretur?
  • Mil. 7 ianua se ac parietibus, non iure legum iudiciorumque, texit.
  • L. 4, 9 cum res peragi intra parietes nequisset, ventum in jus est.
  • Phil. 12, 10 domesticis me parietibus vix tueor sine amicorum custodiis.
  • Off. 2, 8 parietes modo urbis stant et manent; rem vero publicam penitus amisimus (parietes used disparagingly for muri).
  • Att. 7, 11 non est, inquit, in parietibus res publica.
  • Cat. 1, 8 negavi me ullo modo posse isdem parietibus esse tecum, qui magno in periculo essem, quod isdem moenibus contineremur.
  • Tus. 3, 22 magis me moverant Corinthi subito aspectae parietinae quam ipsos Corinthios.
  • L. 23, 9 gladium in publicum trans maceriam horti abiecit.

Murus alone is used metaphorically—Audacia pro muro habetur (Sall. C. 58). Ad omnes meos impetus quasi murus quidam boni nomen imperatoris opponitur (Verr. 5, 1).


Errare (not circumerrare), ignorantly, or involuntarily; vagari, purposely, to roam.

  • Clu. 62 vagus et exsul errabat Oppianicus.
  • Phil. 11, 2 tota Asia vagatur, volitat ut rex.


Carere, objectively, to be without, whether in a good or a bad sense; subjectively, to miss, to feel the want of something which is merely desirable; egere, and the stronger indigere, to need something which is necessary; carere cibo = to fast; egere cibo = to be starving. Cf. Seyffert, Laelius, 6, 22.

  • Sen. 14 non caret is qui non desiderat.
  • N. Mil. 2 erat enim inter eos dignitate regia, quamvis carebat nomine.
  • Mil. 7 caruit foro postea Pompeius, caruit senatu, caruit publico.
  • Tus. 1, 12 caret mors omni malo.
  • Q. F. 1, 3, 2 nunc commisi, ut me vivo careres, vivo me aliis indigeres.
  • Am. 5 magnum opus est egetque exercitatione non parva.
  • Sall. C. 1 utrumque per se indigens, alterum alterius auxilio eget (either of itself is incomplete and needs the other’s help).
  • Tus. 5, 39 quibus in studiis oculis non egebat.
  • Att. 6, 1, 12 alter … frenis eget, alter calcaribus.
  • Fam. 2, 2 spero nostram amicitiam non egere testibus.
  • Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 11 Wilkins pane egeo iam mellitis potiore placentis.
  • Phil. 6, 3 cum plerisque in rebus gerendis tarditas odiosa est, tum hoc bellum indiget celeritatis (in most campaigns delays are vexatious, but in a war like this promptitude is everything).


Deesse, opposed to superesse, implies an essential requisite, by the absence of which something is rendered incomplete or altogether fails; abesse, opposed to adesse, does not necessarily imply that the thing wanting is a desideratum. “Quod abest non reperitur; quod deest desideratur” (Hand).

  • Brut. 80 Calidio hoc unum, si nihil utilitatis habebat, abfuit; si opus erat, defuit.
  • Caes. C. 2, 31 quantum alteri sententiae deesset animi, tantum alteri superesse dicebat.
  • Brut. 9, 35 perfectum et quoi nihil desit Demosthenem facile dixeris.
  • Brut. 55 ab hoc vis aberat Antoni, Crassi ab illo lepos.
  • Leg. 1, 2 abest historia litteris nostris (history is yet wanting to our literature).
  • Tus. 3, 10 abest ergo a sapiente aegritudo.


“Water” opposed to “land, as an element” is aqua, otherwise mare is used. Air, fire, water, and land, aer et ignis et aqua et terra. By land and water, terra et mari (terra marique), not aqua et terra.

  • N. D. 2, 33 ex terra aqua, ex aqua oritur aer (out of earth comes water, out of water air).
  • L. 35, 17 aquam terramque ab Lacedaemoniis petierunt (water and earth as a token of submission).
  • Rosc. A. 26 (maiores nostri parricidae) caelum, solem, aquam terramque ademerunt.

Aquae, not aqua, is used of an abnormal or overflowing mass of water, e.g., aquae magnae, aquarum magnitudo, not aqua magna, aquae magnitudo. So aquae, not aqua, of medicinal springs, the waters of a seaside place, baths. Venire ad aquas, to come for the waters; aquae Baianae, the waters or baths of Baiae.

  • Caes. C. 1, 50, 1 hae permanserunt aquae dies complures.
  • Liv. 24, 9 aquae magnae bis eo anno fuerunt (there were floods twice that year).
  • Liv. 35, 9 aquae ingentes eo anno fuerunt.


Via is concrete, a way, with reference to its position and material qualities, metaphorically, a way to an end or goal; iter is abstract, a route, with reference to its direction and terminus, also a progression or march. Viarum atque itinerum dux (Caes. 6, 17, 1), duces itinerum (L. 21, 29, 6), guides for the routes. A street = via, not iter. The streets were paved with flint-stone, silice viae stratae sunt. Trames, semita, and callis denote only a narrow way, a foot or bridle path. Trames, a bye-way, which one takes either to save time or to escape observation; semita, a foot-path, which often runs near the highway; callis, a rough track over a mountain or through a wood.

  • Phil. 13, 9 egressus est non viis sed tramitibus paludatus.
  • Mart. 7, 61, 4 modo quae fuerat semita, facta via est.
  • Att. 5, 14 iter conficiebamus aestuosa et pulverulenta via.
  • Att. 16, 13a longulum sane iter et via mala.
  • L. 39, 28 non iter tantum per regnum nostrum dedi, sed vias etiam munivi, pontes feci, commeatus praebui.
  • Att. 5, 16 in ipso itinere et via (on the march, and in fact on the road, i.e., not at a halting place) … itaque subsedi in ipsa via (I sit down on the road itself), dum haec summatim tibi perscriberem.
  • L. 21, 31 non recta regione iter instituit, sed ad laevam flexit.
  • L. 3, 5 ut viam sibi ad castra faceret, acriter dimicans cecidit.
  • Verr. 2, 23 intellegetis hanc pecuniam, quae via modo visa est exire ab isto, eam semita revertisse (= the money returned in the same direction that it went out, but with this difference, that the via or carriage-way became a semita—Long).
  • Poet. ap. Div. 1, 58 qui sibi semitam non sapiunt, alteri monstrant viam.
  • L. 22, 14 nos pecorum modo per aestivos saltus deviasque callis exercitum ducimus.
  1. Devius, leading or lying off the direct way; iter devium, a bye-way; invius, having no way, pathless; avius, out of the way, untrodden, is intermediate between the other two.

    • Att. 2, 4 in Pompeianum venito. Id et nobis erit periucundum et tibi non sane devium.
  2. Devii = dwelling away from the road, opposed to “in via habitantes”. Stulte Aquinates, sed tamen in via habitabant. Quid Anagnini? qui cum essent devii, descenderunt, ut istum, tamquam si esset, consulem salutarent, who, though they were out of the road, came down to salute him, as if he were really consul (Phil. 2, 41).


In itinere marks continuance; ex itinere, interruption = from a point on the journey.

  • Att. 6, 4 haec festinans scripsi in itinere atque agmine.
  • Verr. 3, 25 Lollius, cum in Siciliam esset profectus, in (not ex) itinere occisus est.
  • Q. F. 2, 5 eram in itinere, ut eo die apud Titium manerem (I am on my way with the intention of staying to-day with Titius).
  • Caes. 3, 20 in itinere agmen nostrum adorti equestre proelium commiserunt.
  • Inv. 2, 4 in itinere hominem comprehendit.
  • Att. 6, 1 Appius enim ad me ex itinere bis terve litteras miserat.
  • Caes. 2, 29 hac pugna nuntiata ex itinere domum reverterunt (on hearing the news of this battle they stopped their march and returned home).
  • Sall. C. 34, 2 Catilina ex itinere plerisque consularibus litteras mittit.

Ex is used of immediate sequence of time = immediately after; hence ex itinere also = straight from a journey.

  • Caes. 2, 12 oppidum ex itinere (straight from his march) oppugnare conatus.
  • Inv. 1, 30 si multus erat in calceis pulvis, ex itinere eum venire oportebat.

Cf. Brut. 92 ex consulatu est profectus in Galliam (on the expiry of his consulship he at once set out for Gaul).

  • Caes. C. 1, 22, 4 provinciam Hispaniam ex praetura habuerat.

WHEN (interrogative).

“When” interrogative = quando, not cum or ubi. When did he come? quando (not cum) venit? I know not when he came, nescio quando (not cum) venerit; I know not when he will come, nescio quando venturus sit.

  1. Quando interrogative is always temporal.

  2. Quando non-interrogative is oftener causal than temporal = now that, since.

    • Fin. 2, 1 quando enim Socrates quicquam tale fecit? (when, I should like to know, did Socrates adopt any such method?).
    • Fam. 16, 18 te quando exspectemus, fac, ut sciam (let me know when to expect you).
    • Off. 2, 21 utinam tum essem natus, quando Romani dona accipere coepissent! (would that I had been born when the Romans began to receive gifts!).
  3. Ecquando, when? ever? is chiefly used in impassioned and unwelcome questions.

    L. 3, 67 ecquando communem hanc esse patriam licebit? (shall we ever be at liberty to enjoy this as our common country?).


Cum and ubi iterative = whenever, as often as, are normally constructed with the indicative, but Livy and later writers (not Cicero, Caesar, and Sallust) prefer the subjunctive in cases recurring in past time.

If the action of the cum (ubi) clause precedes the action of the principal clause, the more exact Latin idiom uses the perfect, pluperfect (whether indicative or subjunctive), and completed future, in subordination respectively to the present, imperfect, and future tenses.

Whenever a head of a household dies, his relations meet, cum pater familiae decessit, eius propinqui conveniunt. When he saw roses he thought spring was beginning, cum rosam viderat (vidisset), tum incipere ver arbitrabatur. I shall write to you as often as I find leisure, ad te scribam, cum otium nactus ero.

  • Q. F. 1, 1, 16 cum ad te scribo, tecum loqui videor (when I write to you, I fancy I am conversing with you).
  • Off. 2, 6 cum prospero flatu (fortunae) utimur, ad exitus pervehimur optatos, et, cum reflavit (blows contrary), affligimur.
  • Or. 2, 6 quom ad villam veni, hoc ipsum nihil agere delectat (when I come to my villa, this is the sort of thing I like, simply doing nothing).
  • Verr. 5, 11 cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat, eadem lectica usque in cubiculum deferebatur.
  • Sall. C. 13 haec iuventutem, ubi familiares opes defecerant, ad facinora incendebant.
  • L. 2, 27 quod ubi (whenever) cui militi inciderat, collegam appellabat.
  • L. 2, 27 cum in ius duci debitorem vidissent, undique convolabant (whenever they saw a debtor led into court, they flocked together from all sides).
  • L. 26, 11 ubi recepissent se in castra, mira serenitas oriebatur.
  • Caes. C. 2, 41, 6 cum cohortes ex acie procucurrissent, Numidae integri celeritate impetum nostrorum effugiebant.
  • L. 1, 32 id (fetialis) ubi dixisset, hastam in fines eorum emittebat (whenever a fetial said this, he threw a spear within their territories).

Cf. L. 1, 24 id ubi dixit, porcum saxo silice percussit (when (not whenever) he said this, he struck the sow with a flint stone).

The subjunctive is used in all Latin where a clause introduced by cum or ubi stands in the indefinite second person singular.

  • Tus. 3, 27 in potestate est abicere dolorem, cum velis (it is in one’s power to banish grief when one pleases = in nostra potestate est abicere dolorem, cum volumus).
  • Sall. I. 31 bonus segnior fit, ubi neglegas (a good man becomes slower when you neglect him = ubi neglegitur or neglegimus).
  • Ter. Eu. 813 nolunt ubi velis: ubi nolis cupiunt ultro (when you wish (= one wishes) they won’t, when you won’t they are eager for it).


Ubi, where, of rest; quo, where, of motion. He marched the army to where Scipio was encamped, exercitum eo duxit ubi Scipio castra habebat.

  • L. 1, 26 quo enim ducere hunc iuvenem potestis ubi non sua decora eum a tanta foeditate supplici vindicent?
  • Att. 2, 9, 2 video iam, quo inuidia transeat et ubi sit habitatura.
  • Sall. I. 54, 4 quo cuiusque animus fert, eo discedunt.
  • Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 40 ibit eo quo vis.

In questions implying a negative answer, where is made by qui, quae, quod. Where is the city he has not plundered? quae est urbs quam non diripuerit?

  • Caes. 2, 30 quibusnam manibus aut quibus viribus tanti oneris turrim moturos esse confiderent? (where were the hands or where the giant strength with which they trusted to move forward so large a tower?).
  • Att. 6, 1, 8 quae epistula tua est, in qua eius non mentionem facias?
  • Verr. 4, 11 ecquis rex est (where is there a king?), qui senatorem populi Romani tecto ac domo non invitet?

WHETHER—OR (disjunctive interrogation).

In alternative questions the first member is introduced by utrum, or -ne, or without a particle, the other or others by an. Is it true or false? utrum verum an falsum est? or verumne an falsum est? or verum an falsum est? It matters not whether it is a gold cup or a glass one or the hollow of the hand, non refert utrum sit aureum poculum an vitreum an manus concava.

In dependent questions involving two alternatives -ne may take the place of an when there is no introductory particle. There are thus four varieties as shown in the following sentence: I ask whether it is true or false, (1) quaero utrum verum an falsum sit; (2) quaero verumne an falsum sit; (3) quaero verum an falsum sit; (4) quaero verum falsumne sit. The third and (the rarer) fourth modes are used in short and sharply opposed questions.

  • Ac. 2, 29 utrum ea vestra an nostra culpa est? (is that your fault or ours?).
  • L. 5, 3 utrum defenditis an impugnatis plebem? (are you defending or attacking the commons?).
  • Fam. 10, 26 utrum nescis quam alte ascenderis, an pro nihilo id putas? (are you ignorant how high you have risen, or do you count that for nothing?).
  • Fam. 10, 26 id agitur, utrum hac petitione an proxima praetor fias (the question is whether you will be praetor this election or next).
  • Caes. C. 2, 32 vosne vero Domitium an vos Domitius deseruit? (did you desert Domitius or did Domitius desert you?).
  • Phil. 10, 2 quaero igitur, eumne Bruti similem malis an Antoni (whether you would wish him to be like Brutus or Antony).
  • Phil. 11, 10 agitur autem liberine vivamus an mortem obeamus.
  • Sall. I. 79 id socordiane an casu acciderit parum cognovi.
  • Verr. 2, 61 non quaero iure an iniuria sint inimici.
  • L. 10, 36 proinde elige, cum cive an hoste pugnare velis.
  • Phil. 3, 7 nam me isdem edictis nescit laedat an laudet.
  • Sall. C. 25 pecuniae an famae minus parceret, haud facile discerneres.
  • Sall. I. 38 fugere an manere tutius foret, in incerto erat (it was doubtful whether to flee or remain was the safer course).
  • Phil. 2, 16 albus aterne fuerit ignoras (you do not know whether he was white or black).
  • L. 5, 28 in incerto erat, vicissent victine essent.
  • N. Dat. 9 experiri voluit, verum falsumne sibi esset relatum (he wished to find out whether the story was true or false).
  • N. Iph. 3 interrogatus est utrum (which) pluris patrem matremne faceret.
  • Tus. 4, 4 utrum (which) igitur mavis? statimne nos vela facere, an quasi e portu egredientes paululum remigare?
  • Att. 16, 8 Romamne venio, an hic maneo, an Arpinum fugiam? (am I to come to Rome or stay here or flee to Arpinum?).
  • Or. 3, 55 refert etiam qui audiant, senatus an populus an iudices, frequentes an pauci an singuli, (the audience even makes a difference, whether it is the senate or the people or the jury, a crowd or a few, or an individual).
  • L. 21, 10 utrum hostem an vos an fortunam utriusque populi ignoratis?
  • Caes. 4, 14 perturbantur, copiasne adversus hostem ducere, an castra defendere, an fuga salutem petere praestaret.
  • Att. 9, 2 utrum hoc tu parum commeministi an ego non satis intellexi an mutasti sententiam?
  • Ac. 2, 22, 71 Reid utrum comprehendisset … illudne, … honestum quod esset, id bonum solum esse, an … honesti inane nomen esse.
  • Plin. Ep. 2, 8, 1 studes an piscaris an venaris an simul omnia?
  • L. 27, 47, 3 ut attendant semel bisne signum canat in castris.
  • Ac. 2, 29 cum interrogaretur tria pauca sint anne multa (whether three things are few or many).

(Anne is rare in good prose, and of course like nonne and nihilne is not used before the third and succeeding alternatives.)

  1. “An” strictly answers to or. Though it frequently appears to introduce a simple interrogation, there is really an ellipsis of a previous question: = “do you doubt this, or is it possible that?” implying that the alternative is inadmissible. Hence an is associated with pronouns and adverbs which go with negatives; e.g., an est quisquam? an est ullum tempus? an umquam auditum est?

    With an the speaker addresses himself to an opponent whose possible or anticipated objection he wishes to refute; hence the common forms, “an censes?” “an putas?” “an credis?” Sometimes the speaker, by way of politeness or irony, includes himself in the question, e.g., “an censemus?” “an putamus?” “an credimus?”

    Observe that the alternative, though untenable, is expressed in the indicative. The subjunctive is used only in the case of indignant or affected surprise (see Seyffert, Sch. Lat. § 51). Invitus te offendi: an putas me delectari in laedendis hominibus, I did not intentionally offend you: (do you doubt that) or do you believe that I take pleasure in hurting a person? Here “an putas” = neque enim putas. In ordinary cases “num putas?” would be used, but “an” is distinguished from “num,” “-ne,” and “nonne” in that it always involves a reference to an antecedent question expressed or implied.

    • Fin. 1, 8 sed ad haec, nisi molestum est, habeo quae velim; an me, nisi te audire velim, censes haec dicturum fuisse? (but I have something I should like to say in reply to this, if it is not bothering you; do you then imagine I should have spoken as I did, if I did not wish to hear you?).
    • Tus. 1, 7 quasi non necesse sit, quicquid isto modo pronunties, id aut esse aut non esse; an tu dialecticis ne imbutus quidem es? (do you admit that, or have you not learned even the first principles of dialectics?).
    • Phil. 2, 15 at vero Pompei voluntatem a me alienabat oratio mea; an ille quemquam plus dilexit? (but my way of talking, it is averred, lost me the friendship of Pompey; was there any one he loved more?).
    • Att. 3, 15, 3 sed quid Curio? an illam orationem non legit?
    • Caes. 7, 77 an, quod ad diem non venerunt, de eorum fide dubitatis? (do you agree with me in this, or is it possible that you distrust their loyalty, simply because they have not come at the day appointed?).
    • N. D. 1, 30 an tu mei similem putas esse aut tui deum? (do you allow this, or do you believe a god to be a man like you or me?).
    • N. D. 2, 6 an ne hoc quidem intellegimus, omnia supera esse meliora (do you see that your hypothesis is absurd, or is it possible that we do not know that all things above are better?).
    • Att. 9, 18 veni igitur et age de pace: meone, inquam, arbitratu? an tibi, inquit, ego praescribam? (come then and make proposals for peace: and I reply, on such terms as I choose? Am I, said he, to dictate to you? = of course it is not for me to dictate to you).
    • Tus. 4, 25 oratorem irasci minime decet, simulare non dedecet; an tibi irasci tum videmur, cum quid in causis acrius et vehementius dicimus? (anger is unbecoming in an orator, affectation of anger is not unbecoming; do you grant this, or do you suppose that we are angry when we speak with more than usual pungency and vehemence? = fallacy of inference, or non causa pro causa).
  2. After a foregoing general question “an” introduces a plausible (or ironical) answer expressed as a question, = “nonne”.

    • Sen. 6 a rebus gerendis abstrahit senectus? quibus? an iis quae iuventute geruntur et viribus? (= omnibusne an iis quae, etc., or only from such as require youth and strength).
    • Phil. 2, 38 cur autem ea comitia non habuisti? an quia tribunus plebis sinistrum fulmen nuntiabat? (or was it because a tribune of the people was reporting thunder on the left?).
    • Phil. 2, 4 quo me teste convincas? an chirographo? (on what evidence would you convict me? by the handwriting?).
    • Verr. 5, 2 quid dicis? an bello fugitivorum Siciliam virtute tua liberatam? (quid dicis? = aliudne dicis?).
    • Caes. 1, 47 quid ad se venirent? an speculandi causa?
    • Div. 2, 57 quando autem ista vis evanuit? an postquam homines minus creduli esse coeperunt?
    • Att. 2, 5 quid enim nostri optimates loquentur? an me aliquo praemio de sententia esse deductum?
  3. “An” or the stronger “an vero” often introduces a settled fact in the form of a question, implying a fortiori that a contrasted co-ordinate supposition is indefensible. The contrast is accentuated by the use of asyndeton, but it suits the English idiom to subordinate the first clause by means of while or other introductory particle. (See Mayor, Phil. 2, 43.)

    • Cat. 1, 1 an vero Scipio Gracchum privatus interfecit; Catilinam vero nos consules perferemus? (did Scipio, though a private individual, slay Gracchus, and are we the consuls to tolerate Catiline?).
    • Phil. 2, 43 an supplicationes addendo diem contaminari passus es, pulvinaria contaminari noluisti? (or was it that, while you allowed the thanksgivings to be polluted by the addition of a day (in honour of a dead man), you were unwilling that the sacred cushions should be polluted?).
    • Tus. 5, 32 an Scythes Anacharsis potuit pro nihilo pecuniam ducere; nostrates philosophi facere non potuerunt?
    • Sull. 11 an vero clarissimum virum nemo reprehendit, qui filium suum vita privavit; tu rempublicam reprehendis, quae domesticos hostes necavit?
    • N. D. 2, 7 an cetera mundus habebit omnia, hoc unum, quod plurimi est, non habebit?
    • Div. 2, 59 an Aesculapius an Serapis potest nobis praescribere per somnium curationem valetudinis, Neptunus gubernantibus non potest?
  4. “An” is exceptionally used after verbs expressing uncertainty, as haud scio, nescio, dubito (the last in all persons and tenses) = whether not, equivalent to a modest affirmative, I venture to think, I daresay, probably. Hence the proper sequence is nemo, nullus, numquam, not quisquam, ullus, umquam. Later writers, on the other hand, give to haud scio, nescio, dubito an a negative force = I think not, probably not, with the corresponding sequence quisquam, ullus, umquam. Hence in the Augustan age “nescio an venerit” = I rather think he is come; in the silver age = I rather think he is not come.

    • Leg. 1, 21 hoc diiudicari nescio an numquam sed hoc sermone certe non potest (this point, I daresay, can never be decided, but certainly not through the present conversation).
    • Am. 6 qua (amicitia) quidem haud scio an nihil melius homini sit a dis immortalibus datum (friendship, in my humble opinion, is the best gift which the immortal gods have granted to man).
    • Sen. 20 moriendum certe est et incertum an hoc ipso die (die we certainly must and possibly this very day). (The only instance of incertum an in Cicero.—Draeger.)
    • Fam. 9, 15 est id quidem magnum atque haud scio an maximum (that is certainly an important matter, probably the most important).
    • Verr. 1, 48 nescio an antequam Verres praeturam petere coepit (probably before Verres began his canvass for the praetorship).
    • L. 3, 60, 2 si extemplo rem fortunae commisisset, haud scio an … magno detrimento certamen staturum fuerit.
    • Att. 10, 8 tamenne dubitemus an ei nos etiam cum periculo venditemus, quicum coniuncti ne cum praemio quidem voluimus esse? (should I still think even at the risk of a rebuff of ingratiating myself with a man whom even with assured advantage I was unwilling to join).
    • Brut. 33 diutius si vixisset eloquentia quidem nescio an habuisset parem neminem (here nescio an is adverbial and does not influence the construction, otherwise habiturus fuerit would have been substituted for habuisset).
    • L. 23, 16 ingens eo die res ac nescio an maxima illo bello gesta est (the greatest perhaps throughout the war).
    • Off. 3, 12 dubitet an turpe non sit (he is inclined to think that it is not dishonourable = putet turpe non esse).
    • Att. 16, 5 itaque dubito an Venusiam tendam (almost = cogito Venusiam tendere).
    • N. Thras. 1 dubito an Thrasybulum primum omnium ponam (I am inclined to prefer Thrasybulus to all others).
    • Verr. 3, 69 tametsi isti difficile est, tamen haud scio an fieri possit (still I believe it is possible).
    • Plin. Ep. 3, 1 nescio an ullum iucundius tempus exegerim (I do not think I have ever passed time more pleasantly).

    The subjunctive “haud sciam” expresses greater diffidence, = I almost think, I might perhaps say.

    • N. D. 2, 4 sapientissimus atque haud sciam an omnium praestantissimus (the best and I might perhaps say the most excellent of all).
    • Or. 1, 60 id quod haud sciam an tu primus ostenderis.
    • Or. 2, 17 magnum est quoddam opus atque haud sciam an longe maximum.
  5. The verb is sometimes omitted. A speaker states something the accuracy of which he begins to doubt, and then introduces a corrective clause by means of “an” = or perhaps. Quam orationem in Origines suas rettulit paucis antequam mortuus est diebus an mensibus, a few days or perhaps months before he died (Brut. 23). The full expression = nescio utrum dicam diebus an (dicam) mensibus.

    • Att. 11, 6 is dicitur filium vidisse euntem, an iam in Asia (he is reported to have seen the son on his way to Asia, or perhaps after his arrival there).
    • Att. 1, 3 nos hic te ad mensem Ianuarium exspectamus ex quodam rumore, an ex litteris tuis ad alios missis (we are expecting you here about the month of January on the strength of some rumour or perhaps letters of yours to other people).
    • Fin. 2, 32 cum ei Simonides, an quis alius artem memoriae polliceretur (Simonides or perhaps some one else).
  6. Excepting its peculiar use after verbs of uncertainty, “an,” as the sign of a simple dependent question instead of num or -ne, is unciceronian, but occurs now and then in Livy and oftener in later writers. Quaesivit, salvusne esset clipeus (not an salvus esset clipeus).

    • Mil. 11 illud iam in iudicium venit, non, occisusne sit, sed iure an iniuria.
    • L. 31, 48 magna pars senatus nihil praeter res gestas, et an in magistratu suisque auspiciis gessisset, censebant spectare senatum debere (the majority were of opinion that the senate ought to take nothing into account but his success and whether he achieved it while in office and under his own auspices).
    • L. 35, 42 deinde an omnino mittendus esset, consultatio mota est.
  7. Num is properly used of simple questions, hence “num -an” (always in direct questions) is an irregularity, and, as “num” expects a negative answer, “an” appends as an afterthought an alternative, which, if not ironical, implies an affirmative answer.

    • Hor. S. 2, 5, 58 num furis? an prudens ludis me? (are you frenzied? or are you purposely making sport of me?).
    • Leg. 2, 2, 5 numquid duas habetis patrias? an est una illa patria communis? (have you two native places, or is that one native place common to you?).
  8. Nonne occurs in a few places in Cicero in indirect questions, but only in connexion with quaerere (Draeger, § 467).

    • Phil. 12, 7 quaero a te nonne putes.
    • Ac. 2, 24 ex me quaesieras nonne putarem.
    • Fin. 2, 18 ex te quaero nonne intellegas.
    • Fin. 3, 4 quaero nonne tibi faciendum idem sit.
    • Tus. 5, 12 quaesitum ex Socrate est, Archelaum, Perdiccae filium, nonne beatum putaret.
  9. In questions which are not alternative or mutually exclusive, but simply different, or is expressed by aut. I ask whether he is rich or wise, quaero num dives aut sapiens sit = he may be both or neither. I ask whether he is rich or poor, quaero divesne an pauper sit (if he is the one, he cannot be the other). Quaero divesne an sapiens sit = it is conceded that he is either rich or wise, and the question is which of the two he is. I ask whether he is more rich or wise, quaero utrum divitior an sapientior sit = I ask which is the greater, his wealth or his wisdom.

    • Off. 3, 13 quaero num id iniuste aut improbe fecerit.
    • N. D. 1, 30 quid ergo? solem dicam aut lunam aut caelum deum? (what then? Am I to say that the sun or the moon or the sky is a god?).
    • Or. 1 utrum difficilius aut maius esset negare tibi saepe roganti an efficere id quod rogares diu dubitavi (here utrum may be the conjunction or the neuter pronoun.—See Sandys’ note).
    • Or. 1, 54 quibuscum non pugno utrum sit melius aut verius (utrum = which of the two, i.e., philosophy or eloquence).
    • Cael. 20 requiro num tibi perturpe aut perflagitiosum esse videatur.
    • L. 22, 59 utrum avarior an crudelior sit, vix existimari potest (one can scarcely determine whether he is more rapacious or cruel, but quaero num avarus aut crudelis sit).
    • Sall. I. 95 multi dubitavere, fortior an felicior esset (many doubted whether his merits or his good fortune were the greater).
    • Par. 1, 3 melioremne efficit (voluptas) aut laudabiliorem virum? (does pleasure make a good man better or more praiseworthy?).

After words signifying hope or expectation or an attempt, si sometimes stands elliptically for whether = to see if, to try if, to find out if. Posse often follows. In expressions other than these si is rare in dependent questions. Philopoemen quaesivit, si Lycortas incolumis evasisset (L. 39, 50).

  • Caes. 2, 9 paludem si nostri transirent hostes exspectabant (the enemy waited to see if our men would cross the marsh = dum transirent, si transirent).
  • Att. 16, 2 exspectabam si quid de eo consilio ad me scriberes (I was waiting to see if you would write anything to me about this plan = dum scriberes, si quid scriberes).
  • Caes. 6, 37 circumfunduntur hostes, si quem aditum reperire possent (the enemy pour around to see if they can find any entrance = ut possent, si possent).
  • L. 42, 67 ad Gonnum castra movet, si oppido potiri posset (he moves his camp to Gonnus in the hope of being able to take the town = ut posset, si posset).
  • Caes. 1, 8 nonnumquam interdiu, saepius noctu, si perrumpere possent conati sunt.
  • L. 1, 57 tentata res est, si primo impetu capi Ardea posset (an experiment was made whether Ardea could be taken at the first rush).
  • L. 10, 16 omnia expertos esse, si suismet ipsorum viribus tolerare tantam molem belli possent (they had made every effort in the hope that they might be able to bear the brunt of such a war with their own unaided resources).
  • Phil. 9, 1 non recusavit quominus vel extremo spiritu, si quam opem rei publicae ferre posset, experiretur.
  • L. 1, 7 pergit ad speluncam, si forte eo vestigia ferrent (he follows the way to the cave to find out whether the footsteps perchance led there).
  • Fam. 3, 9 te adeunt fere omnes, si quid velis (to find out what you want, if you should want anything).
  • L. 40, 49 quaesivit iterum, si cum Romanis militare liceret (he inquired next whether it were permitted to serve on the side of the Romans = num sibi liceret, si liceret, whether, if such a thing were permissible, he would be permitted to go to war along with the Romans).

WHETHER—OR (disjunctive hypothesis).

When the same thing is predicted under conflicting conditions, whether—or is translated by sive (seu)—sive (seu) = be this the case or that the case, take you this view or that view, so and so holds good. (Cf. Syntax, § 304, in Iwan von Müller’s Handbuch, 1st ed.) Whether he is white or black (adverbial sentence), he is my slave, sive albus, sive ater est, servus est meus. I do not know whether he is white or black (noun sentence), albus aterne sit ignoro.

  • Fam. 6, 8 sed ego, sive hoc sive illud est, in Sicilia censeo commorandum.
  • L. 23, 16 sive tanta sive minor victoria fuit, ingens eo die res gesta est.
  • Fat. 13 sive adhibueris medicum sive non adhibueris, convalesces (you will get well whether you call in a physician or not).
  • L. 45, 8 utcunque haec, sive errore humano, seu casu, seu necessitate inciderunt, bonum animum habe.
  • Fam. 13, 30 peto igitur aps te, ut eum, sive aderit sive non venerit in Siciliam, in meis intimis scias esse.
  • Att. 12, 12, 2 quare, sive habes quid sive nihil habes, scribe tamen aliquid.
  • Tac. H. 4, 66 transgredior ad vos, seu me ducem seu militem mavultis (whether you prefer me to be your general or your fellow-soldier. Cf. Sall. C. 20 vel imperatore vel milite me utimini).

The conflicting conceptions generally stand in the indicative, “probably because the writer declines to mark as imaginary any of the possibilities among which he declines to decide” (Roby, § 1562).

  • Caes. 1, 23 seu quod timore perterritos Romanos discedere existimarent, sive eo quod re frumentaria intercludi posse confiderent (properly “existimabant” and “confidebant,” but, by a Latin irregularity, verbs of saying, thinking, believing, are sometimes put in the subjunctive, instead of the thing said, thought or believed).


Uter, which of two? quis, which of many? Which of the consuls? uter consulum? which of the tribunes? quis tribunorum?

  • Mil. 9 uter utri insidias fecit? (which plotted against which?).
  • Par. 6, 3 uter igitur est divitior—cui deest an cui superat?
  • N. Att. 5 intellegi non poterat uter eum plus diligeret, Cicero an Hortensius.
  • Off. 1, 43 potest incidere saepe contentio de duobus honestis utrum honestius.
  • Am. 7, 24 ignorabat rex uter eorum esset Orestes (the king knew not which of the two was Orestes).
  • Ac. 2, 41, 126 dubium est, uter nostrum sit … inverecundior?
  • Tus. 1, 41, 99 utrum autem sit melius, di inmortales sciunt.
  • L. 25, 18, 6 uter bello melior sit, decernamus.
  • Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 55 ambigitur quotiens uter utro sit prior.
  • L. 40, 12 ut uter timuerit, ne alter dignior videretur regno, consilium opprimendi fratris cepisse iudicetur?
  • Phil. 10, 2 permitto ut de tribus Antoniis eligas quem velis.
  • Off. 1, 25 similiter facere eos, qui inter se contenderent, uter potius rem publicam administraret, ut si nautae certarent quis eorum potissimum gubernaret.
  • Rosc. C. 7 considera, Piso, quis quem fraudasse dicatur (consider Piso, who is said to have defrauded whom).

Quotus? which in order or number, which in the series? Which (in order) are you? quotus es? What is the number of your prize? quotum est tuum praemium? What o’clock is it? quota hora est? Quotus quisque, which one of what total number? onee in how many; as decimus quisque, every tenth one; vicesimus quisque, every twentieth one; centesimus quisque, every hundredth one. Hence the signification, how small a proportion, how few! How few men are fluent speakers! quotus quisque disertus est!


In narration dum, while = at the same time that, is regularly constructed with the present indicative, whatever be the tense of the principal clause. He came while I was writing, dum scribo (not scribebam, or scripsi) venit. The imperfect subjunctive is sometimes found in the poets as well as in Livy and later prose writers.

  • L. 4, 9 dum haec Romae geruntur, legati ab Ardea veniunt.
  • Hor. S. 1, 5, 13 dum aes exigitur, dum mula ligatur, tota abit hora (while the fare is being taken and the mule harnessed, a whole hour is gone).
  • L. 21, 7 dum ea parant, iam Saguntum oppugnabatur (while they were making these preparations, Saguntum was being already attacked).
  • Caes. 1, 46 dum haec geruntur, Caesari nuntiatum est (while this was taking place, it was announced to Caesar).
  • Fin. 5, 19 Archimedes, dum in pulvere quaedam describit attentius, ne patriam quidem captam esse sensit.
  • L. 23, 11 dum haec geruntur, nuntius venerat.
  • Verr. 5, 35 haec dum aguntur, interea Cleomenes iam ad Helori litus pervenerat.
  • Div. 2, 16, 37 dum haruspicinam veram esse vultis, physiologiam totam pervertitis.
  • N. Han. 2 quae divina res dum conficiebatur, quaesivit a me, vellemne secum proficisci (Latin syntax demands conficitur).
  • L. 1, 40 dum intentus in eum se rex totus averteret, alter elatam securim in caput deiecit.
  • L. 10, 18 dum ea in Samnio gererentur, Romanis in Etruria interim bellum ingens concitur.
  • L. 2, 47 dum praedae magis quam pugnae memores tererent tempus, triarii proelium renovant.

The imperfect subjunctive (not the present subjunctive) is the regular tense in oratio obliqua, but Livy and later writers, especially Tacitus, sometimes retain the present indicative, e.g., L. 24, 19 altero exercitu, dum Casilinum oppugnatur, opus esse; Tac. A. 2, 81 oravit ut maneret in castello, dum Caesar consulitur.

  1. Dum and quoad (seldom donec) in the sense of while, as longas = quamdiu, take the indicative in various tenses.

    • Quinct. 15 dum existimatio est integra, facile consolatur honestas egestatem.
    • Phil. 3, 13 hoc feci, dum licuit; intermisi, quoad non licuit (I did this as long as I was permitted, I discontinued it as long as I was not). Note the change to quoad; dum non is rare: see Livy, 37, 35.
    • Verg. E. 1, 31 dum me Galatea tenebat, nec spes libertatis erat nec cura peculi.
    • Par. 6, 1, 44 dum te inanem videbo, divitem non putabo.
    • Sall. I. 101, 5 dum eo modo equites proeliantur, Bocchus cum peditibus … postremam Romanorum aciem invadunt.
    • L. 37, 21, 3 quievit Diophanes, dum in conspectu erant.
    • N. Cat. 2 Cato, quoad vixit, virtutum laude crevit.
    • Off. 1, 1 disces, quam diu voles; tam diu autem velle debebis, quoad te, quantum proficias, non paenitebit.
    • Rosc. A. 32 dum civitas erit, iudicia fient.
    • Planc. ap. Fam. 10, 11 inmortalis ago tibi gratias agamque, dum vivam.
    • Att. 9, 10 ut aegroto, dum anima est, spes esse dicitur, sic ego, quoad Pompeius in Italia fuit, sperare non destiti.
    • Ov. Tr. 1, 9, 5 donec eris felix, multos numerabis amicos.
  2. Dum and quoad = until, take the indicative (pres., perf., and fut. perf.) when they are used merely as particles of time, and the subjunctive (pres. and imperf.) when they imply intention or expectation. Donec is scarcely classical in the latter sense. The perfect and pluperfect subjunctive are properly used only in oratio obliqua. The ambassadors were detained till the senate was consulted, legati retenti sunt, dum senatus consultus est (= till the time when the senate was consulted); dum (= ut interea) senatus consuleretur (not consultus esset) = with a view of allowing the senate to be consulted; they resolved to detain the ambassadors till the senate was consulted, legatos, dum senatus consultus esset, retinere placuit.

    • Mil. 10 Milo in senatu fuit eo die, quoad senatus est dimissus.
    • N. Ep. 9 Epaminondas ferrum usque eo retinuit, quoad renuntiatum est vicisse Boeotos (till it was (actually) announced that the Boeotians were victorious; “renuntiaretur” would imply that he purposely retained the spear till the news should be brought).
    • Verr. 5, 17 haec dum breviter expono (not exponam), diligenter adtendite.
    • L. 23, 31 de comitiis, donec rediit Marcellus, silentium fuit.
    • Verr. 1, 6 usque eo timui, ne quis de mea fide dubitaret, donec ad reiciundos iudices venimus.
    • Or. 1, 62 nunc Scaevola paulum requiescet, dum se calor frangat.
    • Att. 7, 1, 4 exspecta, amabo te, dum Atticum conveniam (do wait, pray, till I see Atticus).
    • Verr. 3, 53 num exspectatis, dum testimonium dicat? (are you waiting till he gives his evidence?).
    • Phil. 2, 34 num exspectas, dum te stimulis fodiamus?
    • Mil. 20 dum hic veniret (not venisset) locum relinquere noluit.
    • Caes. 4, 23 dum reliquae naves eo convenirent (not convenissent), in ancoris exspectavit.
    • Att. 8, 11d, 1 non exspectavi, dum mihi a te litterae redderentur.
    • N. Timol. 1, 4 dum res conficeretur, procul in praesidio fuit.
    • Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 42 exspectat dum defluat amnis.
    • L. 21, 28, 10 nihil sane trepidabant, donec continenti velut ponte agerentur.
    • L. 21, 28, 11 trepidationis aliquantum edebant, donec quietem ipse timor circumspectantibus aquam fecisset.
    • L. 8, 2, 4 ut tempus indutiis daret, quoad legati redissent.
    • L. 3, 13 reus, dum consulerentur patres, retentus est.
    • L. 24, 40 diem insequentem quievere, dum praefectus iuventutem Apolloniatium inspiceret.
    • Fam. 9, 2 latendum tantisper ibidem, dum (while) effervescit haec gratulatio, et simul dum (till) audiamus, quem ad modum negotium confectum sit.
    • Caes. 5, 24 Caesar, quoad munita hiberna cognovisset, in Gallia morari constituit (direct = morabor, quoad cognovero).

    After exspectare, manere and opperiri the causal or final relation occasionally gives place to the temporal, and the indicative is used instead of the subjunctive. I will wait till he comes, exspectabo, dum venit (= till when he comes).

    • Att. 10, 3 ego in Areano opperior, dum ista cognosco.
    • Verr. 6 mansit in condicione atque pacto usque ad eum finem, dum iudices reiecti sunt.
  3. Dum, if only, provided that = dummodo, or modo, is invariably joined with the subjunctive. If only not = dum ne (modo ne). They may hate, provided that they fear, oderint dum metuant.

    • Fin. 5, 29 dum res maneant, verba fingant arbitratu suo (provided that the facts remain, they may coin phrases as they please).
    • Att. 8, 11b dum ne tibi videar, non laboro (I care not, provided you do not think me so).
    • Brut. 82 dummodo sit polita, dum urbana, dum elegans (provided it is polished and refined and elegant; observe that in the anaphora dum alone follows dummodo).
    • N. D. 3, 3, 8 te quoque … animadverti, … saepe … argumentis onerare iudicem, si modo eam facultatem tibi daret causa.

    If only introducing a simple condition, not a wish or stipulation = if indeed (granting that) is expressed by si modo with the indicative. The people, granting that they desire to be safe, will choose the best men, populus deliget, si modo salvus esse vult, optimum quemque (R. P. 1, 34, 51).

    • Cael. 32 promitto hoc vobis et rei publicae spondeo, si modo nos ipsi rei publicae satis fecimus.
    • Div. 1, 1 divinatio magnifica res et salutaris, si modo est ulla (if indeed there is such a thing).
    • Or. 2, 43 quae facilius ornari possunt, si modo sunt, quam fingi, si nulla sunt.
    • Att. 12, 18a, 2 tute scis, si modo meministi, me tibi tum dixisse.
    • Brut. 73, 255 quisquis est ille, si modo est aliquis.

    Cf. Sen. 7 manent ingenia senibus, modo permaneat studium et industria (old men retain their faculties if only they retain their zeal and diligence).

  4. With a negative preceding, until is expressed by nisi, prius quam, or ante quam. He did not return till next year, non rediit nisi anno proximo.

    • Caes. 1, 53 neque prius fugere destiterunt, quam ad flumen Rhenum pervenerunt.
    • Leg. 1, 1 respondebo tibi equidem, sed non ante quam mihi tu ipse responderis.
    • Caes. 2, 32 sed deditionis nullam esse condicionem nisi armis traditis (until their arms had been given up).
    • Caes. 6, 18 suos liberos, nisi cum adoleverunt, palam ad se adire non patiuntur.
    • L. 6, 1, 4 neque eum abdicare se dictatura nisi anno circumacto passi sunt.
    • L. 39, 10 neque ante dimisit eum, quam fidem dedit adulescens ab his sacris se temperaturum.
    • L. 27, 14, 12 nec ante finis sequendi est factus, quam in castra paventes conpulsi sunt.
  5. “While,” used adversatively, without reference to time = whereas is expressed by cum (not dum), or autem, or is altogether omitted.

    • Brut. 17 cur igitur Lysias amatur, cum penitus ignoretur Cato?
    • Verr. 13 erit tum consul Hortensius, ego autem aedilis.
    • Am. 24 eam molestiam, quam debent capere, non capiunt, eam capiunt, qua debent vacare.
    • N. D. 2, 2, 5 opinionis enim commenta delet dies, naturae iudicia confirmat.
    • Caes. 4, 11, 1 Caesar cum ab hoste non amplius passuum XII milibus abesset, ut erat constitutum, ad eum legati revertuntur.
    • Caes. 5, 20, 1 (eius) pater in ea civitate regnum obtinuerat interfectusque erat a Cassivellauno, ipse fuga mortem vitaverat.


Parumper and paulisper correspond respectively to parum and paulum, from which they are derived (cf. nuper = novumper). Paulisper implies duration of time = a little while, in opp. to a long while, or for ever; parumper implies limitation of time = for not more than a short time, for only a little while.

  • Div. 1, 23 discedo parumper a somniis, ad quae mox revertar.
  • L. 10, 19 Samnites—parumper cunctati quia dux aberat—Appio occurrere.
  • L. 45, 12 parumper cum haesitasset, faciam, inquit, quod censet senatus.
  • Phil. 2, 40 remove gladios parumper illos, quos videmus; iam intelleges aliam causam esse hastae Caesaris, aliam temeritatis tuae.
  • L. 26, 44, 3 Romani duce ipso praecipiente parumper cessere, ut propiores subsidiis in certamine ipso summittendis essent.
  • Q. F. 2, 4, 3 (6, 3) si te haberem, paulisper fabris locum darem (if I had you here, I would set the carpenters to work for a while).
  • L. 34, 46 consul armatos paulisper continuit, ut stolidam fiduciam hosti augeret.
  • Cat. 1, 12 intellego hanc rei publicae pestem paulisper reprimi, non in perpetuum comprimi posse.
  • L. 10, 43 paulisper inde temptaverunt extremam pugnae fortunam, deinde abiectis armis in fidem consulis venerunt.
  • L. 27, 42 Numidae ex composito paulisper in portis se valloque ostentavere.


Albus, white in contradistinction to other colours, dead white, opposed to ater; candidus, glancing or shining white, opposed to niger, jet or glossy black.

  • Tus. 5, 39 Democritus, luminibus amissis, alba discernere et atra non poterat.
  • Phil. 2, 16 is, qui albus aterne fuerit ignoras.
  • Catull. 93 nec scire utrum sis albus an ater homo.
  • Pl. Men. 5, 5, 17 album an atrum vinum potas? (do you drink white or red wine?)
  • Verg. E. 2, 16 quamvis ille niger, quamvis tu candidus esses (swarthy as he was, fair though you are).


Quisquis and quicumque, whoever, are regularly used with the indicative, the idea of indefiniteness being sufficiently expressed by the pronoun. Whoever he may be, quisquis est (not sit).

Quisquis is usual only in the forms quisquis, quicquid, and quoquo. Cuicuimodi, of whatever kind, for cuiuscuiusmodi, occurs rarely, and only in the forms cuicuimodi es, est, sunt; e.g., Att. 3, 22 tu ad me velim omnia, cuicuimodi sunt, scribas (mind you tell me everything, be it what it may).

  • Asin. Pollio ap. Fam. 10, 31, 3 quicumque is est, ei me profiteor inimicum (be that man who he may, I profess myself his enemy).
  • Fam. 6, 1 quocumque in loco quisque est, idem est ei sensus (one’s feelings are the same, no matter where each may be).
  • Verg. A. 2, 49 quidquid id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentis (be it what it may, I fear the Greeks even when they bring gifts).
  • Att. 9, 14, 2 quicquid est, biduo sciemus.
  • Tus. 5, 41, 121 ubi melius uti possumus hoc, cuicuimodi est, otio?
  • Tus. 3, 34, 83 superest enim nobis hoc, cuicuimodi est, otium.
  • Att. 12, 18, 1 refugio ad te admonendum, quod velim mihi ignoscas, cuicuimodi est.
  1. Quisquis and quicumque are sometimes used absolutely = any whatever, every or any possible, especially in Livy and later writers; rarely and mostly in the ablative in Cicero, Caesar, and Sallust; e.g., quacumque ratione (condicione, de causa, de re, ex arte, in ora), quocumque (quoquo) modo (loco, tempore).

    So qualiscumque, quantusquantus, quantuscumque, ubicumque, etc.

    • Att. 12, 12, 1 quoquo modo confice.
    • Fam. 4, 14, 4 si enim status erit aliquis civitatis, quicumque erit.
    • L. 9, 37, 5 praecipit, ut in armis sint, quacumque diei noctisve hora signum dederit.
    • L. 25, 8, 11 ut, quocumque noctis tempore sibilo dedisset signum, porta aperiretur.
    • Cat. 2, 5 quae sanari poterunt, quacumque ratione sanabo (what can be remedied, I will remedy in the best way I can).
    • L. 36, 7 Macedonas in societatem belli quacumque ratione censeo deducendos esse.
    • Att. 3, 21 te oro, ut, si quid erit, quod perspicias quamcumque in partem (whether for or against me), quam planissime ad me scribas.
    • L. 22, 58 laeti quamcumque (= quamvis) condicionem paciscendi acceperunt.
    • L. 35, 13 satius esse quamcumque fortunam subire.
    • Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 65-6 rem facias, rem, si possis, recte, si non, quocumque modo rem (make money, money, sir, honestly if you can, but if not, by all means make money).
    • L. 1, 3 is Ascanius, ubicumque et quacumque matre genitus, urbem matri reliquit.
    • Att. 12, 23, 3 quantiquanti, bene emitur, quod necesse est (what is necessary is a good bargain at any price).
  2. Quicumque is oftenest used, like the ordinary relative, in the sense of every one who, all who, all that. Though containing in itself the notion of universality, it is sometimes attached to omnes, which stands as antecedent in the main clause. So quicquid, all that, all which, is occasionally followed by id omne, hoc omne (not omnia).

    All that we hear of him leads us to beware of him, quaecumque de eo audimus, nos adducunt, ut eum caveamus. All that we hear of him is that he is very poor, hoc unum (not quaecumque) de eo audimus, eum esse pauperrimum.

    • Q. F. 1, 2, 2, 4 quoscumque de te queri audivi, quacumque potui ratione, placavi (I appeased in the best way I could all whom I heard complaining of you).
    • Ter. Phor. 2, 1, 21 (251) quidquid praeter spem eveniet, omne id deputabo esse in lucro.
    • Caes. ap. Att. 14, 1, 2 quidquid vult, valde vult.
    • L. 1, 38, 1 Collatia et quidquid citra Collatiam agri erat Sabinis ademptum.
    • Phil. 12, 12 omnia ad senatum reiciam, quaecumque postulabit Antonius.
    • Fin. 1, 19 quicquid animo cernimus, id omne oritur a sensibus.
    • Pomp. 24 quicquid auctoritate possum, id omne tibi polliceor.
    • L. 5, 3 quidquid patres faciunt displicet, sive illud pro plebe sive contra plebem est.
    • Pl. Men. 1153 vendam quicquid est (I will sell all I have).
  3. In sentences expressing repeated action in past time quicumque = as often as any one, follows the construction; of cum and ubi iterative, i.e., it takes the indicative in Cicero, and Sallust, and the subjunctive in preference to the indicative in Livy and later writers.

    • Verr. 5, 56 quaecumque navis ex Asia, quae ex Syria, quae Tyro, quae Alexandria venerat, statim tenebatur (observe that quae takes the place of quaecumque in the second and succeeding clauses).
    • L. 3, 11 quemcumque lictor prendisset (= prenderat), tribunus mitti iubebat (whenever the lictor arrested any one, the tribune ordered him to be released).


Cur non asks a question and expects an answer; quin (= qui-ne) is an interrogative of reproach or remonstrance, and takes the indicative; quidni is tantamount to a confident affirmative = of course, and is always joined with the subjunctive.

  • Rosc. A. 27 qui sunt hi? cur nominantur?
  • Div. 1, 54 quibus quaerentibus cur non eadem via pergeret, deterreri se a deo dixit.
  • L. 1, 57 quin conscendimus equos? (why don’t we mount our horses? = come, to horse).
  • Sall. C. 20 quin igitur expergiscimini? (why don’t you wake up? = come, bestir yourselves).
  • Pl. Mil. 4, 9, 10 (1387) quid stas? quin intro is?
  • Ter. Haut. 4, 7, 4 (832) quid stas, lapis? quin accipis?
  • Pl. Mil. 4, 3, 27 (1120) PY. Itan tu censes? PA. Quid ego ni ita censeam?
  • Verr. 2, 33 quidni iste neget? (why should he not deny it? = he is pretty sure to deny it).
  • Tus. 5, 5 quidni possim? (why could I not? = of course I could).


Sapientia (σοφία), the wisdom of the philosopher, the wisdom which is based on right reason and the moral fitness of things; prudentia (φρόνησις), practical wisdom, the wisdom which is based on experience or insight. So sapiens and prudens.

  • Fin. 1, 13 sapientia ars vivendi putanda est (wisdom is held to be the art of living).
  • Leg. 1, 23, 60 … ingeni aciem ad bona seligenda et reicienda contraria, quae virtus ex providendo est appellata prudentia.
  • Sen. 9 quorum usque ad extremum spiritum est provecta prudentia (legal skill).
  • N. Cim. 2 habebat magnam prudentiam cum iuris civilis tum rei militaris.
  • Or. 3, 34, 137 septem fuisse dicuntur uno tempore, qui sapientes et haberentur et vocarentur.
  • Tus. 4, 17 is est sapiens, quem quaerimus (he is the philosopher we are in quest of).
  • Cat. 4, 2 neque turpis mors forti viro potest accidere nec misera sapienti.
  • Balb. 19 prudentissumi interpretes foederum (the most skilled interpreters of treaties).
  • Am. 2 Acilius prudens esse in iure civili putabatur (prudens in iure (not iuris = iuris or iure consultus)).


An armed force, viewed as a warlike instrument in the hands of the general, is sometimes used in the ablative without a preposition, especially with general expressions, e.g., omnibus copiis, ingenti manu. But the preposition is attached, if there is no attribute, or if the attribute is a specified number, e.g., cum exercitu, cum legione, cum sex cohortibus. Cum is always used with mittere and its compounds.

  • Caes. 3, 11 ipse eo pedestribus copiis contendit.
  • Caes. C. 1, 41 omnibus copiis ad Ilerdam proficiscitur.
  • Caes. C. 2, 21, 4 ipse iis navibus, quas …, Tarraconem paucis diebus pervenit.
  • L. 33, 44, 7 ingenti classe, egregio terrestri exercitu in Europam Antiochus traiecit (Antiochus crossed into Europe with a large fleet and a splendid infantry force).
  • L. 40, 1 eodem decem navibus C. Furius duumvir navalis venit.
  • Caes. 1, 26 ipse cum omnibus copiis eos sequi coepit.
  • Caes. 6, 3 eodem die cum legionibus in Senones proficiscitur.
  • Caes. 1, 8 interea ea legione, quam secum habebat, murum fossamque perducit.
  • L. 30, 9 Scipio Laelium cum omni equitatu ad persequendum Syphacem mittit.


Apud aliquem = at the house of; cum aliquo = in the company of. Cenavit apud meum fratrem, he dined at my brother’s house (Fr. chez mon frère;, Ger. bei meinem Bruder; It. dal meo fratello); cenavit cum meo fratre, he dined in my brother’s company (Fr. avec mon frere; Ger. mit meinem Bruder; It. col meo fratello).

  • Att. 5, 6 Pompeius petiit, ut secum et apud se essem cotidie.
  • Att. 5, 7 ego triduum cum Pompeio et apud Pompeium fui.
  • Q. F. 2, 5 eo die cenavi apud Crassipedem.
  • Clu. 60 apud hunc ille Romae habitavit, apud hunc aegrotavit, huius domi est mortuus.
  • Fam. 13, 69, 1 apud eum sic Ephesi fui, quotienscumque fui, tamquam domi meae.
  1. Apud exercitum, with the army, of one unattached; in exercitu, with the army, of a member of the service.

    • Verr. 4, 22 qui nunc apud exercitum cum L. Lucullo est (see Halm’s note).
    • Arch. 5 est enim obscurum hunc cum Lucullo apud exercitum fuisse.
    • ap. Mur. 9, 21 “apud exercitum mihi fueris tot annos, forum non attigeris.”
  2. Ab aliquo sometimes = from one’s house.

    • Rosc. C. 10 quia veniebat a Roscio, plus etiam scire, quam sciebat, videbatur.
    • Ac. 1, 1, 1 nuntiatum est nobis a M. Varrone venisse eum Roma pridie vesperi.
    • Sen. 16 (eius villa) abest non longe a me (from my house).
  3. Vivere cum aliquo = to be on intimate terms with one, not necessarily to live at one’s house. “It is occasionally used merely of staying a day or two at a man’s house” (Reid).

    • Quinct. 4 ibi cum isto familiariter vivit.
    • Ac. 2, 36 qui mecum vivit tot annos, qui habitat apud me.
    • Att. 4, 15, 5 vixi cum Axio (I stayed with Axius).


Intra, within, as a preposition, intus and intro as adverbs. Intra is used of being and (sometimes) of moving within. The enemy kept within the rampart, hostes intra vallum sese continebant; the enemy were driven within the rampart, hostes intra vallum compulsi sunt. Intus is used of being within, and intro of moving within. He is within, est intus; let us go within, eamus intro.

  • L. 44, 10 trepidos intra moenia compulit.
  • L. 6, 36, 4 intra suamet ipsum moenia conpulere.
  • Cat. 2, 5 intus insidiae sunt, intus inclusum periculum est, intus est hostis.
  • ap. Verr. 1, 26 cur filiam tuam non intro vocari iubes?
  • Ter. Haut. 2, 4, 29 (409), Hec. 3, 4, 15 (429) ite intro.
  1. Extra, without, is used both as a preposition and an adverb, and in the one relation is opposed to “intra,” and in the other to “intus” and “intro”. He was buried without the city, sepultus est extra urbem; he walks without, ambulat extra; he ran without, cucurrit extra.

    • N. Han. 5 egredi extra vallum nemo est ausus.
    • Caes. C. 3, 69 cum extra et intus hostem haberent.
  2. Within a period of time is made by the ablative, or by “intra” (not in Cicero and Caesar) with the accusative.

    • Mil. 9 Clodius respondit triduo Milonem aut summum quadriduo periturum.
    • L. 9, 29 omnes intra annum cum stirpe extincti.

Intra centum annos, within a hundred years = in less than a hundred years; inter centum annos, in the course of a hundred years; per centum annos, during a period of a hundred years.


“Without” before the English gerund or participle is variously translated.

  1. By sine with a substantive (never with gerund). I let him go without praising him, dimisi eum sine laudatione (not sine laudando).

    • Phil. 14, 4 quis liberos, quis coniugem aspicere poterat sine fletu? (without weeping).
  2. By a negatived participle, which stands either in apposition or in the ablative absolute. He enriches others without robbing himself, alios locupletat, se ipsum non spolians; he returned home without waiting for his friends, amicis non exspectatis, domum rediit.

    • L. 1, 15 non castris positis, non exspectato hostium exercitu, Veios rediere.
    • Hor. C. 2, 18, 40 non vocatus audit (he hears without being prayed to).
    • N. D. 3, 6, 14 miserum est nihil proficientem angi.
    • Fam. 6, 6, 6 in bello nihil adversi accidit non praedicente me.
  3. By neque or et—non. He reads without understanding, legit neque intellegit.

    • Caecil. 16 suadebit tibi ut hinc discedas neque mihi verbum ullum respondeas.
    • Tus. 1, 3 fieri potest, ut recte quis sentiat, et id, quod sentit, polite eloqui non possit.
    • Att. 1, 13, 2 id admurmurante senatu neque me invito esse factum.
    • N. D. 3, 13, 32 nec potest ullo sensu iucunda accipere, non accipere contraria.
    • N. D. 3, 8, 19 ut … repente avertas orationem nec des respondendi locum.
    • Off. 3, 2, 9 negant eum locum a Panaetio praetermissum, sed consulto relictum, nec omnino scribendum fuisse, quia …
  4. By negative adjectives, as ignarus, inscius, imprudens. He told me this without knowing who I was, hoc mihi dixit, ignarus quis essem.

    • Rosc. A. 8 haec omnia imprudente Sulla facta esse certo scio (that all this was done without the knowledge of Sulla I know for certain).
    • Verr. 1, 9 incognita causa condemnari nemo potest (no one can be condemned without his cause being heard).
    • Att. 1, 19, 10 apud me si quid erit eius modi, me imprudente erit et invito.
    • Top. 20, 75 et parvi saepe indicaverunt aliquid, quo id pertineret ignari.
    • Tus. 3, 34, 84 quid autem praeclarum non idem arduum?
    • Ter. Eun. 4, 2, 5 (633) praeterii imprudens villam.
  5. When a negative precedes, nisi is used of a necessary preliminary, and ut non, quin, or qui non of an invariable result. You cannot be happy without living a wise life, beatus esse non potes, nisi sapienter vivas; you cannot live a wise life without being happy, sapienter vivere non potes, quin beatus sis; you cannot ruin Carthage without ruining yourself, pessum dare Carthaginem non potes, ut non te ipsum pessum des. Ut non or qui non (not quin) should be used when the negative qualifies a special word or special part of the clause.

    • Fin. 1, 18 clamat Epicurus non posse iucunde vivi nisi sapienter, nec sapienter nisi iucunde.
    • Caes. C. 3, 47 neque ullus flare ventus poterat, quin aliqua ex parte secundum cursum haberent.
    • Pomp. 7 non possunt multi rem amittere, ut non plures secum in eandem calamitatem trahant (it is impossible for a number of people to lose their property without dragging a still larger number into the same calamity).
    • Pomp. 7 ruere illa non possunt, ut haec non eodem labefactata motu concidant.
    • Fin. 4, 12 sed id ne cogitari quidem potest quale sit, ut non repugnet ipsum sibi (but the nature of any such creature cannot even be conceived without involving consistency).
    • Sall. I. 40, 2 aperte resistere non poterant, quin illa et alia talia placere sibi faterentur.
  6. Ut non (not quin) may be used when no negative precedes. He always praised without introducing anything which might detract from the reputation of others, semper ita laudavit, ut non adiceret quod alienam minueret laudem.

    • Caes. C. 1, 26 haec Caesar ita administrabat, ut condiciones pacis dimittendas non existimaret (without thinking that he need give up hopes of negotiating peace).
    • Fin. 2, 22 malet existimari bonus vir ut non sit quam esse ut non putetur (he will choose to be thought a good man without really being so, rather than to be good without being considered good).
    • L. 24, 8, 10 flamen …, quem neque mittere a sacris neque retinere possumus, ut non deum aut belli deseramus curam.
    • L. 4, 58, 10 nullum annum esse, quo non acie dimicetur.
  7. To be without = carere, egere, vacare, expertem esse. A man cannot be said to be without a thing which he does not want, non caret is, qui non desiderat (Sen. 14). Brutes are without reason and speech, ferae sunt rationis et orationis expertes (Off. 1, 16).

  8. Without being on oath, iniuratus; without orders, non iussus (not iniussus); without my orders, iniussu meo; without the orders of the Roman people, iniussu populi Romani. Vetat Pythagoras iniussu imperatoris, id est dei, de statione vitae decedere (Sen. 20).

    • Caecin. 1, 3 id iurati dicunt quod ego iniuratus insimulo.
    • L. 30, 22, 2 eum iniussu senatus … Alpes … transgressum (esse).
    • R. P. 2, 21, 38 cum … regnare coepisset non iussu, sed voluntate atque concessu civium.
  9. Without, outside of = extra. Without the province, extra provinciam; without a province, sine provincia; without joking, extra iocum. Proximis diebus habetur extra urbem senatus (Caes. C. 1, 6).

    • L. 4, 45, 8 filius meus extra sortem urbi praeerit [citra sortem is found in the same sense].


Arbiter, an eye- or an ear-witness, a party present; testis, one who bears evidence, not necessarily a bystander or onlooker. Falsus testis (not arbiter), a false witness.

  • L. 3, 36 cotidie coibant remotis arbitris.
  • Sall. C. 20 omnibus arbitris procul amotis.
  • Or. 1, 24, 112 quem quidem nunc mearum ineptiarum testem et spectatorem fortuna constituit.
  • L. 21, 43, 17 ego virtutis spectator ac testis.
  • L. 26, 44, 8 testis spectatorque virtutis atque ignaviae cuiusque adest.
  • Quinct. 23 parantur testes qui hoc dicant.
  • Verr. 4, 45 ficti testes in servum dantur.
  • Verr. 1, 59 quis umquam templum illud aspexit, quin avaritiae tuae testis esset?


Vocabulum, a word, as a part of language; verbum, a word, as a part of speech; vocabula, individual or disconnected words, the words of a dictionary (Wörter); verba, coherent words, the words of a sentence (Worte). Hence verba (not vocabula) facere, to speak, or to make a speech.

  • Sall. C. 52 iam pridem equidem nos vera vocabula rerum amisimus (we have in fact long since ceased to call things by their right names).
  • Leg. 1, 13 rebus non immutatis immutaverunt vocabula.
  • Or. 44 collocabuntur igitur verba, ut inter se quam aptissime cohaereant extrema cum primis.
  • Fin. 4, 19, 52 vitam nostram, consilia, voluntates, non verba corrigi.
  • Verba facere, to speak; verbum facere, to speak at all, to utter a word.
  • Verr. 4, 65 antequam verbum facerem, de sella surrexit atque abiit … ait indignum facinus esse, quod ego in senatu Graeco verba fecissem.
  • Brut. 78 qui verbum numquam in publico fecerunt.
  • Verr. 3, 60, 138 negat sese apud Artemidorum recuperatorem verbum esse facturum.


Laborare, to work at, usually unsuccessfully, to struggle; elaborare, to work at successfully, to work out. (Cf. under Entreat).

  • Caes. 4, 26 quos laborantes conspexerat, his subsidia submittebat.
  • Fam. 3, 12, 3 vides sudare me iam dudum laborantem, quo modo ea tuear, quae mihi tuenda sunt.
  • L. 22, 39, 19 veritatem laborare nimis saepe aiunt, extingui numquam.
  • Pomp. 1 statui nihil huc nisi perfectum ingenio, elaboratum industria adferri oportere.
  • Off. 1, 1 id quidem nemini video Graecorum adhuc contigisse, ut idem utroque in genere elaboraret.

Laborare, to trouble one’s self about, is followed by the infinitive or a dependent clause, but in Cicero only with a negative.

  • Verr. 3, 55 si sociis fidelissimis prospicere non laboratis.
  • Tus. 5, 9 quam sibi constanter dicat, non laborat (how far he talks consistently, he heeds not).


Opifex, of manual labour, the artes sordidæ = the artisan, handicraftsman; artifex, of the liberal arts = the artist.

  • Off. 1, 42 opifices omnes in sordida arte versantur.
  • Tus. 5, 12 ignobilis verborum opifex.
  • L. 1, 59, 9 opifices ac lapicidas pro bellatoribus factos.

Cf. Brut. 73, 257 praesertim cum pauci pingere egregie possint aut fingere, operarii autem aut baiuli deesse non possint.

  • Fam. 1, 7, 7 egregium artificem praeclaris operibus laetari.
  • Or. 51 politus scriptor atque artifex.

Opifices, working men; operae, men who are working, labourers, in a bad sense hired aiders, abettors, tools.

  • Sall. C. 50 opifices atque servitia (artisans and slaves).
  • Verr. 5, 19 publice coactis fabris operisque imperatis.
  • Sest. 17 erat mihi contentio cum operis conductis et ad diripiendam urbem concitatis.
  • Q. F. 2, 3, 4 operas suas Clodius confirmat; manus ad Quirinalia paratur.
  • L. 1, 56, 1 ad id … est usus … operis ex plebe.


Orbis terrae or terrarum, the earth, this globe [literally, the “circle of lands” round the Mediterranean Sea]; mundus, the visible universe, of which the earth forms a part. Num casu factus est mundus? was the world (sun, moon, stars and earth) made by chance? Orbis terrae properly refers to the Roman world, and the more usual orbis terrarum to the whole world so far as known to the Romans, but the distinction is so little observed that the expressions may be said to be identical in meaning.

  • N. D. 1, 10 terra enim mundi pars est.
  • Tus. 5, 36 in hoc ipso mundo caelum, terras, maria cognoscimus.
  • Rosc. A. 36 Africanus suo cognomine declarat tertiam partem orbis terrarum se subegisse (the third part of the known world).
  • Sall. I. 17 in divisione orbis terrae plerique in parte tertia Africam posuere (most writers reckon Africa as a third part).
  • L. 30, 32 neque enim Africam aut Italiam sed orbem terrarum victoriae praemium fore.
  • Phil. 8, 3 nos nostris militibus imperium orbis terrae pollicemur (we promise our soldiers the empire of the world).
  • Cat. 1, 4 in hoc orbis terrae sanctissimo gravissimoque consilio (in this most sacred and dignified assembly of the world).
  • L. 38, 8 Antiocho prope extra orbem terrae (Roman world) ultra iuga Tauri exacto, quam spem esse sustinendi belli?
  1. Terra = the earth as a planet, opposed to sun, moon and stars; and earth as an element, opposed to fire, air and water.

    • N. D. 2, 40 luna autem est maior quam dimidia pars terrae.
    • N. D. 2, 19 ipsa umbra terrae soli officiens noctem efficit.
    • Ac. 1, 7 itaque aer et ignis et aqua et terra prima sunt.
    • Ac. 2, 39 terra circum axem se convertit (the earth turns round its axis).
    • Caes. 5, 23 prima luce terram attigit.
    • L. 24, 40, 17 terra Macedoniam petiit (he took the overland route to Macedonia).
  2. Terra in sing. = a particular country; in pl. = particular countries [or rather, usually, the sum total of countries, hence, the world]. The country of Italy, terra Italia; where in the world are we? ubi terrarum (not terrae) sumus?

    • L. 39, 17 si quis eorum, qui tum extra terram Italiam essent, nominaretur, ei se laxiorem diem daturos.
    • L. 1, 16 nec deinde in terris Romulus fuit.
    • Tus. 1, 27 animorum nulla in terris origo inveniri potest.
    • Cael. 5 neque ego umquam fuisse tale monstrum in terris ullum puto.
    • Tus. 1, 31 hoc, dum erimus in terris, erit illi caelesti vitae simile.
    • L. 32, 21, 32 mare in potestate habent; terras, quascumque adeunt, extemplo dicionis suae faciunt.

The world of letters, homines litterati; such is the world, sic vivitur, or sic vita hominum est; all the world knows that, omnes hoc sciunt; no such thing has happened since the world began, nihil tale post hominum memoriam factum est; the Christian world, Christendom, universi Christiani; from the foundation of the world, a mundo condito, a primo mundi ortu.


Deterior (χείρων) = that which is good in itself, but which has degenerated; peior (κακίων) = that which is bad in itself, and which has gone from bad to worse.

  • Att. 14, 11 ruina rem non fecit deteriorem, haud scio an etiam fructuosiorem.
  • Fin. 1, 8 si qua in iis corrigere voluit, deteriora fecit.
  • Brut. 74 hanc certe rem deteriorem vetustas fecit.
  • Caes. 1, 36 magnam Caesarem iniuriam facere, qui suo adventu vectigalia sibi deteriora faceret.
  • Or. 3, 8 istum audiens iudicare soleo, quicquid mutaveris, deterius futurum.
  • Cic. Phil. 13, 19, 40 deteriores enim iugulari cupio, meliores vincere.
  • Ov. met. 7, 21 video meliora proboque, deteriora sequor.
  • L. 34, 2, 4 ego vix statuere apud animum meum possum, utrum peior ipsa res an peiore exemplo agatur.
  • Att. 8, 3 malae condiciones erant, fateor, sed num quid hoc peius?
  • Phil. 8, 10 turpis autem fuga mortis omni est morte peior.


Such English locutions as it would be tedious, it would be endless, are expressed absolutely in Latin by means of the indicative = longum est, infinitum est. It would be difficult to find such a book as yours, difficile est talem librum invenire qualis tuus est. Similarly, it would have been better = satius or melius fuit. Cf. Reid on Ac. 2, 36, 117.

  • Sest. 5 longum est ea dicere, sed hoc breve dicam.
  • Fam. 9, 2, 3 mihi quidem iam pridem venit in mentem bellum esse aliquo exire (that it would be well to go somewhere else).
  • L. 3, 41, 3 non erit melius, nisi de quo consulimus, vocem misisse.
  • N. Praef. 6 quem enim Romanorum pudet uxorem ducere in convivium?
  • Ac. 2, 36 omnia physicorum licet explicare; sed longum est (but it would be a tedious task).
  • Fin. 3, 20 non facile est invenire, qui quod sciat ipse non tradat alteri.
  • Phil. 3, 9 nonne satius est mutum esse quam, quod nemo intellegat, dicere?
  • Att. 14, 10 melius fuit perisse illo interfecto quam haec videre. Lig. 9 erat amentis, cum aciem videres, pacem cogitare.
  • Rosc. A. 21 operae pretium erat neglegentiam eius in accusando considerare.
  • Off. 3, 25 quanto melius fuerat in hoc promissum patris non esse servatum! (how much better it would have been for the father’s promise not to have been kept in this matter!).
  • Caes. 1, 14 non fuisse difficile cavere (direct = non erat difficile cavere).

But the subjunctive is generally used if there is a dependent hypothetical subjunctive clause. I should feel ashamed to go away, pudet me abire; I should feel ashamed to go away if you remained, puderet me abire, si tu permaneres.

  • Div. 2, 14 nonne pudet physicos haec dicere?
  • N. D. 1, 39 puderet me dicere non intellegere, si vos ipsi intellegeretis.
  • Planc. ap. Fam. 10, 21 puderet me inconstantiae mearum litterarum, si non haec ex aliena levitate penderent.
  • Caecil. 12 si litteras Latinas Romae, non in Sicilia didicisses, tamen esset magnum tantam causam et memoria complecti et oratione expromere.
  1. The indicative is similarly used with verbs and expressions denoting possibility or duty, where, with implied non-occurrence of an act, the possibility or duty of doing such act is asserted. Possum hoc facere, I could do this (but I have no intention of doing it); poteram (potui) hoc facere, I could have done this; ire debuisti, or tibi eundum fuit, you ought to have gone (but you did not go).

    • Sen. 16 possum persequi multa oblectamenta rerum rusticarum (I might detail the many attractions of country life).
    • Fin. 3, 10 perturbationes animorum poteram morbos appellare (I might have called disturbances of mind diseases).
    • Verg. E. 1, 80 hic tamen hanc mecum poteras requiescere noctem (this night, at all events, you might have stayed here with me).
    • Cat. 1, 1 ad mortem te, Catilina, duci iussu consulis iam pridem oportebat.
    • L. 5, 4 aut non suscipi bellum oportuit, aut geri pro dignitate populi Romani oportet.
    • Mur. 25 (Catilina) erupit e senatu triumphans gaudio, quem omnino vivum illinc exire non oportuerat (who certainly never ought to have gone thence alive).
    • Phil. 2, 38 eum contumeliis onerasti, quem colere debebas (you have loaded with insults one whom you ought to have revered).
    • Am. 16 illud potius praecipiendum fuit, ut diligentiam adhiberemus in amicitiis comparandis.
  2. So also, the indicative is used in connexion with indefinite pronouns and adverbs (quisquis, quicquid, quotquot, utcumque, quicumque, qualiscumque, quantuscumque, ubicumque). Whoever he may be, quisquis est; however it may be, utcumque (quocumque or quoquo modo) res se habet.

    • Verg. A. 2, 49 quidquid id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentis (be it what it may, I fear the Greeks even when they bring gifts in their hands).
    • Fam. 1, 5a quoquo modo se res habet.
    • L. 37, 54 utcumque res sese habet.
    • Or. 2, 28 quantusquomque sum ad iudicandum.
    • L. 9, 37 sed ubicumque pugnatum est, res Romana superior fuit.
    • Verr. 3, 93 ubicumque hoc factum est, improbe factum est; quicumque fecit, supplicio dignus est.
    • Brut. 77, 268 Publius ille nostrarum iniuriarum ultor, auctor salutis, quicquid habuit, quantumcumque fuit, illud totum habuit e disciplina.


Volnerare, to wound (generally); sauciare, to wound severely, to incapacitate for fighting. Volnerare, not sauciare, is used if the sense is metaphorical, e.g., verbis, voce.

  • Verr. 1, 26 Cornelius occiditur, servi nonnulli volnerantur; ipse Rubrius in turba sauciatur.
  • Att. 14, 22 Caesarem Brutus noster sauciavit.
  • Cat. 1, 4 quos ferro trucidari oportebat, eos nondum voce volnero.


Miser, with reference to untoward circumstances; perditus, with reference to depraved morals.

  • Or. 3, 56 quo me miser conferam?
  • Tus. 5, 6 quis potest, mortem metuens, esse non miser?
  • Planc. 32, 78 quo quidem etiam magis sum non dicam miser (nam hoc quidem abhorret a virtute verbum), sed certe exercitus (tried).
  • Fin. 2, 28, 93 nec tamen miser esse, quia summum id malum non erat, tantum modo laboriosus ([full of troubles]); at miser, si in flagitiosa atque vitiosa vita afflueret voluptatibus.
  • L. 23, 2 improbus homo, sed non ad extremum perditus (a bad man, but not utterly depraved).
  • Cat. 4, 10 mihi cum perditis civibus aeternum bellum susceptum esse video.


Anno post = later by a year, anno being the ablative of excess or limit. Anno, (in) the year after. He died a year after, anno post (not postea) mortuus est; he died in the year after, postero anno mortuus est. So anno ante (not antea), a year before; anno superiore or priore, in the year before.

  • Att. 13, 4, 1 anno post quaestor fuit, quam consul Mummius.
  • Verr. 1, 14 idem fecisses quod anno post M. Piso.
  • Caes. 6, 22 anno post alio transire cogunt (a year later they compel them to move elsewhere).
  • Verr. 2, 56 postero anno L. Metellus mentionem tui census fieri vetat.
  • Caes. C. 3, 102 Lentulus superiore anno consul fuerat.
  • L. 5, 14, 3 priore anno intolerandam hiemem …
  • L. 22, 53 cuius pater priore anno dictator fuerat.
  • Caes. 5, 35 qui superiore anno primum pilum duxerat (the year before he had been a centurion of the first rank).
  • Am. 3 anno antequam est mortuus (a year before he died).
  • Sen. 6 anno ante me censorem mortuus est, novem annis post meum consulatum (nine (full) years after my consulship).

Three years after (before) = tertio anno post (ante), tribus annis post, post tertium annum, or post tres annos; soon after, paulo post; sometime after, aliquanto post; not very long after, non ita multo post; a few days after, paucis post diebus (e.g., Att. 5, 20, 3); in the previous year, priore anno (e.g., L. 5, 14, 3); [proximo anno (e.g., Plin. Ep. ad Trai. 5 (4), 1)]; in the following year, proximo anno (e.g., L. 5, 14, 3; 4, 43, 1) or insequenti anno.

YES and NO.

Affirmative and negative answers are variously expressed in Latin.

  1. By repeating, mutatis mutandis, an important word of the question. Did you see him? yes, vidistine eum? vidi; did you come alone? no, solusne venisti? non solus.
  2. By affirmative and negative particles, with or without the important word (or its equivalent), such as ita, etiam, vero, sane, sane quidem; non, non ita, minime vero, nihil minus. Quidem, with, and (sometimes) without et, is used in replies, where an assent is accompanied by a qualification which destroys its value.
  3. By inference from the preceding by means of at, enim, and other adversative or explanatory particles. Your wife said you called me; yes, I did order you to be called, te uxor aiebat me vocare; ego enim te vocari iussi.
  • Verr. 3, 36 ex horum severitate te ulla vis eripiet? non eripiet.
  • Verr. 4, 12, 27 rogavi pervenissentne Agrigentum; dixit pervenisse.
  • L. 1, 38, 2 “estne populus Conlatinus in sua potestate?” “est”.
  • Tus. 3, 4 haecine igitur cadere in sapientem putas? prorsus existimo (for puto).
  • Tus. 4, 4 non igitur existimas cadere in sapientem aegritudinem? prorsus non arbitror (no, certainly not).
  • Leg. 1, 7 dasne hoc? do sane (do you grant this? I do).
  • Tus. 1, 11 dasne aut manere animos post mortem aut morte ipsa interire? do vero (I do).
  • Brut. 87 sed tu orationes nobis veteres explicabis? vero (yes, certainly).
  • Div. 1, 46 vero, mea puella, tibi concedo meas sedes (yes, my clear, I resign my seat to you).
  • Sull. 1 “ita,” inquit; “tu enim investigasti, tu patefecisti coniurationem” (yes, quoth he).
  • Tus. 1, 5 est miserum igitur quoniam malum? certe (of course).
  • Att. 8, 9 num igitur peccamus? minime vos quidem (God forbid).
  • Ac. 2, 32 aut “etiam” aut “non” respondere possit (can answer “yes” or “no”).
  • Hor. S. 2, 3, 97 sapiensne? etiam, et rex, et quidquid volet (wise? you will say. Yes, and a King too, and everything he chooses to be).
  • Tus. 1, 5 nemo ergo non miser. Prorsus nemo (absolutely none).
  • Or. 2, 10 quidnam? an laudationes? “ita,” inquit Antonius (what do you mean? Is it panegyrics? Yes, replied Antonius).
  • Att. 7, 3 quid superest? etiam (is there anything else to write about? Yes, there is).
  • Att. 1, 13 novi tibi quidnam scribam? quid? etiam (shall I write you any more news? Is there any? Yes, there is).
  • Att. 2, 6, 2 aliud quid? etiam (anything else to say? Yes, there is, by the way).
  • Leg. 2, 10 an censes non necesse esse optimae rei publicae leges dare consentaneas? immo prorsus ita censeo.
  • Tus. 1, 6 an tu haec non credis? minime vero (do you then not believe this? No, certainly not).
  • Off. 3, 20 cadit ergo in virum bonum mentiri emolumenti sui causa? nihil profecto minus (does it square then with the character of a good man to lie for the sake of personal advantage? No, far from it).
  • Fin. 1, 10, 35 torquem detraxit hosti.—Et quidem se texit, ne interiret. —At magnum periculum adiit.—In oculis quidem exercitus.
  • Brut. 58 hanc vero Scipionis (sc. uxorem) etiam tu, Brute, credo, aliquando audisti loquentem; ego vero ac lubenter quidem (yes, and with pleasure).
  • Tus. 5, 12 an tu aliter id scire non potes? nullo modo (can you not learn that in some other way? No, in no other).
  • Att. 7, 11 non est, inquit, in parietibus res publica. At in aris et focis. Fecit Themistocles; fluctum enim totius barbariae ferre urbs una non poterat (patriotism, he retorts, is not attachment to stone walls. No, but to hearths and homes. Themistocles did so; yes, for his city could not stand by itself against the flood of all the forces of Asia).
  • Rosc. C. 9 perstat in impudentia; pactionem enim, inquit, mecum fecerat (he persists in his impudence; yes, says he, but he had made an arrangement with me).
  • Or. 2, 10 tum Antonius “heri enim,” inquit, “hoc mihi proposueram” (yes, but the object I had in view yesterday was this).
  • Verr. 1, 9 hoc si non utor, non tibi iniuriam facio; causam enim, inquit, cognosci oportet (yes, quoth he, you do, for the case ought to be thoroughly sifted).
  • Pl. Merc. 4, 4, 36 scio iam quid velis, nempe hinc me abire vis (I know now what you want; yes, you want me to go away).
  • Tus. 2, 11 fuisti saepe, credo, cum Athenis esses, in scholis philosophorum; vero, ac lubenter quidem (you were often, I suppose, when you were at Athens, in the schools of the philosophers; yes, and with pleasure).
  • Mur. 35 ergo, ad cenam petitionis causa si quis vocat, condemnetur? quippe, inquit (to be sure, he says).
  • Verr. 2, 43 cognitorem adscribit Sthenio; quem? cognatum aliquem? non; Thermitanum aliquem? ne id quidem; at Siculum? minime (he assigns a counsel to Sthenius. Whom? a relative? No. Some inhabitant of Thermae? Not even that. Well, at least a Sicilian. By no means).

He says “yes,” ait; he says “no,” negat.

  • Ter. E. 2, 2, 21 negat quis, nego; ait, aio (a man says no, I say no; he says yes, I say yes).
  • Off. 3, 23 Diogenes ait, Antipater negat (Diogenes says yes, Antipater no).
  • Cat. 3, 5 tum ostendi tabellas Lentulo, et quaesivi cognosceretne signum; annuit (he nodded assent).
  1. Benigne is a word of courtesy, and like the French “merci” means yes or no, the circumstances of the case, or the speaker’s tone and gesture, indicating the sense in which it is used.

    So recte, e.g., Ter. E. 2, 3, 51 (342); Haut. 3, 2, 7 (518).

    • Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 16 “at tu quantum vis tolle.” “Benigne” (but take away as many as you like. No, thank you = Ger. Ich danke).
    • Hor. Ep. 1, 7, 62 quid multa? “Benigne,” respondet; neget ille mihi? (to cut the story short; I’m much obliged, quoth he; what, is he to refuse a man of my standing?).
    • Verr. 3, 85 venit praetor; frumentum, inquit, me abs te emere oportet. Optime. Modium denario. Benigne ac liberaliter (the praetor makes his appearance. I must buy corn of you, he says. Very good. A denarius the modius. Much obliged, you offer a fair price).
  2. Immo, and the stronger immo vero, corrects a previous statement as being the reverse of true = no, on the contrary; or as being too weak though true as far as it goes = nay rather, yea more (μὲν οὖν). It is always accompanied by a defining clause.

    • Ter. Haut. 4, 3, 28 (706) me hoc voles patrem exorare ut celet senem vostrum? SY. Immo ut recta via rem narret ordine omnem.
    • Sull. 19 ubi fuit Sulla? num Romae? immo longe afuit (nay, on the contrary, far away).
    • Att. 9, 7 causa non bona est? immo optima (is his cause then not good? On the contrary, it is the best of causes).
    • Planc. 25 quaeris num disertus sit? immo, id quod secundum est, ne sibi quidem videtur (no, nor what is next best, he does not think himself such, i.e., a good speaker).
    • Rosc. C. 8 egebat. immo locuples erat; debebat; immo, in suis nummis versabatur; avarus erat; immo, etiam ante quam locuples semper liberalissimus fuit (he was in want of money; no, he was well off. He was in debt; no, he lived within his means. He was avaricious; no, even before he became rich he was always open-handed).
    • Rosc. C. 16 quem hominem? levem? immo (nay, on the contrary) gravissimum; mobilem? immo constantissimum; familiarem? immo alienissimum.
    • Cat. 1, 1 vivit? immo vero etiam in senatum venit (lives? aye more, even comes into the Senate).
    • Att. 6, 2 venio ad Brutum tuum, immo nostrum, sic enim mavis (I come now to your—or rather, since you will have it—our friend Brutus).
    • Verr. 4, 3 nuper homines eiusmodi—et quid dico nuper? immo vero (nay, rather) modo ac plane paulo ante vidimus.
  3. Quippe, yes, of course, to be sure, naturally = Fr. cela va sans dire, the speaker at the same time, as in the case of immo, subjoining an explanatory clause.

    • Caecin. 19 recte igitur diceres te restituisse? quippe (yes, of course); quid enim facilius est?
    • Mil. 18 certe liberatur Milo non eo consilio profectus esse ut insidiaretur in via Clodio; quippe, si ille obvius ei futurus omnino non erat (obviously Milo is at any rate cleared of having set out for the express purpose of waylaying Clodius; that goes without saying, if there was no likelihood of his meeting him at all).
    • Or. 2, 54 leve nomen habet utraque res; quippe; leve enim est totum hoc risum movere (naturally, since all this straining to create a laugh is itself undignified).
    • Mur. 30 dixisti; quippe; iam fixum et statutum est (you have said; of course I have; henceforth it is fixed and unalterable).
  4. In direct questions, nonne expects the answer yes, num the answer none, appended to the emphatic word, yes or no. Nonne aegrotas? you are ill, are you not? num aegrotas? you are not ill, are you? aegrotasne? are you ill?

    A question is often asked without a particle, especially when surprise, doubt, or remonstrance is to be expressed. The interrogation in English is indicated by the position of the verb, in Latin by the tone of the voice. Id non dixit? did he not say that? = surprise that he did not say that, or doubt of the possibility of his saying anything else.

    • N. D. 1, 35 quid? canis nonne similis lupo? (what? is not a dog like a wolf?).
    • Tus. 1, 15 nonne poetae post mortem nobilitari volunt?
    • Tus. 3, 20 num fingo? num mentior?
    • Cat. 1, 4 num negare audes?
    • Tus. 1, 11 num eloquentia Platonem superare possumus?
    • Verr. 1, 18 Apollinemne tu Delium spoliare ausus es? (was it Apollo of Delos whom you dared to despoil?)
    • Pis. 1 iamne vides, belua, iamne sentis?
    • N. D. 1, 34 quid? mundum praeter hunc umquamne vidisti?
    • Or. 3, 56 quo vertam? in Capitoliumne?
    • Ac. 2, 32 nihil igitur cernis? nihil audis? nihil tibi est perspicuum? (do you see nothing then? do you hear nothing? is nothing perceptible to you?).
    • Ac. 2, 23 Anaxagoras nivem nigram dixit esse; ferres me, si ego idem dicerem? (would you tolerate me if I were to say such a thing?).
    • Mil. 22 Clodius insidias fecit Miloni (did Clodius waylay Milo?).
    • Or. 2, 38, 157 videsne Diogenem eum fuisse, qui cet.?
    • Plaut. As. 2, 4, 74 (480) “in ius voco te.” “non eo.” “non is?” (“I summon you to Court.” “I won’t go.” “You won’t?”).
    • Fam. 7, 32, 1 non me defendis, non resistis?
    • Phil. 2, 29, 72 num sibi soli vicit?
    • Att. 16, 7, 7 num quis Pisoni est assensus? num rediit ipse postridie?

    Nonne is sometimes used in the sense of non, i.e., instead of implying that a thing is, it expresses a surprise that it is not.

    • Tus. 1, 8 quid? si te rogavero aliquid, nonne respondebis? (What? If I ask you a question, will you make no reply?).
    • Fin. 5, 28 nonne igitur tibi videntur mala (do you then think they are not evils?).

    Non usually follows nonne if there is a second, third, or succession of questions.

    • Cat. 1, 11 nonne hunc in vincula duci, non ad mortem rapi, non summo supplicio mactari imperabis?
    • Pis. 31 nonne ad te Lentulus, non Sanga, non Torquatus pater, non Lucullus venit?
    • Sull. 2 quid? Autronio nonne sodales, non collegae sui, non veteres amici defuerunt?

    Similarly nihil stands for nihilne in the second and succeeding questions.

    • Cat. 1, 1 nihilne te nocturnum praesidium Palati, nihil urbis vigiliae, nihil timor populi, nihil concursus bonorum omnium, nihil hic munitissimus habendi senatus locus, nihil horum ora voltusque moverunt?

    Sometimes num is strengthened by the suffix ne or quid [we find sometimes even num quidnam].

    • N. D. 1, 31 quid? deum ipsum numne vidisti?
    • Am. 11 numne, si Coriolanus habuit amicos, ferre contra patriam arma illi cum Coriolano debuerunt?
    • Leg. 2, 2 num quid duas vos habetis patrias? (have you then two native countries?).
    • Att. 12, 8 scire sane velim num quid necesse sit comitiis esse Romae.

    Num quid is here adverbial, and in the direct example implies a negative answer, but as a neuter pronoun it conveys no implication as to the character of the answer. Num quid vis, do you wish anything further? have you any commands? = a polite form of leave-taking. Rogo num quid velit. Recte, inquit, I ask if I can do anything for him. No, thank you, says he.

    • Or. 2, 69 rogavit num quid aliud ferret praeter arcam (he asked whether he was carrying anything else besides a chest).
    • Ter. Phor. 1, 2, 101 (151) num quid, Geta, aliud me vis? GE. Ut bene sit tibi (see Hauler’s note).


Heri is rather used in colloquial, hesterno die in formal speech.

  • Att. 13, 7a Brutus heri venit in Tusculanum post horam decimam.
  • D. Brut. ap. Fam. 11, 1 heri vesperi apud me Hirtius fuit.
  • Balb. 2 nam verius nihil est, quam quod hesterno die dixit ipse.
  • Cat. 2, 6 hesterno die senatum in aedem Iovis Statoris convocavi.
  • Cat. 3, 2, 5 hesterno die L. Flaccum et C. Pomptinum praetores … ad me vocavi.
  • L. 40, 10 vidisti hesterno die impetum in me militum.

Pristinus is used instead of “hesternus” of yesterday, not reckoned from an actually present to-day.

  • Caes. 4, 14 milites nostri pristini diei (yesterday) perfidia incitati in castra inruperunt.
  • Caes. C. 1, 74 magnum fructum suae pristinae (the day before) lenitatis omnium iudicio Caesar ferebat.

Pridie = yesterday, in epistolary language.

  • Att. 9, 10, 1 ad tuas omnes (epistulas) rescripseram pridie (I answered all your letters yesterday).
  • Att. 13, 7, 1 Sestius apud me fuit et Theopompus pridie.


Cedere, with dative = to yield or give place to; with accusative (in Cicero only with neuter pronouns and adjectives), to yield up or surrender; with ablative = to yield or depart from. Cedo currui, loco, I yield or give way to the carriage, the place; cedo currum, locum, I yield up the carriage, the place; cedo curru, loco, I quit the carriage, the place.

  • Phil. 2, 8 cedant arma togae.
  • Off. 2, 18, 64 multa multis de suo iure cedentem.
  • Mil. 27, 75 nisi sibi hortorum possessione cessissent.
  • L. 8, 38 loco (dat.) iniquo non hosti cessum.
  • L. 45, 39 currum ei cessuri videntur.
  • Caes. 7, 62 ne eo quidem tempore quisquam loco cessit.


The second person plural is not used in Latin as in English and French for the singular: e.g., quid agis, Grani? how do you do, Granius?

  • Verr. 4, 20 tu dignior quam Calidius? you (a man like you) more worthy than Calidius?
  1. The* first person plural is often so used in Latin as in English: e.g., consulatum petere cogitamus, I am thinking of standing for the consulship.

    * See The Use of the Singular Nos in Cicero’s Letters, by Prof. R. S. Conway (Camb., 1899).

    • Att. 6, 2, 5 publicanis in oculis sumus (I am as the apple of the eye to the tax-farmers).
    • Q. F. 2, 4, 6 in iudiciis ii sumus, qui fuimus (in the law-courts I have regained my old position).
    • Or. 1, 1, 2 ad eas artis, quibus a pueris dediti fuimus.
    • Or. 1, 11, 49 rationis, de qua loquimur et quaerimus.
    • Att. 8, 2, 3 vagamur egentes cum coniugibus et liberis (we wander about in poverty, with our wives and children).
  2. So vester and vestri cannot be used for tuus and tui, though noster and nostri (not nostrum) are often used for meus and mei: e.g., memor nostri (or mei), mindful of me; memor tui (not vestri), mindful of thee.

    • Att. 5, 20, 3 erat in Syria nostrum nomen in gratia (my name is a power in Syria).
    • Att. 1, 8 Tulliola, deliciolae nostrae, tuum munusculum flagitat (my darling little Tullia is all impatience for your expected gift).
  3. The plural is used where more than one person is meant, though but one is named; e.g., Brut. 3 vos vero, Attice, me cura levatis.

  4. The singular, on the other hand, is correct, where all are addressed by a collective name; e.g., L. 10, 36 quo pergis, miles? et hic arma et viros invenies nec vivo consule tuo nisi victor castra intrabis.

  5. In the comic poets aliquis is sometimes used with the imperative plural = some one of you. Open the door, some one of you, aperite aliquis ostium: Pl. Men. 4, 2, 111 (674) aperite atque Erotium aliquis evocate ante ostium.


Minor natu, younger irrespective of age, younger comparatively. Titius is younger than Seius, Titius minor natu est quam Seius. A number of us younger fellows used to declaim, aliquot adulescentuli (not minores natu) declamitabamus.

  1. Natu is generally omitted in speaking of sons, daughters, brothers, or sisters. The younger brother, frater minor. So always Dionysius minor, Africanus minor, etc.
  2. Iunior is poetical, and iuniores is used only of members of the senate, and citizens liable for active service as soldiers.
  • Caes. C. 3, 112 filia minor Ptolomaei regis (the younger daughter of (King) Ptolemy).
  • Am. 9 pro hoc enim, qui minor est natu, meo iure respondeo (I am of course entitled to answer for my friend here, who is my junior).
  • Ac. 2, 19, 61 hominem amicissimum … et aliquot annis minorem natu.
  • L. 3, 41 in hanc sententiam ut discederetur, iuniores patrum evincebant (the younger members succeeded in carrying this amendment on a division).
  • L. 3, 41 edicitur dilectus: iuniores ad nomina respondent (the juniors attend the roll-call).

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