Horae Latinae

Studies In Synonyms and Syntax, by Robert Ogelvie

For everybody eager to learn Latin, we proudly present Latinitium’s digital edition of Horae Latinae by Robert Ogelvie, originally published posthumously in 1901.

Here you will find almost 500 English words and expressions with detailed descriptions of how to best render them in Latin, and with copious quotes from classical authors illustrating the usage. It is thus an excellent complement to the English–Latin dictionary by Smith & Hall.

For more resources on Latin synonyms, see our blog post A guide to Dictionaries of Latin synonyms!

Tips, updates, and learning material.


a or an first (adverb) play
abandon first who if you please
about flee poet
abroad flow poetry
access to forget poisoned
accompany former—latter politics
of one’s own accord freedman as—as possible
accurate great friend poverty
accuse on the front power
accuser fruitful prejudice
across garden present
advocate general pretend
affirm grateful prevail on
African gratification prevent
after Greeks pride
afterwards grief priest
again happen prithee
age happiness promise
ago hasten proof
all but health prove
along the river hear province
also hear well publicly
altar heart quarrel
although high rather than
angry hither and thither really
animal hitherto refer
annual hold refuse
any one honour reign
Apennines hope relations
appeal horse remember
appear on horseback remove
apple host report
appoint a dictator hour represent
arm how resign office
arms however rest
army hunger the rest
as if return
as far as if not reward
as to ignorant rightly
as well as immortal river
assemble with impunity robber
assembly in an author Roman
assuredly indeed rose
attain influence royal
audience inhabit rule
author inhabitants rustic
baggage insanity safe
banker instead of same as
bargain international law I say
because invade I will not say
become inveigh against as they say
before is to be scarcely
before (adverb) joy sculpture
before (of place) judge seat
begin justice second
belief kill secretly
believe know seize
besides we know self
beware of know how sell
beyond Lacedaemonian serious
blame land services
blood last ship
bloodless too late shore
bloody lately shortly
in a book Latin show
books laugh sickness
both learn siege
both—and at least sight
bridge legislator silent
bring leisure sing
build lend six hundred
burn much less sloping
but letter smell
by in a letter soldier
canvassing liberty some
carry life some one
cattle light sometimes
cause lightning soul
cease like speak
certain likely speak against
character little staff
children how little statue
cold live stay
command long (adjective) step
commit long (adverb) storm (verb)
common for a long while strength
conceal no longer style
confess lose subjects
conscience love such
conscious lungs suitable
consul Macedonian sustain
consult magnanimity sword
content majesty take away
continue make a speech take up arms
contract man tempest
control how many territory
corn forced march than
country marriage thankfulness
fellow-countryman marry that of
cousin master the
crime mean theory
crown from memory this (that)
cui bono? in memory of three
custom mind throne
daily (adjective) modesty time
daily (adverb) money one time
day more at the same time
two days more than title
the dead more than once too
deal with many more towards
death morning trade
debt the morrow trader
defend mortal travel
deny most tributary
deserve multitude in triumph
despise name troops
despoil namely trust
die nation truth
different natural uncle
diligence necessity undertake
dislodge neck unjustly
divide new of us
doubt by night in vain
dream noble vote
dress nor wall
drink and not wander about
drunk do not want
drunkenness not even wanting
each not one water
each other not so very way
earthly not to say on the way
either—or nothing when (interrogative)
embark nothing but whenever
employed now where
enemy oath whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
enjoy obey whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
enough obstructionist which?
entreat obtain while
envy oh that! for a while
epidemic old age white
especially omit whoever
estate one why not?
even one of wisdom
ever one more with
everywhere only with one
for example not only not within
exception open without
exile openly witness
expect opinion word
expense or work at
express or not workman
extend orator world
face otherwise worse
fail our would be
famous own wound
fault palace wretch
favour passenger a year after
for fear paternal yes and no
feast people yesterday
few perhaps yield
how few persuade you
first (adjective) places younger
a or an how little
abandon live
about long (adjective)
abroad long (adverb)
access to for a long while
accompany no longer
of one’s own accord lose
accurate love
accuse lungs
accuser Macedonian
across magnanimity
advocate majesty
affirm make a speech
African man
after how many
afterwards forced march
again marriage
age marry
ago master
all but mean
along the river from memory
also in memory of
altar mind
although modesty
angry money
animal more
annual more than
any one more than once
Apennines many more
appeal morning
appear the morrow
apple mortal
appoint a dictator most
arm multitude
arms name
army namely
as nation
as far as natural
as to necessity
as well as neck
assemble new
assembly by night
assuredly noble
attain nor
audience and not
author do not
baggage not even
banker not one
bargain not so very
because not to say
become nothing
before nothing but
before (adverb) now
before (of place) oath
begin obey
belief obstructionist
believe obtain
besides oh that!
beware of old age
beyond omit
blame one
blood one of
bloodless one more
bloody only
in a book not only not
books open
both openly
both—and opinion
bridge or
bring or not
build orator
burn otherwise
but our
by own
canvassing palace
carry passenger
cattle paternal
cause people
cease perhaps
certain persuade
character places
children play
cold if you please
command poet
commit poetry
common poisoned
conceal politics
confess as—as possible
conscience poverty
conscious power
consul prejudice
consult present
content pretend
continue prevail on
contract prevent
control pride
corn priest
country prithee
fellow-countryman promise
cousin proof
crime prove
crown province
cui bono? publicly
custom quarrel
daily (adjective) rather than
daily (adverb) really
day refer
two days refuse
the dead reign
deal with relations
death remember
debt remove
defend report
deny represent
deserve resign office
despise rest
despoil the rest
die return
different reward
diligence rightly
dislodge river
divide robber
doubt Roman
dream rose
dress royal
drink rule
drunk rustic
drunkenness safe
each same as
each other I say
earthly I will not say
either—or as they say
embark scarcely
employed sculpture
enemy seat
enjoy second
enough secretly
entreat seize
envy self
epidemic sell
especially serious
estate services
even ship
ever shore
everywhere shortly
for example show
exception sickness
exile siege
expect sight
expense silent
express sing
extend six hundred
face sloping
fail smell
famous soldier
fault some
favour some one
for fear sometimes
feast soul
few speak
how few speak against
first (adjective) staff
first (adverb) statue
first who stay
flee step
flow storm (verb)
forget strength
former—latter style
freedman subjects
great friend such
on the front suitable
fruitful sustain
garden sword
general take away
grateful take up arms
gratification tempest
Greeks territory
grief than
happen thankfulness
happiness that of
hasten the
health theory
hear this (that)
hear well three
heart throne
high time
hither and thither one time
hitherto at the same time
hold title
honour too
hope towards
horse trade
on horseback trader
host travel
hour tributary
how in triumph
however troops
hunger trust
if truth
if not uncle
ignorant undertake
immortal unjustly
with impunity of us
in an author in vain
indeed vote
influence wall
inhabit wander about
inhabitants want
insanity wanting
instead of water
international law way
invade on the way
inveigh against when (interrogative)
is to be whenever
joy where
judge whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
justice whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
kill which?
know while
we know for a while
know how white
Lacedaemonian whoever
land why not?
last wisdom
too late with
lately with one
Latin within
laugh without
learn witness
at least word
legislator work at
leisure workman
lend world
much less worse
letter would be
in a letter wound
liberty wretch
life a year after
light yes and no
lightning yesterday
like yield
likely you
little younger


Ludere, to play at a game (as a pastime), e.g., pila ludere, to play at ball (pila = ablative of means or instrument); canere, to play on a musical instrument, e.g., fidibus canere, to play on the lyre. Cantare is used by Nepos, but not by Cicero, Caesar, or Livy.

  • Phil. 2, 23 non dubitavit vel in foro alea ludere.
  • Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 59 pueri ludentes “rex eris” aiunt.
  • Tus. 1, 2 Epaminondas fidibus praeclare cecinisse dicitur.

To play a rôle, partes agere. He played the rôle of a fool, stulti partes egit, or stulti personam sustinuit.


Si placet, without tibi. So usually nisi molestum est, but we say si videtur or si tibi videtur indifferently. Hofmann, Letters of Cicero (p. 78 (2)), says “si videtur” is more polite than “si tibi videtur”. Similarly, Livy tells us = Livius dicit; this story teaches us, haec fabula docet.

  • Tus. 3, 6 et primo, si placet, Stoicorum more agamus.
  • Ac. 1, 4 ista renovari a te, nisi molestum est, velim, et simul, adsidamus, inquam, si videtur (“I should be glad if you would refresh my memory on this point, if it is not troubling you”; and at the same time I said, “let us sit down, if you please”).
  • Tus. 1, 12 expone igitur, nisi molestum est, animos, si potes, remanere post mortem.
  • Fat. 2 si tibi non est molestum.
  • Leg. 2, 3 sed, si videtur, considamus hic in umbra.
  • Tus. 1, 11 nunc, si videtur, hoc, illud alias.
  • Or. 2, 73 nunc, si tibi videtur, Antoni, demonstres velim, qua re tu hoc ita magnum putes.

Si dis placet, if it pleases heaven, is always ironical = save the mark.

  • Fin. 2, 10 quoniam, si dis placet, ab Epicuro loqui discimus (since heaven help us! we learn from Epicurus how to talk).
  • Tus. 5, 10 Epicuro etiam, si dis placet, videtur semper sapiens beatus.
  • L. 4, 3, 8 quin etiam, si dis placet, nefas aiunt esse consulem plebeium fieri.
  • L. 44, 22 in omnibus circulis, atque etiam, si dis placet, in conviviis sunt.


Vates, a seer, soothsayer, was the oldest name for a poet, but the word fell into complete contempt and was discarded for the Greek poeta.* Vergil and succeeding writers restored it once more to honour, and denoted by it an inspired bard, something higher than poeta (Munro, Lucr. 1, 102).

  • L. 25, 1 sacrificuli ac vates ceperant hominum mentes (sacrificers and oracle-mongers had enslaved mens’ understandings).
  • Verg. E. 9, 34 me quoque dicunt vatem pastores (I am called an inspired bard myself by the shepherds).
  • Tac. Or. 9 Saleium nostrum, egregium poetam vel, si hoc honorificentius est, praeclarissimum vatem.


Poetica,* the art. Poesis, the production.

* [The spelling need cause no difficulty, as the Greeks of the best period wrote ποεῖν, ποητής, ποητική, πόησις.]

  • Tus. 4, 32 o praeclaram emendatricem vitae poeticam.
  • Tus. 1, 1 serius poeticam nos accepimus.
  • Tus. 4, 33 Anacreontis tota poesis est amatoria.
  • Tus. 5, 39 at eius picturam, non poesin, videmus.


The poisoned dart, telum venenatum; the poisoned cup, poculum mortiferum or mortis, not venenatum or veneni. Exhausit poculum mortiferum, he drank the poisoned cup to the dregs.

  • Quinct. 2 quasi venenatum aliquod telum.
  • Tus. 1, 29 poculum illud mortiferum (the poisoned chalice).


Res publica, politics, political life; ad rem publicam accedere, to enter on political life; rem publicam attingere, to meddle with politics; in re publica versari, to be a politician.

  • N. Them. 1 totum se dedidit rei publicae (he devoted himself entirely to public affairs).
  • Sall. I. 4 decrevi procul a re publica aetatem agere.
  • Rosc. A. 1 nondum ad rem publicam accessi (Cicero was not quaestor till five years later).
  • Verr. 1, 12 antequam iste ad magistratus remque publicam accessit.
  • Fam. 15, 16, 3 posteaquam forum attigisti (since you applied yourself to public afairs).

Res novae, political changes, a revolution.


The highest possible degree is expressed (1) by a superlative adjective, preceded by quantus, and accompanied by the verb posse; (2) by quam with a superlative adjective or adverb, with or without posse; (3) by ut and posse, combined with a superlative adverb. He cries out in as loud a tone as possible, quanta maxima potest voce clamat, or quam maxima (potest) voce clamat; I spoke as cautiously as possible, locutus sum quam (potui) cautissime, or locutus sum ut potui cautissime.

  • L. 22, 3 Hannibal quantam maximam vastitatem potest caedibus incendiisque ostendit.
  • Am. 20 tanta est inter eos, quanta maxima potest esse, morum studiorumque distantia.
  • Sall. I. 48 Iugurtha quam maxumas potest copias armat.
  • L. 5, 25, 9 grata ea res ut quae maxime senatui umquam fuit.
  • Fam. 7, 17 Caesari te commendavi, ut diligentissime potui.
  • Fam. 5, 17 ut potui accuratissime, te tuamque causam tutatus sum.

As soon as possible, quam primum, or primo quoque tempore.


Paupertas, narrowness of means, in opposition to riches, a bare competency; egestas (inopia), scarcity of means, galling poverty; mendicitas, absence of means, beggary. The pauper has a little, and with economy can live on that little; the egens has too little, is pinched, and has recourse to shifts to live; the mendicus has nothing at all, and lives on the bounty of others. “Egens” is the common equivalent for our word “poor”. “Pauper” (not in Caesar and Sallust) is rare in Cicero’s speeches, and in his other writings is oftenest used in a general or abstract sense, in opposition to “dives,” which also occurs far seldomer in his speeches than “locuples” (see Merguet’s Lexicon). “Pauper,” however, gradually supplants “egens” and “egenus,” neither of which is found in Nepos and Curtius. [Cf. the survival of pauper in Span. pobre, Fr. pauvre.]

  • Par. 6 istam paupertatem vel potius egestatem ac mendicitatem tuam numquam obscure tulisti.
  • Sen. Ep. 17, 6 non est quod paupertas nos a philosophia revocet, ne egestas quidem.
  • Cat. 4, 5 adiungit etiam publicationem bonorum, ut omnes animi cruciatus et corporis etiam egestas ac mendicitas consequatur.
  • Phil. 2, 25 cogebat egestas; quo se verteret non habebat.
  • Caes. C. 3, 59, 2 locupletes ex egentibus fecerat.
  • L. 4, 4, 9 cur enim non confertis, ne sit conubium divitibus ac pauperibus?


Potentia, power viewed as a subjective possession, irresponsible or unconstitutional power = δύναμις; potestas, power viewed as an objective possession, magisterial or delegated power = ἐξουσία. Potestas is a general term for political office, while imperium, as carrying with it power to command an army, is used only of a certain class of magistrates (consul, dictator, praetor). We say “tribunicia potestas” but “consulare imperium,” as well as “consularis potestas”.

  • Sall. C. 19 iam tum potentia Pompei formidolosa erat.
  • Sall. C. 39 plebis opes imminutae, paucorum potentia crevit.
  • R. P. 1, 44 ex nimia potentia principum oritur interitus principum.
  • N. Mil. 8 Athenienses propter Pisistrati tyrannidem nimiam suorum civium potentiam extimescebant.
  • Caes. 7, 32 alterum (esse) Cotum, hominem summae potentiae.
  • Att. 6, 2, 10 invideo potentiae Vestorii.
  • N. Cato 2, 2 tum non potentia sed iure res publica administrabatur.
  • N. Cato 2, 3 Cato, censor cum eodem Flacco factus, severe praefuit ei potestati.
  • Tus. 1, 30, 74 tamquam a magistratu aut ab aliqua potestate legitima, sic a deo evocatus atque emissus exierit.
  • L. 32, 21, 32 mare in potestate habent; terras, quascumque adeunt, extemplo dicionis suae faciunt.
  • L. 4, 13 itaque se dictatorem Quinctium dicturum; ibi animum parem tantae potestati esse.
  • R. P. 1, 40 omne imperium nostri penes singulos esse voluerunt.
  • Phil. 5, 16 imperium, sine quo res militaris administrari, teneri exercitus, bellum geri non potest.

In the power of one is always “in alicuius potestate”. In the power of the gods, in deorum potestate. To be one’s own master, esse in sua potestate, or sui iuris or suae potestatis.

  • N. Att. 6 existimabat eos non in sua potestate esse qui se civilibus fluctibus dedissent.
  • L. 31, 45 nec se potestatis suae esse respondebant.


Invidia, praeiudicata opinio, or simply opinio; praeiudicium = a previous decision which establishes a precedent, a leading case. Praeiudicium never = prejudice (see Heitland’s Pro Rabirio (Cambr. Press), p. 62).

  • Clu. 1 invidia iam inveterata iudicii Iuniani (long cherished prejudice arising from the trial before Junius).
  • N. D. 1, 5 tantum opinio praeiudicata poterat, ut etiam sine ratione valeret auctoritas (such was the force of prejudice that mere authority without argument was decisive).
  • Tus. 3, 1 opinio confirmata (deeply-rooted prejudice).
  • Caecil. 4 non praeiudicium, sed plane iudicium iam factum (not a ruling verdict on an analogous issue, but an actual judgment passed on the merits of the case itself).
  • Verr. 3, 65, 152 praeiudicium se de capite C. Verris per hoc iudicium nolle fieri.
  • Mur. 28, 60 existimabit iudicium accusatoris in reum pro aliquo praeiudicio valere oportere.
  • Caes. C. 2, 32, 3 vestri facti praeiudicio demotus Italia excessit.
  • L. 5, 11, 10 praeiudicium iam de reis et ab senatu et ab populo Romano et ab ipsorum collegis factum esse.


Interesse, to be present and take part in a transaction; adesse, to be present; with dative, to be present in aid, especially to be present in court in defence of an accused person.

  • Caes. 7, 87 adcelerat Caesar, ut proelio intersit.
  • Fam. 1, 6 Pollio omnibus negotiis non interfuit solum, sed praefuit.
  • Rosc. A. 6 iste, qui adest, Magnus vocatur (the one yonder who is present is called Magnus).
  • Verr. 2, 29 iste homo liberalis negat se quemquam retinere eorum, qui Petilio vellent adesse.
  • Off. 1, 4 belua ad id solum, quod adest quodque praesens est, se accommodat.
  • Fin. 1, 17 nam corpore nihil nisi praesens et quod adest sentire possumus.
  • Att. 6, 3, 6 respondi lenius, quam putabant oportuisse, qui aderant.
  • Rosc. 1, 1 omnes hi, quos videtis adesse.
  • Am. 11, 37 aderam Laenati et Rupilio consulibus in consilio.
  1. Praesens is used of the present in a general and abstract sense, in opposition to the past and the future, and also, in a relative sense, in the graphic narration of a past event.

    • Tus. 5, 26 non video quo modo sedare possint mala praesentia praeteritae voluptates.
    • L. 30, 13 movit Scipionem fortuna pristina viri praesenti fortunae conlata.
  2. Hic (rarely praesens) is used for the present in reference to the circumstances or times of the speaker or writer. The present consuls, hi consules; at the present time, hoc tempore; during the present winter, hac hieme.

    • Clu. 35 nedum his temporibus, his moribus, his magistratibus, sine vestra sapientia ac sine iudiciorum remediis, salvi esse possimus (in our degenerate day, with our present morals and present magistrates, if it were not for your wisdom and the redress of the law-courts, we could not be at all safe).
    • Pomp. 7, 19 haec fides atque haec ratio pecuniarum, quae Romae, quae in foro versatur … ruere illa non possunt, ut haec non eodem labefacta motu concidant.
  3. For the present, in praesentia, seldom in praesenti; in praesens in Livy, ad praesens in Tacitus and later writers.

    • Tus. 5, 35 vestrae quidem cenae non solum in praesentia, sed etiam postero die iucundae sunt.
    • Caes. 1, 15 satis habebat in praesentia hostem rapinis prohibere.
    • L. 6, 26 pacem in praesentia nec ita multo post civitatem etiam impetraverunt.
    • L. 2, 42 ea pars rei publicae vicit, nec in praesens modo, sed in venientem etiam annum consules dedit.
    • L. 30, 17, 1 ingenti hominum et in praesens laetitia et in futurum spe.
    • Tac. A. 4, 31 quod aspere acceptum ad praesens, mox in laudem vertit (this sentence, severe as it was thought at the moment, after-wards redounded to his honour).
  4. Those present, (ii) qui adsunt; all present said so, omnes, qui aderant, ita dixerunt; in their presence, eis praesentibus; he said so in the presence of all, ita dixit omnibus praesentibus.

    • Clu. 54 nolo quemquam eorum, qui adsunt, existimare, me, quae de lege ab Accio dicta sunt, si reticuerim, comprobare (I do not wish any one here present to imagine that by silence I am assenting to Accius’ criticism of the law).
    • Caes. 1, 32 omnes qui aderant, magno fletu auxilium a Caesare petere coeperunt.
    • Verr. 4, 25 hominem in foro iubet sellam ponere et facere anulum omnibus praesentibus.


Simulare, to pretend that a thing which is fictitious is real, to counterfeit; dissimulare, to pretend that a thing which is real is fictitious, to conceal. He pretends to be ill, simulat se esse aegrum. He pretends not to be ill, dissimulat se esse aegrum, not simulat se non esse aegrum.

  • Off. 1, 30 Solon furere se simulavit.
  • Phil. 10, 9, 17 desinant … ii, qui non timent, simulare se timere.
  • Verr. 8, 21 cupiebam dissimulare me id moleste ferre, cupiebam animi dolorem vultu tegere et taciturnitate celare.
  • Att. 8, 1, 4 dissimulare non potero mihi, quae adhuc acta sint, displicere.
  • Off. 3, 15 nec quicquam simulabit aut dissimulabit vir bonus.
  • Fam. 10, 8 numquam diffitebor multa me simulasse invitum et dissimulasse cum dolore.


Exorare, by entreaty; impetrare, by request; persuadere, by argument, or inducement. I prevailed on him to come, eum exoravi (ab eo impetravi, ei persuasi) ut veniret.

  • Verr. 1, 52 negat illa posse hominem exorari.
  • Caes. 5, 41 sperare pro eius iustitia quae petierint impetraturos.
  • L. 45, 4 et petiere et impetravere, ut aliqui ad eum mitterentur.
  • Caes. 5, 45, 3 servo spe libertatis magnisque persuadet praemiis, ut litteras ad Caesarem deferat.
  • Caes. 3, 18 huic magnis praemiis pollicitationibusque persuadet, uti ad hostes transeat.

Vincere, to prevail, get the better of; valere, to have force, avail. This opinion prevailed, haec sententia vicit, i.e., was adopted in preference to other opinions; a tradition prevails, fama valet.

  • Phil. 8, 1 vicit L. Caesaris, amplissimi viri, sententia.
  • L. 40, 12 tandem vicit dolorem ipsa necessitas.
  • L. 26, 8, 6 has diversas sententias media sententia P. Valeri Flacci vicit.
  • L. 40, 37 haec quoque vox valuit, cur Hostilia damnaretur.
  • Am. 16 hoc praeceptum ad tollendam amicitiam valet.
  • L. 1, 4, 6 tenet fama, … lupam … cursum flexisse.


Impedire (like ἐμποδίζω, to entangle the feet), to impede, make a thing more difficult; prohibere (pro + habere, to hold in front), to keep back, prevent. We say, as in English, prohibere (not impedire) iniuriam ab aliquo, to prevent harm to one, or prohibere aliquem (ab) iniuria, to prevent one from harm. Vi prohibere, to prevent by force; a vi prohibere, to prevent recourse to force.

  • L. 25, 11, 16 multa, quae impedita natura sunt, consilio expediuntur.
  • Caes. C. 1, 68 saxa multis locis praerupta iter impediebant.
  • Lig. 8 prohibiti estis in provincia vestra pedem ponere.
  • Fam. 12, 5, 2 hiemps adhuc rem geri prohibuerat.
  • Att. 2, 18 illa legatio non impedit, quo minus adsim, cum velim.
  • Caes. C. 3, 18 Vibullium loqui plura prohibuit.
  • Sull. 33 sed iam impedior egomet, dolore animi, ne de huius miseria plura dicam.
  • Sen. 17 aetas non impedit, quo minus haec studia teneamus.
  • Fam. 13, 5, 1 neque … te impedio, quo minus susceptum negotium … gerere possis.
  • Caes. 6, 23, 9 (eos) ab iniuria prohibent.
  • Pomp. 7 a quo periculo prohibete rem publicam.
  • Rosc. 52, 151 di prohibeant, iudices, ne hoc … praesidium sectorum existimetur.
  • Caecil. 10, 33 quod et potuisti prohibere ne fieret et debuisti.
  • Fam. 12, 5 hiemem credo adhuc prohibuisse, quo minus de te certum haberemus.
  • L. 25, 15 quo praesidio agros populationibus possent prohibere (a force with which they might protect their lands from being pillaged).
  • Pomp. 7 est igitur humanitatis vestrae magnum numerum civium calamitate prohibere.
  • Sall. I. 107 ab iniuria Maurum prohibet (shields from violence).
  • L. 1, 7 quem ad speluncam vadentem Cacus vi (by force) prohibere conatus est.
  1. Caesar always uses prohibere with infinitive; so usually Cicero and Livy, unless sometimes when a negative precedes. On the other hand, “quo minus” (sometimes “ne”) is the more usual construction after “impedire”. In Cicero the infinitive follows only (but not always) when the subject of “impedire” is a thing (Krebs). Quid est igitur quod me impediat ea, quae probabilia videantur, sequi? (Off. 2, 2).

  2. The accusative is rarely retained if “ne,” oftener, however, if “quo minus,” follows. Idem te impediret, quo minus mecum esses, quod nunc etiam impedit (Att. 12, 16).


Superbia, pride, that thinks one’s self above others, generally in a bad sense; adrogantia, pride, that claims more than one’s due, assumption. Tarquinius was superbus, Ariovistus adrogans.

  • Tus. 1, 29 adhibuit (Socrates) liberam contumaciam, a magnitudine animi ductam, non a superbia.
  • Caecil. 11 nam cum omnis adrogantia odiosa est, tum illa ingenii atque eloquentiae multo molestissima.

Cf. Fam. 7, 13 quae tua gloria est, puto te malle a Caesare consuli quam inaurari.

The proud name, nomen magnificum.


Sacerdos is the general term for a priest; antistes, the priest of a particular temple; flamen, the priest of a particular deity; pontifex, a priest as a member of the collegium which regulated the religious affairs of the State. The pontifices, or college of priests, consisted of the pontifex maximus, the rex sacrorum, and fifteen flamines.

  • L. 26, 23 sacerdotes publici aliquot eo anno demortui sunt.
  • Verr. 4, 50 habitare apud sese Cererem Hennenses arbitrantur; ut mihi non cives illius civitatis, sed omnes sacerdotes, omnes accolae atque antistites Cereris esse videantur.
  • Leg. 2, 8 divis omnibus pontifices, singulis flamines sunto (all gods in common shall have pontifices, each god a special flamen).
  • L. 1, 20 [the whole chapter is very instructive as to these words].


Quaeso, prithee = I pray thee, serves to soften an imperative, and is inserted parenthetically. Quaeso and quaesumus are the only parts in use.

  • Att. 3, 26 tu, quaeso, festina ad nos venire (prithee make haste to come to us).
  • Att. 7, 10 tu, quaeso, crebro ad me scribe (prithee write to me often).
  • Att. 13, 38, 2 iuva me, quaeso, consilio.
  • Leg. 1, 2 quam ob rem adgredere, quaesumus, et sume ad hanc rem tempus.


Promittere, to promise for oneself or for another; polliceri = pro liceri (cf. porrigere, portendere), to offer, is always used by Cicero of a promise, the fulfilment of which depends on oneself, hence = to guarantee.

  • Fam. 7, 5 neque minus prolixe de tua voluntate promisi, quam eram solitus de mea polliceri.
  • Planc. 42, 101 Holden nihil tibi ego tum de meis opibus pollicebar, sed de horum erga me benivolentia promittebam.

A man of great promise, vir summae (optimae, eximiae) spei.


Monumentum, that which preserves the remembrance of anything, a memorial; documentum, an instructive example, a lesson or warning.

  • Verr. 2, 2 urbem ita reliquit ornatam, ut esset idem monumentum victoriae, mansuetudinis, continentiae.
  • L. 4, 16 domum deinde, ut monumento area esset oppressae nefariae spei, dirui extemplo iussit.
  • L. 8, 11, 16 monumento ut esset, aeneam tabulam in aede Castoris Romae fixerunt.
  • Hor. C. 3, 30, 1 exegi monumentum aere perennius (I have finished a monument more enduring than brass).
  • L. 45, 40 non Perseus tantum per illos dies documentum humanorum casuum fuit, sed etiam victor Paulus.
  • L. 5, 51 tantum poenarum dedimus, ut terrarum orbi documento essemus.

Testimonium, proof, evidence.

  • Caes. 6, 28, 3 relatis in publicum cornibus, quae sint testimonio.
  • Top. 19, 73 testimonium nunc dicimus omne, quod ab aliqua re externa sumitur ad faciendam fidem.


Probare, to show to be good, make acceptable, hence to hold as good, approve. Si hoc tibi probo, if I prove this to your satisfaction. This proved a failure, is done by sum, demonstro, etc.

  • Att. 4, 14 quos libros, ut spero, tibi valde probabo.
  • Tus. 4, 4 mihi egregie probata est oratio tua.
  • Fin. 5, 25 ego non quaero quid tibi a me probatum sit.


Provincia in classical Latin = subjugated territory out of Italy under Roman government; it never means a division of a kingdom. Ireland is divided into four provinces, Hibernia in quattuor partes (not provincias) divisa est. [The local application is later.] The ground-meaning of the word is sphere of duty (generally).

  • Pl. Mil. 1159 Tyrrell [or Brix] nunc tibi hanc impero provinciam.
  • Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 22 (72) provinciam cepisti duram.
  • Verr. 4, 23, 51 homo nobilis … ferebat graviter illam sibi ab isto provinciam (i.e., the duty of procuring chased silver and Corinthian bronze vessels) datam.
  • Verr. 2, 1 Sicilia prima omnium provincia est appellata.


Palam or aperte, publicly, openly, opposed to clam or occulte; publice, in a public capacity, in the name of the state, opposed to privatim, in a private capacity. Palam interfectus est, he was put to death before the eyes of all; publice interfectus est, he was put to death by the order of the state.

  • Verr. 5, 17 navem palam aedificatam sumptu publico tibi datam esse dico.
  • L. 3, 26 navis Quinctio publice parata fuit (at the public expense).
  • Verr. 5, 16 quam palam principes dixerunt contra!
  • Verr. 3, 44 legationis eius princeps publice dixit (in the name of the state).
  • Brut. 62, 224 is praetor … Mario et Flacco consulibus publice est interfectus.
  • Sall. I. 8 Iugurtham monuit uti potius publice quam privatim amicitiam populi Romani coleret (he advised Jugurtha to seek the friendship of the Roman people by services to the state rather than bribes to individual citizens).

In public, i.e., in a public place, in publico, or in publicum. He was never seen in public afterwards, postea in publico (sc. loco) numquam visus est; after he made his first public appearance, postquam primum in publicum prodiit. This pleased the public, hoc populo (not publico) placuit.

  • Pl. Stich. 4, 2, 34 (614) per hortum transibo, non prodibo in publicum.
  • Verr. 5, 35 in publico esse non audet (does not dare to appear in the streets), includit se domi.
  • Verr. 4, 11 iacuit et pernoctavit in publico.
  • Att. 8, 11 scio equidem te in publicum non prodire.
  • Verr. 1, 31 prodeundi tibi in publicum potestatem factam negas.


Iurgium, a quarrel confined to words, an altercation, a wrangle. Rixa, a quarrel which comes to blows, an affray.

  • L. 29, 9, 3 iurgium inde et clamor, pugna postremo orta inter Plemini milites tribunorumque.
  • Tac. H. 1, 64 iurgia primum, mox rixa inter Batavos et legionarios (first came taunts, then a brawl between the Batavi and the legionaries).
  • Iuv. 15, 52 sed iurgia prima sonare incipiunt; haec tuba rixae.
  • Am. 21 cavendum est ne etiam in graves inimicitias convertant se amicitiae, ex quibus iurgia, maledicta, contumeliae gignuntur.
  • L. 2, 18 rixa ac prope proelium fuit.
  • L. 3, 49 hinc atrox rixa oritur.


Potius quam in classical prose usually connects like constructions, unless in the case in which the first alternative stands in the simple indicative, when the subjunctive almost always follows.

He will rather fight than go away, pugnabit potius quam abeat; he said that he would rather fight than go away, dixit se potius pugnaturum quam abiturum; it was his duty to fight rather than go away, debuit pugnare potius quam abire, or ei pugnandum potius quam abeundum fuit.

  • Tus. 2, 22 perpessus est omnia potius, quam conscios delendae tyrannidis indicaret.
  • Fin. 2, 20 Verginius virginem filiam sua manu occidit potius quam ea Claudi libidini dederetur.
  • Ac. 2, 1 privabo potius illum debito testimonio quam id cum mea laude communicem.
  • Ac. 2, 8, 23 Reid statuit omnem cruciatum perferre, intolerabili dolore lacerari potius, quam … officium prodat.
  • L. 10, 35, 14 etiamne circumsedebimur in castris, ut fame potius per ignominiam quam ferro, si necesse est, per virtutem moriamur?
  • Fam. 7, 2, 1 inlicitatorem potius ponam, quam illud minoris veneat.
  • Fam. 10, 3, 4 ut potius amorem tibi ostenderem meum quam ostentarem prudentiam.
  • Att. 7, 6, 2 qui non concedendum putaret Caesari, quod postularet, potius quam depugnandum.
  • Am. 16, 60 ferendum id Scipio potius quam inimicitiarum tempus cogitandum putabat.
  • L. 7, 40, 14 vel iniquis standum est potius quam inpias inter nos conseramus manus.
  • L. 7, 18, 6 si quod tristius sit imperii nomen, patiendum esse potius, quam ambos patricios consules videant.
  • Att. 7, 7, 7 depugna potius quam servias (fight to the last rather than be a slave).
  • Fam. 2, 16, 3 nonne tibi adfirmavi quidvis me potius perpessurum quam ex Italia ad bellum civile exiturum?
  • Off. 1, 31 Catoni moriendum potius quam tyranni vultus aspiciendus fuit.
  • Brut. 91 quodvis potius periculum mihi adeundum quam a sperata dicendi gloria discedendum putavi.
  • Caes. 7, 78 illo potius utendum consilio, quam aut deditionis aut pacis subeundam condicionem (rather than submit to terms either of capitulation or peace).
  • Caes. C. 1, 35 debere eos Italiae totius auctoritatem sequi potius quam unius hominis voluntati obtemperare.
  1. The subjunctive is common in Livy in all cases other than where an infinitive present precedes. Livy also sometimes (Cicero never) inserts ut after quam.

    • L. 23, 9 hic te deterreri sine potius quam illic vinci (suffer yourself to be dissuaded here rather than defeated there).
    • L. 40, 4 se potius omnes interfecturam quam in potestatem Philippi venirent.
    • L. 4, 2 se miliens morituros potius, quam ut tantum dedecoris admitti patiantur.
  2. Similarly prius (citius) quam, used in the sense of potius quam.

    • Att. 2, 20 addit etiam se prius occisum iri ab eo quam me violatum iri.
    • Lig. 5, 16 suam citius abiciet humanitatem quam extorquebit tuam.
    • Caes. C. 3, 49 prius se cortice ex arboribus victuros, quam Pompeium e manibus dimissuros.
    • L. 5, 24 morituros se citius quam quicquam earum rerum rogaretur.
    • L. 35, 31 in corpora sua citius per furorem saevituros, quam ut Romanam amicitiam violarent.
    • Hor. S. 2, 5, 35 eripiet quivis oculos citius mihi quam te contemptum cassa nuce pauperet.


Re vera, re ipsa, or re alone = really, actually, opposed to in appearance or in name (specie, opinione, nomine, verbo).

  • N. Phoc. 3 causam apud Philippum regem verbo, re ipsa quidem apud Polyperchontem iussus est dicere.
  • Agr. 2, 13 dat praeterea potestatem, verbo praetoriam, re vera regiam.
  • L. 33, 11 venit, specie ut indutiae essent, re vera ad petendam veniam.
  • L. 35, 31, 12 proiecit tum quoque specie liberam Demetriadem esse, re vera omnia ad nutum Romanorum fieri.
  • L. 3, 9, 3 nomine enim tantum minus invidiosum, re ipsa prope atrocius quam regium esse.
  • Quinct. 17, 56 haec ille, si verbis non audet, re quidem vera palam loquitur.
  1. No Latin equivalent is needed for the English really, actually, in fact, where a sentence introduced by ut or sicut is added to confirm an assertion, or express the actuality corresponding to an hypothesis, intention, or injunction.

    • Sal. I. 105 equites rem, uti erat, quietam nuntiant.
    • L. 2, 28 eam rem consules rati, ut erat (as it really was), perniciosam ad patres deferunt.
    • L. 2, 30 multis, ut erat, horrida et atrox videbatur Appi sententia.
    • Brut. 9 suavis, sicut fuit (as he really was), videri maluit quam gravis.
    • Att. 10, 4 (epistulam accepi) saepe legendam, sicuti facio.
    • Lig. 5 si est in exsilio, sicuti est, quid amplius postulatis?
    • Rosc. A. 8 quamvis ille felix sit, sicut est (as is really the case).
    • Or. 1, 53 quamvis scelerati illi fuissent, sicuti fuerunt.
    • Leg. 1, 5 sit ista res magna, sicut est.
    • Phil. 4, 5 incumbite in causam, ut facitis.
    • Caes. 4, 32, 2 Caesar id, quod erat, suspicatus.
    • L. 39, 13 mulier haud dubie, id quod erat, Aebutium indicem arcani rata esse.
  2. Sometimes, however, certe, sane, or profecto is inserted.

    • Brut. 19 sit Ennius sane, ut est certe, perfectior.
    • Tus. 4, 34 sin autem est aliquis amor, ut est certe.
  3. Similarly no such particle as the English really is needed in Latin, where it is added that an event, which was possible, intended, desired, or predicted, actually occurs, or in certain circumstances would have occurred. They could deny and they actually did deny, negare potuerunt, et negaverunt.

    • Tus. 1, 40 ei eam mortem est auguratus, quae brevi consecuta est (which actually occurred soon after).
    • Verr. 2, 38 bona eius statim coepit vendere: et vendidisset, si, etc.
    • Tus. 1, 36, 86 haec morte effugiuntur, etiamsi non evenerunt, tamen, quia possunt evenire.


Ferre rem ad plebem or ad populum, to refer a matter to the people for approval or rejection. Referre rem ad senatum, to refer a matter to the senate, as being a deliberative body. The presiding magistrate had alone the right to submit a matter to the senate, and if he simply made a statement for the information of the senate, he was said “rem ad senatum deferre”. “Reicere rem” is used of a matter rejected by one tribunal and referred to another.

  • L. 4, 30 consul de bello ad populum tulit.
  • L. 8, 21 ex auctoritate patrum latum ad populum est ut Privernatibus civitas daretur.
  • L. 27, 11 ex auctoritate patrum latum ad plebem est plebesque scivit.
  • L. 1, 46, 1 ausus est ferre ad populum, vellent iuberentne se regnare.
  • L. 33, 25, 6 ni prius ipsi ad plebem tulissent, vellent iuberentne cum rege Philippo pacem esse.
  • Verr. 4, 39, 85 refert rem ille ad senatum; vehementer undique reclamatur.
  • L. 26, 32 consul alter de postulatis Siculorum ad patres rettulit.
  • L. 2, 28 eam rem consules rati, ut erat, perniciosam ad patres deferunt.
  • L. 2, 27 senatus a se rem ad populum reiecit.
  • L. 40, 29 ab tribunis ad senatum res est reiecta.
  • L. 27, 8 tribuni appellati ad senatum reiecerunt.


(De)negare, to refuse what is asked; reicere, what is offered; recusare, what is either asked or offered. He refused the tribute, tributum (de tributo) recusavit; he refused to pay the tribute, recusavit, ne tributum penderet [recuso is rather I object, I give reasons (causae, cf., for the spelling, claudo and cludo) against, protest (see Reid on Mil., § 100)].

  • Att. 7, 2 quod postulabam, id negavit.
  • Att. 4, 1, 7 nihil Pompeio postulanti negarunt.
  • Or. 2, 29, 128 nihil tibi a me postulanti negabo.
  • Caes. C. 1, 32, 6 expetita conloquia et denegata.
  • Caes. 1, 42 cum id quod antea petenti denegasset, ultro polliceretur.
  • Phil. 2, 34 ille diadema cum plausu reiciebat.
  • Off. 3, 27 Regulus sententiam ne diceret recusavit.
  • Ac. 2, 3, 7 non possumus, quin alii a nobis dissentiant, recusare.
  • Att. 1, 8, 1 quod ille recusarat satisdare amplius abs te non peti.
  • Caes. C. 1, 32, 5 qui, quod ab altero postularent, in se recusarent.
  • L. 28, 40, 10 recusantem … quo minus … imperium mecum aequaretur.
  • Fin. 1, 3, 7 nec vero … recusabo, quo minus omnes mea legant.
  • Caes. 5, 41 ut nihil nisi hiberna recusent.
  • Caes. 1, 44 si pace uti velint iniquum esse de stipendio recusare.

He refused to go, recusavit ne iret (the only classical construction); he did not refuse to go, non recusavit quin (quo minus) iret, or (sometimes) non recusavit ire. The infinitive is used only in negative or quasi-negative sentences (not in Cicero). Nec adhuc repertus est quisquam qui mori recusaret (Caes. 3, 22).


Regnare, to reign, as a king; imperare, as an emperor. In the reign of Romulus = Romulo regnante (rege); in the reign of Tiberius, Tiberio imperante (principe, imperatore).

Regnare is always neuter in good prose, and consequently is not used personally in the passive, as it is in Tac. H. 1, 16 gentibus, quae regnantur. The passive is admissible only in impersonal constructions, e.g., L. 1, 60 regnatum Romae ab condita urbe ad liberatam, Rome was a monarchy from the foundation of the city till its liberation.

  • L. 4, 4 augures Romulo regnante nulli erant.
  • L. 1, 17, 11 ut senatus decerneret qui Romae regnaret.
  • Tac. H. 1, 16 imperaturus es hominibus, qui nec totam servitutem pati possunt nec totam libertatem (you are to reign over men who cannot bear either absolute slavery or absolute freedom).


Cognati* include all relations who trace their descent to the legitimate marriage of a common pair; agnati embrace that portion of the cognati who trace their descent exclusively through males; adfinis, a relation by marriage, is used of the relationship between the husband and the cognati of his wife, and between the wife and the cognati of her husband, e.g., socer, gener, nurus; propinquus (with or without genere) is a general term, less definite than cognati = near of kin, a kinsman. In the strictest sense, germani is used of children born of the same father and mother, uterini of the same mother, consanguinei of the same father. Consanguinei is often applied to nations which have a common origin. Necessarii, connected by friendship or other intimate tie, not related by blood or marriage.

* If we begin with the father and mother, we have the relationship of brothers and sisters, if we take the grandfather and grandmother, cognation expresses the relationship of uncles and aunts and their descendants. The higher up the line of ascent we choose our starting-point, the more we multiply the number of cognates. If we take a table of cognates and omit all the descendants of females, we get a table or genealogical tree of agnates. The agnates also included all persons male or female who were admitted into the family by adoption. The person adopted, though still a cognatus with respect to his own family, became an agnatus of the family he entered. Hence, cognation was in one sense wider, in another narrower, than agnation. Agnation was based on the patria potestas of the father. If a son was emancipated by his father, he lost all rights of agnation, and if a daughter married, herself and her children fell under the patria potestas of her husband.—Maine’s Ancient Law.

  • L. 26, 50 parentes inde cognatique virginis appellati.
  • L. 26, 60 orabant, ut sibi liberos fratres cognatosque redderent.
  • Verr. 2, 10 ut quisque te maxime cognatione, adfinitate, necessitudine aliqua attingebat, ita maxime manus tua putabatur.
  • Post. Red. S. 7 tu meum generum, propinquum tuum, tu adfinem tuam, filiam meam, crudelissimis verbis a genibus tuis reppulisti.
  • Off. 1, 17 cari sunt parentes, cari liberi, propinqui, familiares.
  • Fin. 5, 1 L. Cicero, frater noster cognatione patruelis, amore germanus (by relationship, my father’s brother; by affection, my true brother).
  • Caes. 1, 11 Ambarri necessarii et consanguinei Haeduorum.


Memini legere, I remember to read (as a duty); memini me legere or legisse, I remember reading (as a fact).

  • Att. 15, 26 Varroni memineris excusare tarditatem litterarum mearum.
  • L. 30, 42 populum Romanum eo invictum esse, quod in secundis rebus sapere et consulere meminerit.
  • Hor. C. 2, 3, 1 aequam memento rebus in arduis servare mentem.
  • Att. 5, 9, 2 memento curare per te … ut … maneat.
  • Iuv. 5, 7 dextram cohibere memento.
  • Am. 3 memini Catonem disserere.
  • Fam. 9, 16 memini te mihi Pharmeae cenam narrare.
  • Att. 14, 14, 3 nonne meministi clamare te omnia perisse?
  • Fam. 9, 22, 2 memini in senatu disertum consularem ita eloqui.
  • L. 34, 31, 13 tum me regem appellari a vobis memini.
  • Rosc. A. 42 meministis me ita distribuisse initio causam.
  1. If a person who remembers an occurrence was a witness of it, he may graphically recall it as a present transaction, in which case the present infinitive is used; but if he simply recalls the fact or the result of the occurrence, the perfect infinitive is used. Memini te dubitare = I remember the incident; memini te dubitasse = I recollect the fact.

    • Sest. 22 memineram C. Marium senile corpus paludibus occultasse (not occultare) demersum.
  2. Memini patrem = I still remember my father; memini patris = I think of my father. “Memini de patre” is not Ciceronian. De Planco (= quod ad Plancum attinet) memini (Att. 15, 27).

    • Fin. 5, 1 vivorum memini (I am mindful of the living).
    • L. 5, 54, 3 minus iniuriae vestrae quam meae calamitatis meminisse iuvat.
    • L. 10, 37, 8 vestrae maiestatis meminero.
    • Sen. 5, 14 Reid quem quidem probe meminisse potestis.
    • Phil. 5, 6 Cinnam memini, vidi Sullam, modo Caesarem (I remember Cinna, I have seen Sulla, and just lately Caesar).

Memento mori is modern Latin for memento mortem, or memento te moriturum esse, te mortalem esse, hominem te esse natum.


Tollere, to take away, opposed to relinquere or restituere e.g., statuam sustulit, he removed (took away) the statue; removere, to shift the place of a thing, e.g., librum removit, he removed the book, i.e., put it out of the way; transferre, to transfer a thing from one place to another, e.g., Constantinus imperii sedem a Roma ad Constantinopolim transtulit, Constantine removed the seat of government from Rome to Constantinople.

  • Verr. 4, 34 simulacrum Dianae tollendum locatur.
  • Off. 3, 31 Pomponius remotis arbitris ad se adulescentem iussit venire.
  • L. 27, 28 Hasdrubal castra in tumulum, in quo pugnatum erat, extemplo transfert.
  • N. Ar. 3 quae omnis pecunia Athenas translata est.

Migrare, to change one’s place of abode. He removed to Athens, Athenas migravit.


Rumor, a report or rumour circulated either openly or secretly respecting a recent occurrence; fama, a prevalent report publicly circulated respecting either a recent or a traditional event. The rumores are the individual communications, and though referring to one and the same thing may be many in number; fama indicates the survival of the fittest, and becomes the public expression of what is seen, heard, or believed. A tradition is prevalent, fama (not rumor) valet.

  • Ter. And. 1, 2, 14 (185) meum gnatum rumor est amare.
  • Caes. 6, 20, 1 quis quid de re publica a finitimis rumore aut fama acceperit.
  • Sall. C. 29, 1 rem ad senatum refert, iam antea volgi rumoribus exagitatam.
  • Fam. 1, 8 rem te valde bene gessisse rumor erat.
  • Caes. C. 1, 53 multa rumor affingebat.
  • L. 26, 26 otium, ut solet, excitavit plebis rumores.
  • L. 28, 24 de vita imperatoris dubii rumores allati sunt.
  • Fam. 12, 9 nihil perfertur ad nos praeter rumores, satis illos quidem constantes, sed adhuc sine auctore.
  • Pomp. 9 calamitas tanta, ut eam ad aures Luculli non ex proelio nuntius, sed ex sermone rumor afferret.
  • Caes. 6, 30 accidit ut prius eius adventus ab hominibus videretur, quam fama ac nuntius afferretur.
  • L, 1, 7 vulgatior fama est ludibrio fratris Remum novos transiluisse muros.
  • L, 21, 1, 4 fama est etiam, Hannibalem … iure iurando adactum (esse).

Fama is rarely used in the plural. Two reports, duplex fama; many reports, multiplex fama. Duplex inde fama est (L. 1, 1).


Facere, to represent = inducere, fingere, takes either the participle or the infinitive. Livy represents Camillus as thus speaking, Livius Camillum ita loqui or loquentem facit.

  • Tus. 5, 39 Polyphemum Homerus cum ariete colloquentem facit eiusque fortunas laudare, quod qua vellet ingredi posset.
  • Sen. 15, 54 Homerus Laertam colentem agrum facit.

Cf. Am. 1, 4 Catonem induxi senem disputantem.

  • N. D. 3, 15 quem Homerus apud inferos conveniri facit ab Ulixe.

Facere is followed by the subjunctive with (sometimes without) ut, when it means to cause, bring about; by the infinitive, when it means to imagine, suppose.

  • Att. 4, 8b statim fac ut sciam (do let me know at once).
  • Att. 13, 24 facies ergo ut sciam (you will be good enough, therefore, to let me know).
  • Sall. C. 44, 5 fac cogites, in quanta calamitate sis.
  • Att. 14, 14, 2 fac id potuisse aliquo modo.
  • Phil. 5, 5, 13 sed fac non esse (but suppose that is not the case).
  • N. D. 1, 27, 75 fac id … mihi esse persuasum (suppose that I am convinced).
  • Fam. 15, 18 facio me alias res agere.

Pythagoras is represented as coming to Italy at that time, Pythagoras eo tempore in Italiam venisse dicitur; to him he represented the ease with which the city might be taken, ei ostendit quam facile urbs capi posset. Truth was represented under the figure of a woman with a torch in her hand, efficta est veritas sub imagine mulieris lampada manu tenentis.


Abire magistratu, to resign or go out of office at the expiry of the usual or fixed term; abdicare se magistratu, to resign office voluntarily, before the regular time expires.

  • L. 2, 27 tandem invisi plebi consules magistratu abeunt.
  • L. 5, 31 cum ex senatus consulto consules magistratu se abdicassent, interrex creatur Camillus.
  • L. 2, 21 Postumius, quia collega dubiae fidei fuit, se consulatu abdicavit.
  • L. 4, 24 ut sciatis, quam mihi diuturna non placeant imperia, dictatura me abdico.
  • L. 9, 34, 14 dictatura se abdicavit.


Quies, rest, in opposition to activity, absolute rest, hence used for somnus or mors; requies, rest after activity, recreation.

  • Cat. 4, 4 mors laborum ac miseriarum quies est.
  • L. 1, 31, 5 nulla tamen ab armis quies dabatur a bellicoso rege.
  • Off. 2, 2 sive oblectatio quaeritur animi requiesque curarum.
  • Or. 1, 60 aliquid ad requiem senectutis excogitat.


Ceteri, the rest in a general sense, especially as contrasted with those named, hence always praeter ceteros; reliqui, the rest in an arithmetical sense, the remainder, hence always reliqui duo, reliqui tres.

  • Arch. 3 hunc Tarentini civitate ceterisque praemiis donarunt.
  • Arch. 6 ceteros pudeat; me autem quid pudeat?
  • Fam. 14, 9 ad ceteras meas miserias accessit dolor de Dolabellae valetudine.
  • N. D. 1, 34 cur igitur, cum ceteris rebus inferiores simus, forma pares sumus?
  • Fam. 13, 78 Democritus Sicyonius me praeter ceteros colit.
  • Tus. 1, 47 iudicavisse deum dicunt, et eum quidem deum, cui reliqui di concessissent, ut praeter ceteros divinaret.
  • L. 9, 15 Samnitium imperator sub iugum cum ceteris est missus.
  • Verr. 3, 6 inter Siciliam ceterasque provincias hoc interest.
  • N. Ep. 1 haec praecipienda videntur lectoribus, ne ea apud ceteros fuisse arbitrentur.
  • Sall. I. 53 elephanti quattuor capti, reliqui omnes interfecti.
  • Caes. 4, 38 duae omnino civitates obsides miserunt, reliquae neglexerunt.
  • Caes. C. 1, 13 nonnulla pars militum domum discedit; reliqui ad Caesarem perveniunt.
  • Caes. 7, 50 duobus interfectis reliquos a porta paululum submovit.
  • Tus. 1, 38 quasi vero quisquam ita nonaginta annos velit vivere, ut, cum sexaginta confecerit, reliquos dormiat!

Alii is frequently found in Livy (seldom in writers before his time) in the sense of ceteri, e.g., 26, 8 Iovem deosque alios. So likewise from Livy onwards ante alios or ante omnes is common for praeter ceteros = in greater measure than others. Prae ceteris would mean that the quality in question does not attach to the others at all. Tu prae nobis beatus (es), your lot is a happy one compared with ours (Fam. 4, 4, 2).


Redire, with reference to the return journey, in opposition to iter facere. He was slain as he was returning from dinner,

occisus est a cena rediens. Reverti, to turn or come back (opposed to proficisci), especially to turn back before the end of the journey has been reached. He had scarcely travelled two days when, warned in a dream, he turned back, vix bidui viam progressus erat cum somnio monitus revertit. Revenire, to return, revisit, is not found in Caesar or Livy, and in the few instances in which it occurs in Cicero is always joined with domum.

  • L. 10, 5 dictator triumphans in urbem rediit (“reverti” would not do here, as the manner of the return is expressed).
  • Phil. 8, 11 redeat ad imperatorem suum Varius, sed ea lege ne umquam Romam revertatur.
  • Tus. 5, 37 qui, semel egressi, numquam domum reverterunt.
  • Div. 1, 15 Deiotarus persaepe revertit ex itinere, cum iam progressus esset multorum dierum viam (“redire” here inadmissible).
  • Phil. 2, 30 quaerebat cur ego ex ipso cursu tam subito revertissem.
  • Caes. 4, 4 tridui viam progressi rursus reverterunt.
  • Att. 16, 7 quam valde ille reditu vel potius reversione mea laetatus effudit illa omnia quae tacuerat! (in his delight at my return, or turning back rather, how he poured out joyously everything he had kept in silence!).
  • Or. 1, 40 postea Mancinus domum revenit.

Let us return to Italy, redeamus in Italiam (to the country), ad Italiam (to the subject). Sed ad iter Italiamque redeamus (Phil. 2, 39).


Praemium, a reward of merit, a prize which confers distinction on the recipient = ἆθλον; merces (from mereo), pay for services rendered, fee, hire = μισθός; pretium, that for or by which anything is bought or sold = ὦνος. At what prices are pigs sold here? quibus hic pretiis porci veneunt?

  • Caes. 6, 13 Druides praemia poenasque constituunt.
  • L. 8, 12 praemiis poenaque pro cuiusque merito persolutis, Manlius Romam rediit.
  • Fam. 10, 10 honos virtutis est praemium.
  • N. Praef. nulla Lacedaemoni tam est nobilis vidua, quae non ad cenam eat, mercede conducta (hired by wages = tempted by a present).
  • Fam. 16, 14 medico, mercedis quantum poscet, promitti iubeto.
  • Phil. 2, 4 iam invideo magistro tuo qui te tanta mercede nihil sapere doceat (who teaches you for so high a fee to know nothing).
  • L. 41, 20 voluntarios facile paravit gladiatores, operam ultro ad depugnandum exigua mercede offerentes.
  • Verr. 3, 98 annona pretium nisi in calamitate fructuum non habet (corn is of no value except when there is a damage of crops. In late Latin, “pretium non habere,” to have no price = to be above price).
  • Rosc. C. 12 iacent pretia praediorum (the prices of landed estates are low).

Operae pretium est, it is worth while; magni, parvi, preti esse, to be high or low in price, of great or of small value.


Iure, with good cause, justifiably, deservedly; iuste, righteously, uprightly; recte, properly, correctly, in due form; rite, according to ceremonial usage.

  • Fin. 2, 1 Socrates parens philosophiae iure dici potest (Socrates may be rightly styled the father of philosophy).
  • Off. 2, 8 iure igitur plectimur (we are deservedly punished then).
  • Mil. 3 cum interrogaretur quid de Gracchi morte sentiret, respondit iure (justifiably) caesum videri.
  • N. D. 3, 36 propter virtutem iure laudamur et in virtute recte gloriamur.
  • L. 5, 27 sunt et belli sicut pacis iura, iusteque ea non minus quam fortiter didicimus gerere.
  • N. D. 3, 3 haec, si recte memini, partitio fuit.
  • Fin. 1, 11 doloris omnis privatio recte nominata est voluptas (complete absence of pain is rightly called pleasure).
  • L. 37, 14 sacrificio, ut adsolet, rite facto, Aemilius consilium advocavit.


Fluvius, a river simply as a geographical term; flumen, not fluvius, is used if the reference is to the stream or current, or if the sense is metaphorical, e.g., adverso flumine (not fluvio), flumen orationis, flumen verborum. Amnis is used of the strength or vastness of a flowing stream.

  • Tus. 1, 39 apud Hypanim fluvium Aristoteles ait bestiolas quasdam nasci, quae unum diem vivant.
  • L. 1, 3, 5 ut Etruscis Latinisque fluvius Albula, quem nunc Tiberim vocant, finis esset.
  • L. 26, 10, 3 ad Anienem fluvium tria millia passuum ab urbe castra admovit.
  • Div. 1, 35 tantos terrae motus factos esse, ut flumina in contrarias partes fluxerint atque in amnes mare influxerit.
  • L. 1, 3 Tiberinus in traiectu Albulae amnis submersus celebre ad posteros nomen flumini dedit.
  • R. P. 2, 19, 34 influxit enim non tenuis quidam e Graecia rivulus in hanc urbem, sed abundantissimus amnis illarum disciplinarum et artium.
  • L. 23, 19, 11 imbribus deinde continuis citatior solito amnis (a river swifter than its wont).
  • Or. 2, 45 tantum est flumen gravissimorum verborum.

A flood of tears, vis (not flumen) lacrimarum. Quem ut vidi, equidem vim lacrimarum profudi (Som. Scip. 14(3), 14).


Praedo is a general term for a robber, one who makes booty whether by sea or land; latro, a highwayman, a bandit, with the accessory notion of fierceness; pirata, a pirate = praedo maritimus; raptor and direptor, the robber of a particular person or thing.

  • L. 38, 40 alibi praedo, alibi praedae vindex cadit.
  • Mil. 21 non semper viator a latrone, non numquam latro a viatore occiditur.
  • Verr. 3, 80 classis pulcherrima piratarum manibus incensa est.
  • Pl. Trin. 2, 1, 22 (254) raptores panis et peni.


Romanus, with reference to the people and the state; Latinus, with reference to speech and literature; populus Romanus (not Romanus populus), the Roman people; litterae Latinae, Roman literature; poetae Latini, the Roman poets. The monument bore an inscription in Roman and Greek characters, litteris Latinis Graecisque monumentum inscriptum est.

  • Brut. 33 damnum enim illius immaturo interitu res Romanae Latinaeque litterae fecerunt.
  • L. 40, 29 litteris Latinis Graecisque utraque arca scripta erat.
  • Fin. 1, 3 sentio et saepe disserui, Latinam linguam non modo non inopem, sed locupletiorem etiam esse quam Graecam.
  • Ac. 1, 3 quid enim causae est cur poetas Latinos Graecis litteris eruditi legant, philosophos non legant?

“Quirites” is a civil appellation = lance-men or burgesses. In every rude community the function of men is to bear arms. Among the Anglo-Saxons men and women were distinguished as “spearside” and “spindleside”. In the early days of Rome the duty of bearing arms devolved on the burgesses, and the burgesses only. Hence “quirites” or lance-men came to be synonymous with burgesses.

Quiris, quiritis, or quirinus, literally means [according to some] lance-bearer, from quiris or curis = lance and ire. The Iuno quiritis, the (Mars) quirinus, the Ianus quirinus are primarily characterised by that epithet as divinities that hurl the spear; and, when used in reference to men, quiris denotes the warrior, that is, the full burgess. With this view the usus loquendi coincides. Where the locality was meant to be referred to, “quirites” was never used, but always “Rome” and “Romans” (urbs Roma, populus, civis, ager Romanus), because the term quiris had as little of a local meaning as civis or miles. For the same reasons these designations could not be combined: they did not say civis quiris, because both denoted, though from different points of view, the same conception in law. On the other hand, the solemn announcement of the funeral of a burgess ran in the words: “This warrior has departed in death” (ollus quiris leto datus); and in like manner the party aggrieved employed this word in calling the burgesses to aid him (quiritare); the king addressed the assembled community by this name; and, when he sat in judgment, he spoke according to the law of the warrior-freemen (ex iure quiritium), quite similar to the later ex iure civili. The phrase populus Romanus quirites thus means “the community and the individual burgesses”. Populus Romanus quiritium corresponds to the well-known phrases colonia colonorum, municipium municipum (Mommsen).

  • L. 45, 37 nec quirites vos, sed milites videor appellaturus.
  • L. 5, 41 populus Romanus quiritium.


Rosa, in good prose, is used only in the singular = a rose, or roses. Many roses, multa rosa; on a bed of roses, in rosa. The plural is poetic and post-classical.

  • Verr. 5, 11 cum rosam (roses) viderat, tunc incipere ver arbitrabatur.
  • Hor. C. 1, 36, 15 neu desint epulis rosae.


Regius, belonging to or characteristic of a king, magnificent = quod regis est. Regalis, befitting a king = quod rege dignum est.

  • Off. 3, 9 erat autem regius pastor.
  • Verr. 5, 72, 184 Iuppiter optime maxime, quoius iste donum regale … dignum regio munere, tibi factum ab regibus … de manibus regiis extorsit.
  • Sall. I. 54, 4 praeter regios equites nemo omnium Numida ex fuga regem sequitur.
  • Off. 1, 12, 39 regalis sane et digna Aeacidarum genere sententia.
  • L. 1, 47 te domus regia et in domo regale solium et nomen Tarquinium creat vocatque regem.
  • L. 27, 19 dixit regium nomen alibi magnum, Romae intolerabile esse; regalem animum in se esse tacite iudicarent.

“Royal” in certain cases must be rendered by rex or regina. The royal prophet, rex vates (the person being both king and prophet). The royal shepherd, rex pastor. Regius pastor would mean the shepherd belonging to the king. Regina sacerdos, the royal priestess. Regius or regia sacerdos, the priest or priestess belonging to the king or queen.

  • Div. 1, 40 reges augures rempublicam religionum auctoritate rexerunt.
  • Off. 3, 9 regem dominum interemit (he murdered his royal master).


Regula, a test or standard; lex or praeceptum, a regulation or maxim; praecepta loquendi, the rules of grammar, as a body of precepts; regula (not regulae) loquendi, the rules of grammar, as a code according to which correct speaking is judged.

  • Brut. 41 regula qua vera et falsa iudicarentur.
  • Off. 1, 31 nos studia nostra nostrae naturae regula metiamur.
  • Off. 3, 18 eadem utilitatis quae honestatis est regula.
  • Leg. 1, 6, 19 ea iuris atque iniuriae regula.
  • Or. 3, 49 hanc ad legem formanda nobis oratio est.
  • Off. 1, 3, 7 officiorum praecepta traduntur.
  • Off. 2, 13 quaedam praecepta danda sunt.
  • Or. 3, 13 praetereamus igitur praecepta Latine loquendi.


Rusticus, belonging to the country, in opposition to the town, engaged in country operations; agrestis is stronger than rusticus, wild, as though growing or bred in the fields, hence uncouth, boorish. The “rusticus” violates the conventional, the “agrestis” the natural, laws of good breeding. Rusticanus, milder than rusticus, is used of one who has been brought up or who lives in the country, often applied to the inhabitant of a municipium or free town, e.g., homines rusticani ex municipiis. Vita rusticana, country life = a life spent in the country; vita rustica, country life = a life spent in rural occupations; vita agrestis, country life = the clownish life of a peasant. The country youth, iuventus rusticana, not rustica.

  • Rosc. A. 27 vita haec rustica, quam tu agrestem vocas, parcimoniae magistra est (this country life, boorish as you call it, is the teacher of thrift).
  • L. 10, 4 iubet peritos linguae adtendere animum, pastorum sermo agresti an urbano propior esset.
  • L. 9, 36 iere pastorali habitu, agrestibus telis, falcibus gaesisque binis, armati.
  • Tus. 2, 22 Marius rusticanus vir, sed plane vir, cum secaretur, vetuit se alligari.
  • Att. 8, 13 multum mecum municipales homines loquuntur, multum rusticani (the people of the municipal towns and the country squires talk a good deal with me).


Salvus, safe, opposed to being destroyed; incolumis, safe, opposed to being touched, especially as having passed through danger, unscathed; sospes (mostly poetic), safe and sound by the blessing of heaven; tutus, safe objectively, free from danger; securus, safe subjectively, not apprehending danger, free from fear. A person is “tutus” when he is in safety, “securus” when he believes himself to be so. Ne sit securus, qui non est tutus ab hoste, let him not feel secure, who is not safe from the enemy.

  • Fam. 8, 14 Caesari autem persuasum est, se salvum esse non posse, si ab exercitu recesserit.
  • Phil. 1, 8 aliter enim nostri negant posse se salvos esse.
  • Caes. C. 2, 32 an paenitet vos quod salvum atque incolumem exercitum transduxerim?
  • L. 9, 9 dedite interea profanos nos, quos salva religione potestis.
  • L. 30, 25 navis tantum iactura facta, incolumes ipsi evaserunt.
  • Caes. 6, 40 per medios hostes perrumpunt incolumesque ad unum omnes in castra perveniunt.
  • Caes. 7, 88 pauci ex tanto numero se incolumes in castra recipiunt.
  • Mil. 34, 93 (Milo’s reported words) valeant cives mei; sint incolumes, sint florentes, sint beati.
  • L. 2, 13 sospites omnes Romam ad propinquos restituit.
  • L. 22, 7 unam feminam sospiti filio repente oblatam in complexu eius exspirasse ferunt (one woman unexpectedly meeting her son, who had miraculously escaped, is said to have died in his arms).
  • N. Dion. 7 nemo enim, illo interfecto, se tutum putabat.
  • L. 3, 44, 8 iam a vi tută erat.
  • Flacc. 20 securus Hermippus Temnum proficiscitur.
  • Sen. Ep. 97, 13 tuta scelera esse possunt, secura non possunt.
  1. Incolumis is also used in a political sense of “one whose position is unimpaired,” i.e., ono who has not incurred a conviction (calamitas) involving total or partial forfeiture of civil rights.

    • Att. 3, 15 si tu incolumis me requiris, quo modo a me ipsam incolumitatem desiderari putas? (if you, who are in full possession of your rights, regret my absence, how bitterly, think you, must I feel the loss of those very rights?).
  2. Tuto is generally used instead of “tutus,” if the reference is to a safe place = in security.

    • Att. 8, 1 tu, censeo, Luceriam venias; nusquam eris tutius.
    • Att. 14, 22, 2 mihi videntur ubivis tutius quam in senatu fore.
    • Att. 8, 11a te hic tutissime puto fore.
    • Fam. 14, 3, 3 ut tuto sim.
    • Fam. 11, 5, 1 in iis locis, in quibus maxime tuto me esse arbitrabar.
    • N. Con. 2, 1 ubi ipse tuto viveret.
    • Sall. I. 14 extorrem patria et domo effecit, ut ubivis tutius quam in meo regno essem (so that I was safer anywhere than in my own kingdom).


Idem qui = the same as; rarely idem ac or atque, and only when the same verb is repeated or understood.

This is the same as that, hoc idem est quod illud. Plato held the same opinion as Pythagoras, Plato idem sensit quod (atque) Pythagoras. Plato held the same opinion as Pythagoras had taught, Plato idem sensit quod (not atque) Pythagoras docuerat.

  • Fin. 4, 3 iidem abeunt, qui venerant (they go away just as they came).
  • Verr. 5, 15 idem, qui semper fueras, inventus es.
  • Ter. Haut. 265 nam et vitast eadem et animus te ergo idem ac fuit.
  • Dom. 20, 51 unum et idem videtur esse atque id, quod de me ipso nominatim tulisti.
  • Plin. ep. 2, 6, 4 liberti mei non idem quod ego bibunt, sed idem ego quod liberti.


Inquam is often used to repeat and emphasise a word or statement. You, you, I say, kindled those torches, tu, tu, inquam, illas faces incendisti.

  • Mil. 25 tuas, inquam, suspiciones perhorrescimus.
  • Planc. 36 armis fuit, armis, inquam, fuit dimicandum.
  • Verr. 5, 62, 162 crux, crux, inquam, infelici et aerumnoso … comparabatur.
  • Tus. 1, 31, 75 nam quid aliud agimus, … quid, inquam, tum agimus?

But if the repetition is expressed interrogatively, or in a qualified form, dico is used. We, the consuls, we, I say frankly, are wanting in decision, nos, nos, dico (not inquam) aperte, consules desumus. Unless the antecedent word is in the nominative, the construction is not affected by dico.

  • Phil. 14, 5 tanta multitudine hostium interfecta, (hostium dico; ita, inquam, hostium).
  • Sest. 24 illo, inquam, ipso die—die dico, immo hora atque etiam puncto temporis eodem.
  • L. 31, 7, 8 Pyrrho certe aequabitis, “aequabitis” dico?
  • Sest. 25, 55 nam latae quidem sunt consulibus illis—tacentibus dicam?
  • Flacc. 5, 13 qui comitatus in inquirendo! Comitatum dico.
  • Att. 16, 15, 5 me res familiaris movet. Rem dico; immo vero existimatio.


Non modo (not non solum) = non dico (or dicam) implies that the first clause contains too much, and that we must abide by the second and more limited one = descensio ad minus.

  • L. 39, 31 si illi loco cedant, neminem ejus exercitus non modo Italiam sed ne Tagi ulteriorem ripam umquam visurum.
  • Caecil. 18 quid habes quod possis dicere quam ob rem non modo mihi sed cuiquam anteponare? (I do not say to me, but to any one at all).
  • Verr. 3, 31, 73 an poterat, non modo Apronius, sed quivis, … improbare Siculum frumentum?
  • Sest. 50, 108 quis non modo adprobavit, sed non indignissimum facinus putavit illum non dicam loqui, sed vivere ac spirare?
  • L. 4, 3, 11 L. Tarquinium non Romanae modo sed ne Italicae quidem gentis.
  • L. 24, 8, 15 create consulem T. Otacilium, non dico, si omnia haec, sed si aliquid eorum rei publicae praestitit.
  • Mil. 13 quid erat cur Milo non dicam admitteret, sed optaret?
  • Phil. 13, 19 tibi cum Lepido societas aut cum ullo, non dicam bono cive, sed homine sano?
  • Pis. 23 quis tibi, non dicam horum civium, sed tuorum legatorum obviam venit?
  • Fin. 2, 28 an id exploratum cuiquam potest esse, quo modo se hoc habiturum sit corpus, non dico ad annum, sed ad vesperum?
  • Tus. 1, 12 ego enim istuc ipsum vereor ne malum sit, non dico carere sensu, sed carendum esse.

Non modo, going with the second clause = a fortiori, i.e. much more or much less, according as the leading assertion is positive or negative.

  • Fam. 4, 14 secundas etiam res nostras, non modo adversas, pertimescebam (non modo, and not only = and much more).
  • Ac. 2, 29 per me vel stertas licet, non modo quiescas (much more sleep).
  • Att. 8, 12 nihil praetermissum est quod non habeat sapientem excusationem, non modo probabilem (non modo, and not merely = much more (probabilis) plausible).
  • Div. 2, 55 (Apollinis oracula) numquam ne mediocri quidem cuiquam, non modo prudenti, probata sunt.

Sometimes non dico = adscensus ad maius.

  • Leg. 1, 7 quid est autem, non dicam in homine, sed in omni caelo atque terra, ratione divinius?
  • Mil. 13 haec, non dico, maiora fuerunt in Clodio, quam in Milone, sed in illo maxima, nulla in hoc.
  • Fam. 11, 17 magna eius in me, non dico officia, sed merita.

Vel dicam = vel potius. Mihi placebat Pomponius maxime, vel dicam minime displicebat (Brut. 57). A plerisque, vel dicam ab omnibus (Fam. 4, 7).

Dico or non dico in independent sentences often = I will or will not say. All I will say, hoc unum dico; I will not say that, illud non dico; similarly, I will not hope, non spero.

  • Quinct. 24, 76 emisti bona Sex. Alfeni L. Sulla dictatore vendente; socium tibi in his bonis edidisti Quinctium. Plura non dico.


As they say, as people say, as the proverb or the phrase goes = ut aiunt, ut dicitur, not ut dicunt; but we can say ut Graeci (Stoici, poetae) dicunt.

  • Or. 2, 44 facilius est currentem, ut aiunt, incitare quam commovere languentem (it is easier to spur on a galloping horse, as the proverb goes, than to move a sluggish one).
  • Off. 3, 33 cum his “viris equisque,” ut dicitur (as the proverb is), decertandum est.
  • L. 7, 13, 7 conpressis, quod aiunt, manibus.
  • Ac. 2, 18, 58 ab hac mihi non licet transversum, ut aiunt, digitum discedere.
  • Phil. 12, 2, 5 posteriores enim cogitationes, ut aiunt, sapientiores solent esse.
  • Tus. 2, 24, 58 toto pectore, ut dicitur, cogitare.
  • Fam. 1, 6 praesta te eum, qui mihi “a teneris,” ut Graeci dicunt (as the Greeks say), “unguiculis” es cognitus.

As Ennius says, ut ait Ennius, rarely, if ever, ut Ennius ait.


Vix, almost not, is a modified negative; aegre, with much ado, is affirmative. Vix refers to a result all but not accomplished, in opposition to omnino non; aegre refers to a process accomplished with difficulty, in opposition to facile. Pons vix defensus est, the bridge was all but not defended; pons aegre defensus est, the bridge was defended, but the operation was difficult.

  • Att 3, 23 vix aut omnino non (almost or altogether not).
  • Att. 11, 9 quas (res) sustinere vix possum, vel plane nullo modo possum.
  • Caes. 6, 37 aegre portas nostri tuentur.
  • Sen. 20 omnis conglutinatio recens aegre, inveterata facile divellitur.

We say “dici vix potest” or “vix potest dici,” not “vix dici potest”.


Ars fingendi, or ars signa faciendi (not sculptura). So fictor (not sculptor) = a sculptor.

  • Or. 3, 7 una fingendi est ars.
  • N. D. 1, 29, 81 deos ea facie novimus, qua pictores fictoresque voluerunt.


Sedes is abstract = a place for sitting, whether natural or artificial; sella is concrete = a seat of a particular description, a movable seat, a chair, a stool, e.g., sella aurea, sella curulis. Sedile for sella is poetic and post-Augustan.

  • Or. 3, 5 et enim est in eo loco sedes huic nostro non importuna sermoni.
  • Verr. 4, 25 hominem in foro iubet sellam ponere.
  • Phil. 2, 34 sedebat in rostris conlega tuus in sella aurea.
  • Fam. 9, 18 sella tibi erit in ludo (a teacher’s chair).


Secundus [= sequondus, from sequor], the second in rank or order, in opposition to primus; alter, a second, the other, or another, in opposition to unus. He was considered second to Romulus, secundus a Romulo habitus est. He was considered a second Romulus, alter Romulus habitus est. Alter sometimes follows primus, in the sense of one more, the precedence or order being immaterial.

  • L. 7, 1 dignus habitus est quem secundum a Romulo conditorem urbis Romanae ferrent.
  • L. 2, 20 dictator fertur pronuntiasse militi praemia, qui primus, qui secundus castra hostium intrasset.
  • Div. 1, 30 Rhodius quidam moriens sex aequales nominavit et dixit qui primus eorum, qui secundus, qui deinde deinceps moriturus esset.
  • Brut. 47 nec enim in quadrigis eum secundum numeraverim aut tertium, qui vix e carceribus exierit, cum palmam iam primus acceperit.
  • L. 22, 29 saepe ego audivi eum primum esse virum, qui ipse sibi consulat, quid in rem sit, secundum eum, qui bene monenti oboediat.
  • Sall. I. 65 quem Micipsa testamento secundum (not alterum) heredem scripserat (had named in his will as his second heir).
  • N. Pel. 4 denique haec (Pelopidas) fuit altera persona Thebis, sed tamen secunda ita, ut proxima esset Epaminondae (in short, Pelopidas was the second of two great personages in Thebes, but only so far second that he came very near Epaminondas).
  • Fin. 3, 16, 52 non ea, quae primo loco sunt, sed ea, quae secundum locum obtinent.
  • Off. 1, 45, 160 prima dis inmortalibus, secunda patriae, tertia parentibus, deinceps gradatim reliquis.
  • Verr. 5, 56, 145 alter non Dionysius ille nec Phalaris.
  • Top. 21, 81 unum (genus) cognitionis alterum actionis.
  • Sen. 5, 15 Reid unam (causam), quod (senectus) avocet a rebus gerendis, alteram, quod corpus faciat infirmius, tertiam, quod privet fere omnibus voluptatibus, quartam, quod haud procul absit a morte.
  • Mil. 35 centesima lux est ab interitu Clodi et altera (it is a hundred and one days since Clodius perished).
  • Or. 2, 58 de risu quinque sunt, quae quaerantur; unum quid sit; alterum unde sit; tertium, sitne oratoris risum velle movere; quartum, quatenus; quintum, quae sint genera ridiculi.
  • Tus. 3, 20 tria sunt; unum gaudere; alterum dolere; tertium nec gaudere nec dolere.
  • Brut. 89 erat Hortensius in bello primo anno miles, altero (in one year more) tribunus militum.
  • Or. 2, 29 harum trium partium prima lenitatem orationis, secunda acumen, tertia vim desiderat.
  • Clu. 64 unum, alterum, tertium annum Sassia quiescebat.
  • Fam. 12, 25 altero vicesimo die litteras reddidit (on the two and twentieth day he delivered the letter).
  • Phil. 13, 13 est quidem alter Saserna.

Posteriores cogitationes, ut aiunt, sapientiores solent esse, second thoughts, as they say, are generally the best.—(Phil. 12, 2.)


Clam is the general term = without the knowledge of others; secreto, aside, apart, so that others cannot know; occulte (in occulto), covertly, in concealment, so that others cannot see or perceive.

  • N. Han. 7 navem ascendit clam, atque ad Antiochum perfugit.
  • L. 27, 5 consul clam nocte in Siciliam abiit.
  • Rosc. A. 8 plura clam de medio removebat.
  • Caes. 1, 31 petierunt uti sibi secreto in occulto de sua salute cum eo agere liceret. [Some bracket in occulto.]
  • L. 7, 14 dictator Tullium secreto, quaenam haec res sit, percunctatur.
  • Att. 7, 8 ab hora octava ad vesperum secreto collocuti sumus.
  • L. 2, 37 dicit esse, quae secreto agere de re publica velit.
  • Verr. 4, 10 per istos, quae volebat, clam inponenda, occulte exportanda curavit.
  • Agr. 1, 1 quae res aperte petebatur, ea nunc occulte cuniculis oppugnatur.
  • Caes. 7, 83 quid agi placeat, occulte inter se constituunt.
  • Sull. C. 45 illi, sicuti praeceptum erat, occulte pontem obsidunt.


Pre(he)ndere or compre(he)ndere, to seize with the hand. Occupare, to seize upon, take possession of. He seized the book, librum comprehendit (or prehendit). He seized the bull by the horns, tauri cornua comprehendit. He seized the crown, regnum occupavit (i.e., the kingdom), coronam comprehendit (i.e., the diadem).

  • Or. 1, 56, 240 ipsum Crassum manu prehendit et … inquit …
  • Caes. 1, 20, 5 Caesar eius dextram prendit.
  • N. D. 1, 33 quid enim manibus opus est, si nihil comprehendendum.
  • L. 28, 26 auctores seditionis comprehensi ac vincti sunt.
  • Div. 1, 25 Areopagitae comprehendi iubent eum, qui a Sophocle erat nominatus.
  • Tus. 4, 22 an etiam Theseus Marathonii tauri cornua comprehendit iratus?
  • Am. 12 Tib. Gracchus regnum occupare conatus est.
  • Caes. 1, 38 occupato oppido ibi praesidium collocat.
  • L. 34, 31, 7 eam (urbem) accepi, non occupavi.

Occupare never means “to occupy,” except in military parlance, as occupare montem, to occupy the hill; occupare oppidum, to garrison the town.

  • Caes. 1, 22 dicit montem quem a Labieno occupari voluerit, ab hostibus teneri.
  • Caes. C. 1, 11 Pisaurum, Fanum, Anconam singulis cohortibus occupat.
  • L. 3, 67, 11 adversus nos Aventinum capitur, adversus nos Sacer occupatur mons.

Cf. Brut. 84, 290 volo hoc oratori contingat, ut cum auditum sit eum esse dicturum, locus in supselliis occupetur [military metaphor?].

Comprehendere or apprehendere, to seize; deprehendere, to discover, to find out; reprehendere, to find fault with.


Ipse strengthens the subject in contra-distinction to other subjects, the object in contra-distinction to other objects. He injures himself, sibi ipse nocet = others do not injure him; sibi ipsi nocet = he does not injure others.

  • Am. 3 non egeo medicina, me ipse consolor (I want no medicine, I comfort myself).
  • Tus. 1, 34 fecimus hoc in eo libro in quo nosmet ipsos consolati sumus.
  • Tac. H. 4, 11 Calpurnius custodia militari cinctus extinguitur; Priscus se ipse interfecit (Priscus slew himself).
  • Tac. H. 3, 51 fratrem suum, dein se ipsum interfecit (he killed his brother, and then himself).
  • N. Dat. 5 Artaxerxes se ipse reprehendit (blamed himself).
  • Am. 1 quam (disputationem) legens te ipse cognosces.
  • Fin. 5, 15 tarde nosmet ipsos cognoscimus (we acquire a knowledge of ourselves slowly).
  • Att. 3, 15 me ipsum accuso, deinde te, quasi me alterum.
  1. Latin writers, however, particularly Cicero and Livy (not Caesar), often connect ipse with the subject, even when the object is contrasted with something else. “Per se ipse,” in and by oneself, is stereotyped, per se being inserted merely to strengthen ipse.

    • Fam. 1, 1 ceteris satis facio omnibus, mihi ipse numquam satis facio.
    • Verr. 6 ut non modo populo Romano, sed etiam sibi ipse condemnatus videretur (that not only to the Roman people, but even to himself, he seemed already condemned).
    • L. 2, 10 unusquisque ei aliquid fraudans se ipse victu suo contulit.
    • L. 21, 14 argentum aurumque omne in ignem conicientes eodem plerique semet ipsi praecipitaverunt.
    • Or. 2, 2 artes se ipsae per se tuentur singulae.
    • N. Att. 11 neque tamen prius ille fortunam quam se ipse finxit.
    • Q. F. 1, 1, 2, 7 quid est enim negoti continere eos, quibus praesis, si te ipse contineas?
    • Fam. 13, 60, 1 ego libertum eius per se ipsum diligo.
    • Sall. I. 14, 4 parum tuta per se ipsa probitas est.
    • Agr. 1, 7, 20 bello Punico quicquid potuit Capua, potuit ipsa per sese.
  2. The nominative ipse stands either before or after the personal pronoun, usually after it; when ipse agrees with the personal pronoun, it is placed almost always after it, rarely before it.

    • Fin. 2, 20 Lucretia se ipsa interemit.
    • Sall. I. 85, 31 ipsa se virtus satis ostendit (merit of itself is conspicuous enough).
    • Fin. 5, 9 omne animal se ipsum diligit.
    • Fam. 3, 7 Pompeium omnibus, Lentulum mihi ipsi antepono.
    • Planc. 24 respondebo ad ea, quae dixisti, quae pleraque de ipso me fuerunt.
  3. He was caught in his own snare, sua ipse fraude captus est = he himself was caught, not the enemy; sua ipsius fraude captus est = he was caught in his own share, not in the ambush of the enemy. But the former construction is often employed where the latter would naturally be expected (Riemann).

    • L. 27, 28 ita inde Hannibal suamet ipse fraude captus abiit.
    • Mur. 4 huiusce rei coniecturam de tuo ipsius studio facillime ceperis.
    • L. 1, 28 si umquam ullo in bello fuit, quod primum dis inmortalibus gratias ageretis, deinde vestrae ipsorum virtuti.
    • Fam. 6, 16 contentus ero nostra ipsorum amicitia.
    • L. 5, 38 nec ulla caedes pugnantium fuit; terga caesa suomet ipsorum certamine in turba inpedientium fugam (their rear was cut to pieces as they obstructed their flight by their struggling with one another (not with the enemy) in the crush).
    • L. 2, 9 nec hostes modo timebant, sed suosmet ipsi (= ipsorum) cives.
    • L. 22, 19 non ab hoste et proelio magis Poeni quam suomet ipsi (= ipsorum) tumultu turbati.
  4. Ipse implies contrast or distinction = he, and no other; hence even he; he the great man. It is used of the essence of a thing in opposition to its accidents, or of persons in opposition to their surroundings, e.g., the sailors versus the ship; in the Comic poets, the master or mistress in opposition to the slave; in reference to time—that and no other, neither more nor less, exactly, e.g., viginti ipsi dies, exactly twenty days, opposed to aliqui viginti dies, some twenty days.

    • N. D. 1, 5 Pythagorei respondere solebant; “ipse dixit” (the great man i.e., Pythagoras said so).
    • Catull. 3, 7 suamque norat ipsam tam bene quam puella matrem (knew its own mistress as well as a little girl knows her very mother).
    • Par. 2, 17 nomen tantum virtutis usurpas, quid ipsa valeat, ignoras.
    • L. 30, 25 navis tantum iactura facta, incolumes ipsi evaserunt.
    • Brut. 43 triennio ipso minor quam Antonius (exactly three years younger than Antonius).
    • Brut. 15 mortuus est annis octoginta sex ipsis ante me consulem.
    • Catull. 115, 7 omnia magna haec sunt, tamen ipsest maximus ultro.

A second self, alter idem, tamquam exemplar mei, tui, sui.

  • Am. 21 amicus est tamquam alter idem (a friend is a kind of second self; cf. ἔστι γὰρ ὥς φαμεν ὁ φίλος ἕτερος ἐγώ).
  • Fam. 7, 5 vide, quam mihi persuaserim te me esse alterum.
  • Att. 4, 1, ad omnia me alterum se fore dixit (he said that in everything I would be his second self).
  • Am. 7 verum amicum qui intuetur, tamquam exemplar aliquod intuetur sui.


Vēndere, to sell; vēire, to be sold [from venum (accus.) dare and venum ire, which are also used: cf. pessum dare and pessum ire: dare in these expressions has its older sense: “to put in a place”].

  • Pl. Men. 5, 9, 98 (1160) venibit—uxor quoque etiam, si quis emptor venerit.
  • L. 2, 9 salis vendendi arbitrium, quia impenso pretio venibat, in publicum omne sumptum (the privilege of selling salt, because it used to be sold at an exorbitant price, was transferred entirely to the state).

In classic prose “venditus” and “vendendus” are the only passive forms of “vendere”. So “perditus” is the only passive form of “perdere,” “perire” being used instead. “Perdendus” is found in Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 85. This house is to be sold, haec domus est vendenda.


Severus or gravis, of persons, not serius, which is used only of things.

  • Fin. 2, 10 severus et gravis philosophus (a stern and serious philosopher).
  • Off. 1, 37 orator videat in primis, quibus de rebus loquatur; si seriis, severitatem adhibeat, si iocosis, leporem.
  • Plaut. Poen. 2, 51 res serias omnis extollo ex hoc die in alium diem.


Merita, merits, good offices; opera (sing. fem.), labour, efforts. Cicero recounted his services to the state, Cicero merita sua in rem publicam commemoravit; they availed themselves of the proffered services of an English physician, oblata medici Angli opera usi sunt.

  • Mil. 36 quid habeo quod faciam pro tuis in me meritis?
  • L. 3, 56 maiorum merita in rem publicam commemorabat.
  • Fam. 10, 10 is denique honos videtur, qui propter magna merita claris viris defertur.
  • Caes. 1, 14, 1 eo gravius ferre, quo minus merito populi Romani accidissent.
  • L. 40, 15 non hodie me primum frater accusat, sed hodie primum aperte, nullo meo in se merito.
  • Sen. 4 mea opera, Q. Fabi, Tarentum recepisti.
  • Att. 5, 20, 6 Ariobarzanes opera mea vivit, regnat (Ariobarzanes owes his life as well as his throne to me).
  • L. 1, 26 Mettio imperat Tullus, uti iuventutem in armis habeat; usurum se eorum opera, si bellum cum Veientibus foret.


Navis longa, a ship of war, which was long and narrow in order to ensure speed; navis oneraria, a merchant ship, which was broad and round, in order to afford ample stowage; navis actuaria, a light ship to be rowed, a cutter.

  • L. 24, 40 quod longae naves militum capere non poterant, in onerarias impositis, altero die Oricum pervenit (such of the troops as the men-of-war could not receive he put on board transport ships, and arrived the next day at Oricum).
  • L. 38, 38 decem naves actuarias, quarum nulla plus quam triginta remis agatur.

Naves facere, aedificare, or instituere, to build a fleet; naves reficere, to repair a fleet; naves deducere, to launch a fleet; naves subducere, to haul up, beach a fleet.

  • Caes. 5, 1 legatis imperat, uti hieme naves aedificandas veteresque reficiendas curarent.

The ship was bound for America, navis ad Americam itura erat (if she was lying in the harbour), navis ad Americam ibat (if she was on the voyage).


Litus, the shore as the end of the sea, the strand; ora, the shore as the end of the land, the coast; acta, the sea-shore as a place of resort.

  • N. D. 2, 39 quae amoenitates orarum et litorum?
  • N. D. 2, 39 ipsum mare terram appetens litoribus alludit.
  • Top. 7 solebat Aquilius quaerentibus, quid litus esset, ita definire, qua fluctus alluderet.
  • Curt. 8, 9, 19 gemmas margaritasque mare litoribus infundit.
  • N. Ag. 8 Agesilaus in acta cum suis accubuerat.


Brevi (sc. tempore), shortly, in a short time; breviter, shortly, in a few words.

  • L. 1, 9 mirantur tam brevi rem Romanam crevisse.
  • Pis. 3 exposui breviter consulatum meum.
  • Serv. ap. Fam. 4, 5 decrevi brevi (= epistula) ad te perscribere.

Brevi refers to the past, the present, or the future; mox, which means “afterwards” rather than “shortly,” is used only of the future.

  • L. 39, 39 primo aequare, mox superare etiam est visus.
  • L. 37, 42, 1 ceterum vana illa res verae mox cladis causa fuit.


Monstrare, to show by visible signs, or by description; ostendere, to show, by making to be seen or observed. Show me the book, librum monstra, i.e., point it out; librum ostende, i.e., produce it. He showed the way, viam monstravit; he showed his love, amorem ostendit. Ostentare, to show with ostentation. He paraded his wealth, opes suas ostentavit.

  • L. 21, 54 Mago locum monstrabit, quem insideatis.
  • Fam. 5, 15 omnis amor tuus se ostendit in iis litteris, quas a te proxime accepi.
  • L. 27, 47 Hasdrubal, dum lux viam ostenderet, ripa fluminis signa ferri iubet.
  • L. 10, 12 lux insequens victorem victumque ostendit.
  • Fam. 10, 3, 4 ut potius amorem tibi ostenderem meum quam ostentarem prudentiam.
  • L. 3, 2 ostentare hoc est, non gerere bellum (this is to make a show of war, not to wage it).
  • L. 2, 23 ipse testes honestarum aliquot locis pugnarum cicatrices adverso pectore ostentabat.

To show mercy, misericordia uti; to show courage, virtutem praestare; to show gratitude, se gratum praebere.


Aegritudo, of mind, mental worry, used in the silver age also of the body; aegrotatio, of body, physical disease, used also of a diseased or disordered mind = insanity. Aegrotatio is subjective, denoting the state of a sick man; morbus is objective, denoting that which attacks a man, a complaint.

  • Tus. 3, 10 ut aegrotatio in corpore, sic aegritudo in animo nomen habet non seiunctum a dolore.
  • L. 28, 8 in concilio autem dissimulans aegritudinem (chagrin) elato animo disseruit.
  • L. 8, 40 Plautius praetor gravi morbo implicitus erat.
  • Tus. 4, 13 in animo tantum modo cogitatione possumus morbum ab aegrotatione seiungere.
  • Tus. 3, 4 nomen insaniae (the word “insanity”) significat mentis aegrotationem et morbum.


In laying siege to a fortified place the Romans adopted one of two methods: (1) An assault, oppugnatio, which, if successful, was termed expugnatio; (2) When the place could not be taken by storm, it was reduced by blockade, obsidio.

  • L. 21, 8 obsidio deinde per paucos dies magis quam oppugnatio fuit, dum vulnus ducis curaretur (for the next few days, while the general’s wound was being treated, there was more of blockade than actual assault—“dum,” with the subjunctive, expresses the purpose of the delay).
  • Caes. 7, 36 perspecto urbis situ de expugnatione desperavit.
  • Caes. C. 3, 9, 4 quinis castris oppidum circumdedit atque uno tempore obsidione et oppugnationibus eos premere coepit.
  • L. 25, 11, 10 isque finis Hannibali ea parte arcem oppugnandi. reliqua erat in obsidione spes.


Aspectus, a glance or look directed; conspectus, a view obtained. Aspectum patris vitavit, he avoided his father’s gaze; conspectum patris vitavit, he avoided his father’s presence, i.e., did not come within his range of vision.

  • Brut. 54 intellegens dicendi existimator uno aspectu de oratore iudicat.
  • Sull. 23, 66 eius voces, eius minae … eius aspectus.
  • Phil. 12, 8, 19 quo enim aspectu videre potero … sed quo modo aspiciam … .
  • Att. 7, 3, 1 e quibus hanc primo aspectu voluptatem cepi.
  • L. 6, 29, 3 in conspectu Praeneste fuit.
  • Caes. C. 2, 22, 4 (navigium) auxilio tempestatis ex conspectu abiit.
  • Brut. 4, 15 ut … uno in conspectu omnia viderem.
  • L. 29, 27, 6 celeriter e conspectu terrae ablati sunt.
  • L. 28, 23, 3 primo conspectu tam foedae rei mirabundi parumper obstupuerunt.
  • L. 7, 26 corvus ex conspectu elatus orientem petit.
  • Sall I. 86 Metellus conspectum Mari fugerat.
  • L. 37, 41 obscuritas lucis Romanis non adimebat in omnes partes conspectum.
  • L. 40, 29 libri in conspectu populi cremati sunt.
  • L. 1, 27 id factum magnae parti peditum Romanorum conspectum abeuntis Albani exercitus intersaepsit.
  • L. 6, 9 nec ante noctem, quae conspectum ademit, finem caedendi fecere.

Aspectus is also used of the sense of sight and aspect or appearance. He lost his sight, aspectum amisit (subjective). The night deprived him of sight, nox ei conspectum ademit (objective). The sight of the shore, aspectus litoris = the appearance of the shore; conspectus litoris = the shore being in view.

  • Tus. 5, 38 quae aspectu percipiuntur, ea non versantur in oculorum ulla iucunditate.
  • N. Iph. 3 ipso aspectu cuivis iniecit admirationem sui.
  • Verr. 3, 9 aspicite, iudices, vultum hominis et aspectum.
  • Ac. 2, 19, 61 quibus aspectum solis sive deus aliquis sive natura ademerat cet.

Spectaculum, a sight, show.


Silere, to be silent, to be still; tacere, to be silent, when one is expected to speak. Reticere implies that there is something to be told which is purposely kept back.

  • Inv. 1, 31 si vicinus tuus uxorem meliorem habeat quam tu habes, utram malis? atque hic Xenophon quoque ipse tacuit.
  • Clu. 6 facile intellego non modo reticere homines parentum iniurias, sed etiam animo aequo ferre oportere.
  • Q. F. 1, 2, 1 nihil enim nec temere dicere nec astute reticere debeo.
  • Att. 16, 7 nam Brutus noster silet, hoc est, non audet hominem id aetatis monere.
  • Mil. 4 silent leges inter arma.

Tacitus, silent, that which does not speak; mutus, that which cannot speak.

  • L. 28, 26 sedit tacitus paulisper.
  • Phil. 3, 9 nonne satius est mutum esse, quam quod nemo intellegat dicere?
  • Cat. 3, 5 imago avi tui te a tanto scelere etiam muta revocare debuit.
  • Balb. 5 vos, mutae regiones, imploro.


Canere, to give out some kind of melody, is used both of the voice (voce) and a musical instrument (fidibus), also of animals, even of the crowing of cocks.

  • Div. 2, 59 si velim canere vel voce vel fidibus.
  • Div. 2, 26 galli victi silere solent, canere victores.
  1. He sang a song, carmen cecinit; he ordered the signal to sound, signa canere or cani iussit; he sounded a retreat, receptui (not receptum) cecinit.

    • Or. 2, 86 Simonides cecinit id carmen, quod in Scopam scripsit.
    • Caes. C. 3, 82 Pompeius classicum apud eum cani iubet.
    • L. 28, 27 classicum apud eos cecinit.
    • Sall. C. 59 signa canere iubet (he orders the signal to sound).
    • Sall. I. 94 repente a tergo signa canere (suddenly the trumpets sounded in the rear).
    • L. 27, 47 Hasdrubal receptui propere cecinit.
  2. To sing as a poet is not canere, but loqui, dicere, versibus persequi. As Homer sings, ut Homerus loquitur.

    • Sen. 6 non dubitavit dicere illa, quae versibus persecutus est Ennius.


The Romans used mille and sescenti like our “hundred” or “thousand” to express an indefinitely large number. Centum is poetic. Non mihi si linguae centum sint, oraque centum, nor could I, if I had a hundred tongues, a hundred mouths (Verg. G. 2, 43) [trecenti is also used as a round number].

  • Hor. Ep. 1, 6, 19 gaude quod spectant oculi te mille loquentem.
  • Mil. 20, 54 villam ut perspiceret? Miliens in ea fuerat.
  • Verg. 4, 701 mille trahens varios adverso sole colores.
  • L. 3, 14 mille pro uno Kaesones exstitisse plebs querebatur.
  • L. 30, 31 omnia quaecumque agimus subiecta esse mille casibus scio.
  • Att. 2, 5 Cato ille noster, qui mihi unus est pro centum milibus.
  • Tus. 1, 5 necesse est enim miseros eos esse, qui centum milibus annorum occiderunt.
  • Ter. Phorm. 668 sescentas proinde scribito iam mihi dicas [with Hauler’s valuable note, giving references to the literature].
  • Verr. 1, 47, 125 possum sescenta decreta proferre.
  • Att. 2, 19, 1 ex iis periculis, quae mihi ipsi intenduntur et sexcenta sunt.
  • N. D. 1, 34, 96 Mayor cur igitur non sescenta milia esse mundorum, sed innumerabilia ausus es dicere?
  • Att. 7, 2 venio ad epistulas tuas; quas ego sescentas uno tempore accepi.
  • Fat. 12 an hoc falsum potuisset esse, si esset sescentis saeculis ante dictum?
  • Rosc. A. 32 iam sescenti sunt, qui inter sicarios et de veneficiis accusabant (inter sicarios = of assassination).
  • Att. 14, 12 sescenta similia (there are a thousand such cases).

Millensimus is the only ordinal number which is employed in this sense = tenth, twentieth, hundredth, thoussandth part. Of the adverbial numbers besides milliens, ter and bis terque are sometimes used.

  • Att. 2, 4 fecisti mihi pergratum, quod Serapionis librum ad me misisti; ex quo quidem ego millesimam partem vix intellego.
  • Phil. 2, 44 non igitur miliens perire est melius quam sine armatorum praesidio non posse vivere?
  • L. 38, 46 cum Gallis millies vario eventu in Italia pugnatum est.
  • Ter. Phorm. 487 Hauler at enim taedet iam audire eadem miliens.
  • L. 5, 4, 13 agros nostros miliens depopulati sunt.
  • Q. F. 3, 8 ludos apparat magnificentissimos, stulte bis terque.


Acclivis, sloping, as a hill when viewed from the bottom; declivis, sloping, as a hill when viewed from the top.

  • Caes. 7, 19 collis leniter ab infimo acclivis (a hill with a gradual slope from the bottom).
  • Caes. 2, 18 collis ab summo aequaliter acclivis (a hill with an unbroken slope from the top).


Olfacere, to smell, to scent; (red)olere, to smell or savour of.

  • Tus. 5, 38 ut ea, quae gustemus, olfaciamus.
  • Agr. 1, 4 quem (nummum) non architecti huiusce legis olfecerint.
  • Rosc. C. 7 nonne ipsum caput et supercilia olere malitiam videntur?
  • Brut. 21 orationes Catonis antiquitatem redolent.


Miles, a soldier, collectively = the soldiery; miles gregarius (or miles only), a common soldier, a private, opposed to the general; commilito, a fellow soldier.

  • Tus. 2, 16 arma enim membra militis esse dicunt.
  • Sall. C. 60 strenui militis et boni imperatoris officia simul exsequebatur.
  • Sall. C. 59 ex gregariis militibus optimum quemque armatum in primam aciem subducit.
  • Sen. 6 qui et miles et tribunus et legatus versatus sum in vario genere bellorum (who have served in different kinds of warfare, both as common soldier and military tribune and lieutenant-general).
  • Deiot. 10 Castor meus in Cilicia miles, in Graecia commilito fuit.


Aliqui milites, some soldiers (who or how many I know not, but at any rate there were some); aliquot milites, a certain number of soldiers; non nulli milites, a few soldiers; complures milites, several soldiers, a good many; plures, several, in comparison with those named or implied.

  • Am. 27 semper aliqui anquirendi sunt quos diligamus.
  • Mur. 30, 62 supplices aliqui veniunt miseri et calamitosi.
  • L. 34, 38, 6 aut ipse occurrebat aut aliquos mittebat.
  • N. D. 3, 7, 17 non id quaeritur, sintne aliqui, qui deos esse putent.
  • Mur. 14, 30 simul atque aliqui motus novus bellicum canere coegit.
  • L. 21, 12, 2 is proelia aliquot secunda fecit.
  • Att. 7, 3 heri aliquot adulescentuli coimus in Piraeum.
  • L. 1, 23 fossa Cluilia per aliquot saecula appellata est.
  • Or. 1, 21 Antonius scripsit disertos cognosse se non nullos, eloquentem adhuc neminem.
  • Caes. C. 1, 80 complures milites, etiam non nulli centuriones, interficiuntur.
  • Am. 4 cum et Philus et Manlius adessent et alii plures.
  1. Quidam is frequently used by Livy, and sometimes by Cicero, in the sense of non nulli = Greek τινες—(See Riemann, Études sur la langue de T. Live).

    • Fam. 11, 5 cum Romae quosdam dies commoraretur.
    • Att. 4, 1, 8 Tyrrell quidam, qui nos absentes defenderunt, incipiunt praesentibus occulte irasci.
    • L. 3, 43 nuntiant, Siccium egregie pugnantem militesque quosdam cum eo amissos.
    • L. 5, 45 extremos tamen pavor in fugam et quosdam in hostem ipsum tulit.
    • L. 21, 5 pars magna flumine absumpta; quidam verticoso amni delati ab elephantis obtriti sunt.
    • L. 22, 17 tamen in quosdam boves palatos a suis gregibus inciderunt.
  2. There are some who say, sunt qui dicant = some go the length of saying. “Sunt qui” may be followed by the subjunctive, in which case qui is generic, or by the indicative, if qui is merely descriptive. Sunt qui dicant = there are some people to say; sunt qui dicunt, or sunt quidam qui dicunt = there are some people (A, B, C), who say. The indicative is unusual in prose.

    • Tus. 1, 9 sunt qui discessum animi a corpore putent esse mortem.
    • Fam. 1, 9, 25 sunt qui putant posse te non decedere (= I know some at least who think you cannot quit your post) [see C. F. W. Müller’s note].
    • Caes. 6, 27 sunt quae appellantur alces (elks).
    • Fin. 5, 14 sunt bestiae quaedam in quibus inest aliquid simile virtutis.
    • Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 182 sunt qui non habeant, est qui non curat habere (there are some who have not, I know one (= the poet himself) who does not care to have).
  3. Some—others, alii—alii, sometimes quidam—alii, or quidam—quidam.

    • Tus. 1, 9 qui discedere animum censent, alii statim dissipari, alii diu permanere, alii semper.
    • Tus. 5, 13 alias bestias nantis aquarum incolas esse voluit; alias volucres caelo frui libero; serpentis quasdam, quasdam esse gradientis.
    • L. 45, 10 excesserunt urbe quidam, alii mortem sibi consciverunt.
    • L. 41, 20 quidam ludere eum simpliciter, quidam haud dubie insanire aiebant.

    Some said one thing, others another, alius aliud dixit; some went to one place, others another, alius alio ivit; some came from one quarter, others from another, alius aliunde venit; some live in one way, others in another, aliter alii vivunt.


Quidam, a certain one, definitely thought of, but more or less indefinitely described = an actual (not possible) one; aliquis, some one or other, implying sometimes an imaginary one, sometimes an actual one, never a particular or definite one.

He urged him to send some intimate friend of his own, eum monuit ut aliquem familiarem suum mitteret. He sent an intimate friend of his own, familiarem suum quendam misit.

Quidam attached to a proper name indicates that the person in question is not generally known. A certain Alcidamas, Alcidamas quidam )( Alcidamas ille, the famous Alcidamas.

  • Verr. 4, 45 dat hospiti suo cuidam negotium, ut aliquem reperiret, quem illud fecisse insimularet.
  • Hor. S. 1, 9, 3 accurrit quidam, notus mihi nomine tantum (up runs a certain fellow known to me only by name).
  • N. Paus. 4 interim Argilius quidam vincla epistulae laxavit.
  • Inv. 2, 4, 14 quidam proficiscentem ad mercatum quendam est comitatus.
  • Fam. 2, 13, 2 ex eo quidam suspicati fortasse sunt animorum cet.
  • Ter. Eun. 481 neque pugnas narrat, quod quidam facit (he does not brag of his battles, like some one I could name).
  • Att. 5, 16, 2 monstra quaedam non hominis, sed ferae nescio cuius immanis. Cf. Seyffert’s Laelius, p. 199, 322.
  • N. D. 3, 7, 17 non id quaeritur, sintne aliqui, qui deos esse putent.
  • L. 45, 38 aliquis est Romae, praeter Persea, qui triumphari de Macedonibus nolit.
  • Phil. 13, 13, 28 arbitror me aliquos praeterisse.
  • Ac. 2, 43, 132 ad vos nunc refero, quem sequar … “Quemlibet, modo aliquem.”
  • L. 6, 41, 2 est aliquis, qui se inspici aestimari fastidiat.
  • Or. 3, 37, 151 “bonis hic verbis” aut “aliquis non bonis utitur.”
  • Rosc. A. 8, 22 Landgraf si aliquid non animadvertat.
  • Inv. 2, 5, 16 omne nomen ex aliquibus, non ex omnibus litteris scribitur.
  • Or. 2, 57, 232 quis enim haec vel non facile vel certe aliquo modo posset ediscere?
  • Cael. 14, 33 si … aliquis mihi ab inferis excitandus est ex barbatis illis.
  • Inv. 2, 57, 170 corpus animale mortale aliquo tempore interire necesse est. (Some edd. expunge this passage.)
  • N. D. 1, 29, 80 igitur aliquis non pulcherrimus deus.
  • Caecin. 19, 55 si me vilicus tuus solus deiecisset, non familia deiecisset ut opinor, sed aliquis de familia.
  • Att. 5, 18, 4 tu, si es in Epiro, mitte ad nos de tuis aliquem tabellarium.
  • L. 36, 24 oppidum victores diripiunt, non tam ab ira nec ab odio, quam ut miles aliquo tandem loco fructum victoriae sentiret.

Aliquis and (sometimes) quidam also = some other. Aut ipse ibat aut aliquem mittebat, he would either go himself or send some one else. Haec mihi tecum et cum quibusdam sunt communia, in these respects I am in the same position as you and some others I might name.

  • Brut. 90 commentabar declamitans saepe cum Pisone et cum Pompeio aut cum aliquo cottidie (declaiming often with Piso and with Pompey or with some one else every day).
  • Tus. 1, 30, 74 tamquam a magistratu aut ab aliqua potestate legitima.
  • Lig. 8, 25 etiamsi a Varo et a quibusdam aliis prohibiti estis.
  • Verr. 2, 67, 162 quod saepe vento aut aliquo casu fieri solet.
  • Caes. 6, 24 quam (silvam) Eratostheni et quibusdam Graecis fama notam esse video (Eratosthenes and certain other Greeks).

Cf. Caes. C. 3, 96 Lentuli et nonnullorum tabernacula.

  1. Nescio quis differs from aliquis in that it can be used of a definite person or thing, and from quidam in that it professes ignorance, and in consequence often implies contempt or disparagement.

    Timasitheus quidam, a certain Timasitheus, whom I need not (and perhaps cannot) further describe; Timasitheus nescio quis, a certain Timasitheus, whom I do not know, or affect not to know, hence often = an obscure or objectionable person called Timasitheus.

    Timasitheus aliquis is inadmissible, unless Timasitheus is used as the type of a class, e.g., Phil. 2, 6 Phormio aliquis, some Phormio (parasite) or other.

    • Am. 23 qualem fuisse Athenis Timonem nescio quem accepimus (like an Athenian we have heard of, Timon, I think).
    • Fam. 15, 4, 14 hoc nescio quid, quod ego gessi (this little bit of service I have done).
    • Q. F. 1, 1, 6 nisi forte me Paconi nescio cuius querellis moveri putas (unless you suppose forsooth that I regard the complaints of a creature like Paconius).
    • Flacc. 17, 39 o pastores nescio quos cupidos litterarum.
    • Att. 15, 5, 3 ad me epistulam misit sibi a nescio quo missam.
    • Fin. 1, 18, 61 nescio quam illam umbram.
    • Ov. H. 5, 128 illam de patria Theseus, nisi nomine fallor, nescio quis Theseus abstulit ante sua.
    • Ov. R. A. 589 semper habe Pyladen aliquem, qui curet Orestem.
    • Fam. 9, 14, 2 non alienum est dignitate tua habere aliquem in consiliis capiendis Nestorem (it would not detract from your dignity to have a Nestor as a counsellor).
  2. The indefinite quis, which as being an enclitic never begins a sentence, is usual in relative clauses, and after cum or ubi (iterative), si, sive, sin, nisi, ne, num. It differs from aliquis in that it is not used of an actual person or thing, or where emphasis or contrast is implied = some opposed to all or none, some considerable or important, some at least. There are, in fact, few instances in which aliquis may not be interchanged with quis, but not vice versâ. Always, however, quo quis (not aliquis) doctior est, etc.

    Some one has blundered, erravit aliquis (not quis). Some one (let us suppose) has blundered, erravit aliquis or quis. If you would be somebody in the world, si vis esse aliquid or aliquis (not quis or quispiam).

    • Hor. S. 2, 1, 82 si mala condiderit in quem quis carmina, ius est (if any one composes scandalous verses on another, there is the redress of the law-courts).
    • Rab. Post. 13 ubi semel quis peieraverit, ei credi postea non oportet.
    • Par. 6, 1 filiam quis habet: pecunia est opus (some one has a daughter, say; money is needed).
    • Att. 12, 14, 4 quod si quid scies, scribas ad me velim.
    • Fam. 2, 13, 2 falsum est, mihi crede, si quid audisti.
    • Fam. 6, 18, 4 ego quoque aliquid sum (I, myself, count for something).
    • L. 24, 8 non dico, si omnia haec, sed si aliquid (not quid) eorum rei publicae praestitit (if he has rendered, I do not say all, but some of these services to the state).
    • Att. 3, 14 si aliquid (not quid) a comitiis audierimus, nos in Asiam convertemus (if I hear anything of importance in connexion with the elections, I will betake myself to Asia).
  3. The rarer quispiam (plural only in feminine) is scarcely distinguishable from aliquis, except that it never denotes a person or thing of importance. It is often interchanged with aliquis and quis in introducing an anticipated objection (dicet, dixerit quispiam), and is a common variant of aliquis where a second indefinite pronoun stands in the same sentence.

    • Top. 6 hereditas est pecunia, quae morte alicuius ad quempiam pervenit iure (an inheritance is money which at some one’s death comes to some one by right).
    • Or. 11, 36 Ennio delector, ait quispiam, … Pacuvio, inquit alius, … fac alium Accio.


Non numquam, fairly often, approaching saepius; interdum, now and then = non saepe; aliquando, sometimes, as opposed to numquam.

  • Mur. 30 nostri illi moderati homines ipsum sapientem aiunt saepe aliquid opinari, quod nesciat; irasci non numquam, exorari eundem et placari; quod dixerit, interdum, si ita rectius, mutare; de sententia decedere aliquando.
  • Sest. 54 comitiorum et contionum significationes interdum verae sunt, non numquam vitiatae et corruptae.
  • Off. 2, 18 est enim non modo liberale, paulum non numquam de suo iure decedere, sed interdum etiam fructuosum.
  • Div. 1, 43, 98 quid? cum saepe lapidum, sanguinis non numquam, terrae interdum, quondam etiam lactis imber defluxit?
  • Div. 1, 32, 71 possunt autem aliquando oculi non fungi suo munere (sometimes the eyes cannot discharge their proper function).


Animus, the rational soul of man, the principle of moral and sentient life; anima, the vital principle, the breath of life, common to man and brutes; animus est quo sapimus, anima qua vivimus. [See now the exhaustive articles in the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae, vol. ii. (Lips. 1901).]

  • Tus. 3, 1 constamus ex animo et corpore (we are composed of soul and body).
  • Tus. 1, 22 ab animo tuo quicquid agitur id agitur a te (whatever is done by your soul is done by yourself).
  • Att. 9, 10 aegroto dum anima est, spes est (while there’s life, there’s hope).
  • Sall. C. 33 petimus libertatem, quam nemo bonus nisi cum anima simul amittit.
  • Sen. Ep. 4, 4 difficile est animum perducere ad contemptionem animae.


Dicere, to express one’s ideas in words, used especially of formal or public speaking; loqui, to articulate words, to speak in the language of common life, in the tone of conversation. In dicere thought and style are involved, in loqui words and utterance. He learned to speak Greek, Graece loqui didicit; he learned the art of speaking, dicere didicit.

  • Or. 3, 10 neque enim conamur docere eum dicere, qui loqui nesciat; nec sperare, qui Latine non possit, hunc ornate esse dicturum.
  • Brut. 58 Scipio mihi sane bene et loqui videtur et dicere.
  • Brut. 31 dicere didicit a dicendi magistris eorumque more se exercuit.
  • Or. 3, 9 quot oratores, totidem paene reperiuntur genera dicendi.
  • Fin. 1, 11, 39 hoc ne statuam quidem dicturam pater aiebat, si loqui posset.
  • Am. 1, 4 Reid nulla videbatur aptior persona, quae de illa aetate loqueretur, quam eius, qui cet.
  • Lig. 10, 30 ad iudicem sic agi solet, sed ego apud parentem loquor: “Erravit, cet.”.
  • Sall. I. 101 ibi Latine (nam apud Numantiam loqui didicerat) exclamat nostros frustra pugnare.
  • Brut. 15 latrant enim iam quidam oratores, non loquuntur.
  • Brut. 58 magni interest quos quisque audiat cottidie domi, quibuscum loquatur a puero, quem ad modum patres, paedagogi, matres etiam loquantur.
  • Mil. 20 res loquitur ipsa, iudices, quae semper valet plurimum.

Loqui takes the accusative of neuter pronouns, and neuter plural of adjectives and participles, not the accusative of a substantive, unless in the peculiar sense of perpetually talking about something. He speaks Latin = lingua Latina (usually Latine) loquitur, not linguam Latinam loquitur; don’t be always chattering about Catos and Scipios, ne semper Catones et Scipiones locutus sis. [Verbs of silence, taceo, reticeo, sileo are used with the same constructions as loquor.]

  • N. Alc. 2 socerum habuit Hipponicum, omnium Graeca lingua loquentium ditissimum.
  • Tus. 1, 8 scis me Graece loqui in Latino sermone non plus solere quam in Graeco Latine.
  • Fin. 2, 5, 15 vel Graece loqui vel Latine.
  • Fin. 2, 8, 24 is haec loquitur.
  • Tus. 1, 7, 13 pugnantia te loqui non vides?
  • Fam. 12, 5, 1 loquebantur omnes in Syria te esse, habere copias [acc. et inf. = noun].
  • Caes. C. 1, 23, 3 pauca apud eos loquitur.
  • L. 3, 11, 13 quid ego legem loquor?
  • L. 5, 5, 6 quid turres, quid vineas testudinesque … loquar?
  • L. 21, 13, 3 loqui quae loquor apud vos.
  • L. 5, 54, 5 ne singulas loquar urbes.
  • Quinct. 16 ne hoc quidem tecum locutus es.
  • Mil. 23 multi etiam Catilinam atque illa portenta loquebantur.
  • Par. 6, 3, 50 ne semper Curios et Luscinos loquamur.

To speak to one = cum aliquo (not ad aliquem) loqui; but ad populum loqui, to address the people (Verr. 1, 27).

  • Att. 8, 14, 2 ego tecum tamquam mecum loquor.
  • Q. F. 2, 7 (9), 2 cum Crasso se dixit loqui velle.

To speak in the words of Plato = ut Platonis verbis utar.


Dicere in aliquem, to speak ill of one, to accuse; dicere contra aliquem, to speak on the opposite side, to refute. Cicero in Verrem, contra Hortensium dixit.

  • Sull. 17 regnum est (it is tyranny) dicere in quem velis et defendere quem velis.
  • Rosc. A. 44 in quem hoc dicam quaeris, Eruci?
  • Clu. 47, 131 in P. Popilium, qui Oppianicum condemnarat, subscripsit L. Gellius.
  • Or. 3, 56, 213 orationem illam egregiam, quam in Ctesiphontem contra Demosthenem dixerat.
  • Tus. 5, 8, 21 contra Brutumne me dicturum putas?
  • Ac. 2, 19, 63 numquam arbitror contra Academiam dictum esse subtilius.
  • Brut. 60, 217 cum ille contra me pro Ser. Naevio diceret.
  • Phil. 2, 1, 2 quid uberius quam mihi et pro me et contra Antonium dicere?
  • Quinct. 2 cum praesertim Hortensius contra me sit dicturus.
  • Att. 4, 18, 3 (16, 11) quem P. Sulla … postularat contra dicente et nihil obtinente Torquato.


Baculum, a staff for support, such as is used in walking; scipio, a staff for ornament, a more or less costly staff carried by persons of distinction; fustis, a staff, cudgel, especially for beating with.

  • Verr. 5, 54 proximus lictor converso baculo oculos misero tundere coepit.
  • L. 5, 41 Papirius dicitur Gallo scipione eburneo in caput incusso iram movisse.
  • Pis. 30 non opus est verbis, sed fustibus.
  • Caecin. 23, 64 “non fuerunt armati, cum fustibus et cum saxis fuerunt”.


Signum is used of any work of the class of sculpture, opposed to tabula and pictura; statua, the statue of a man; simulacrum, the statue of a god, or a personated idea. Statua always and simulacrum mostly are full length figures adapted to be set up in public.

  • Div. 1, 35 equus ante signum Iovis Statoris concidit.
  • Pomp. 14 signa et tabulas ceteraque ornamenta Graecorum oppidorum.
  • Pis. 38 statuam istius persimilem deturbant.
  • Cat. 3, 8 simulacra deorum depulsa sunt et statuae veterum hominum deiectae.
  • L. 26, 21 simulacrum captarum Syracusarum.
  • L. 10, 23 simulacra infantium conditorum urbis sub uberibus lupae posuerunt.

Imago and effigies are opposed to simulacrum and statua in that they are principally used of the features or characteristic parts; imago resembles simulacrum as being a representation in any form, likeness being the predominating idea; effigies resembles statua as being a fictile or plastic work, its root (ex + fingo) implying an artistic copy. Hence imago (not effigies) = an echo.

  • Or. 31 Demosthenis nuper inter imagines tuas imaginem ex aere vidi.
  • Arch. 12 an statuas et imagines (busts), non animorum simulacra, sed corporum, studiose multi summi homines reliquerunt (collected and bequeathed); consiliorum relinquere ac virtutum nostrarum effigiem nonne multo malle debemus summis ingeniis expressam et politam?
  • Inv. 2, 1 Helenae simulacrum pingebat.
  • Tus. 3, 2 gloria virtuti resonat tamquam imago (glory is as it were the echo of virtue).
  • Hor. C. 1, 20, 8 iocosa Vaticani montis imago (the sportive echo of the Vatican hill).

Pictura is a general term for a painting; tabula (picta), a picture, with reference to the material on which it is painted.

  • Verr. 4, 55 nihil erat ea pictura nobilius.
  • Or. 3, 7 ratio picturae (not tabulae).
  • Verr. 4, 1 nego ullam picturam neque in tabula neque in textili (fuisse), quin conquisierit.
  • Verr. 5, 48 quae tabula picta est, quae non deportata sit?
  • Fin. 5, 1 Epicuri imaginem non modo in tabulis nostri familiares, sed etiam in poculis et in anulis habent (not only in pictures, but even in cups and signet-rings).


Manere, to stay, opposed to going away; remanere, to stay behind; permanere, to stay to the end, to continue to stay; (com)morari, to tarry as on a journey, usually owing to some hindrance. Manere with accusative, “to await,” e.g., L. 26, 13, 18.

  • L. 40, 10 nec eundo nec manendo insidias evito.
  • Ac. 2, 48 sermone confecto Catulus remansit, nos ad naviculas nostras descendimus.
  • Fam. 5, 2, 10 ut in mea erga te voluntate etiam desertus ab officiis tuis permanerem.
  • Caes. 5, 12 bello illato ibi permanserunt atque agros colere coeperunt.
  • Fam. 16, 9 ibi propter tempestatem a.d. VI. Idus morati sumus.
  • Caes. C. 3, 106 Caesar paucos dies in Asia moratus audiit Pompeium Cypri visum.


Passus (= passis pedibus), a step or pace as a measure of length; gradus, a step as a mode of progression, figuratively, a degree, grade. Passus is the distance between two consecutive heel-marks of the same foot.

  • Q. F. 3, 1, 2 sese mensum pedibus aiebat passuum tria milia.
  • Sall. I. 98 cunctos pleno gradu in collem subducit (he led the whole force at a quick pace up to the hill).
  • L. 28, 14 Hispanos presso gradu incedere iubet.
  • Fam. 11, 28 fateor me ad istum gradum sapientiae non pervenisse (I admit I have not reached such a height of philosophy).

Mille passus (rarely passuum), a (Roman) mile = 1618 yards; mille et quingenti passus, a mile and a half; duo milia passuum, two miles.

STORM (verb).

Oppugnare, to attack, assault, try to storm, opposed to obsidere, to blockade; expugnare, to take by storm.

  • L. 2, 11 Porsena primo conatu repulsus consilia ab oppugnanda urbe ad obsidendam vertit.
  • Verr. 1, 2 nihil tam munitum est, quod non expugnari pecunia possit.


Vis is force, violence, energy, not physical strength, which is vires. Minerva supplied him with more than human strength, Minerva ei vires plus quam humanas suppeditavit.

  • Mil. 23 magna est vis conscientiae.
  • Verg. A. 11, 750 sustinet a iugulo dextram et vim viribus exit.
  • Caes. 1, 53, 2 viribus confisi tranatare contenderunt.
  • Caes. 4, 1, 9 multum sunt in venationibus; quae res … vires alit.
  • L. 23, 26, 11 robore animi viriumque aliquantum praestanti.
  • L. 28, 35, 7 aetas erat in medio virium robore.
  • Fam. 7, 26, 2 et vires et corpus amisi (I have lost both strength amd flesh).
  • L. 8, 38 iam viris vires, iam ferro sua vis, iam consilia ducibus deerant (now the men had no strength, their swords no pith, and the generals no plans).
  • Sen. 11 non sunt in senectute vires. ne postulantur quidem vires a senectute.
  • L. 1, 25 iamque aequato Marte singuli supererant sed nec spe nec viribus pares.

Strength of mind, robur animi.


Style = genus dicendi (scribendi) or oratio. Stilus is the instrument for writing; figuratively = the action, manner, or mode of writing, or our word “pen,” taken in the sense of writer. A practised pen, stilus exercitatus.

  • Or. 5 tria sunt omnino genera dicendi (there are altogether three styles of oratory).
  • Or. 1, 18 spinosa quaedam et exilis oratio (a kind of prickly and meagre style).
  • Or. 1, 33 stilus optimus et praestantissimus dicendi magister (the pen is the best and most excellent teacher of oratory).
  • Brut. 45 huius orationes tantum urbanitatis habent, ut paene Attico stilo (with an Attic pen) scriptae esse videantur.
  • Hor. S. 2, 1, 39 hic stilus haud petet ultro quemquam (my pen shall not wound any one wantonly).


Qui alicui parent, or qui alicuius imperio subiecti sunt, sometimes cives. The subjects of Edward, qui Eduardo parent. Subiecti is not Latin in this sense.

  • Leg. 3, 2 omnes antiquae gentes regibus quondam paruerunt.
  • R. P. 2, 23, 43 sub rege est.
  • Tac. Agr. 12 olim regibus parebant.
  • R. P. 3, 25, 37 imperare corpori ut rex civibus suis.
  • Caes. 7, 1 qui (Galli) iam ante se populi Romani imperio subiectos dolerent.


“Such,” introducing a parenthesis, is made by the relative qui, sometimes by pro. Such is your moderation, quae tua est temperantia, or qua es temperantia, or pro tua temperantia.

  • Serv. ap. Fam. 4, 5 qui illius in te amor fuit (such was her affection for you).
  • Fam. 7, 13 moriar, ni, quae tua gloria est (such is your vanity), puto te malle a Caesare consuli quam inaurari.
  • Dom. 32, 84 pater tuus si viveret, qua severitate fuit, tu profecto non viveres (if your father had been still alive, such was his sternness, you certainly would not be living).
  • Fam. 7, 2, 1 si mihi permisisses, qui meus amor in te est (such is my love to you), confecissem.
  • Att. 7, 7, 1 si esset factum, quae est tua humanitas, ascripsisses.
  • Cael. 19, 45 copiam sententiarum atque verborum, quae vestra prudentia est, perspexistis.
  • Fam. 10, 27, 1 quod mihi pro summa erga te benivolentia magnae curae est.
  • Fam. 15, 17, 2 hoc tu pro tua sapientia feres aequo animo.
  • Caes. 5, 41 sperare se pro eius iustitia (such was his sense of justice), quae petierint, impetraturos.
  • Att. 4, 1 pro praeterita mea in te observantia (considering my past attention to you).

Qui cannot be so used unless the clause is parenthetic. You, such is your love for me, rescued me from the flames, tu, qui est tuus in me amor, me ex flammis eripuisti; such is your love for me that you rescued me from the flames, tantus (or is, not qui) est tuus in me amor ut me ex flammis eripueris.


Idoneus, suitable by quality, nature, or circumstances, fit for; aptus (from apere, to fit), suitable by art, fitted for; utilis, suitable in a general sense, serviceable.

  • Caes. 2, 8 locus ad aciem instruendam idoneus erat.
  • Att. 2, 6, 1 nam ad lacertas captandas tempestates non sunt idoneae.
  • L. 26, 26, 7 insidiis quam castris aptiorem eum (tumulum) crediderat.
  • Or. 1, 54 si mihi calceos Sicyonios attulisses, non uterer, quamvis essent apti ad pedem.
  • Off. 3, 12 utile putare quod turpe sit, calamitosum est.


Sustinere is always used, whether literally or figuratively, of a heavy or an irksome burden. The intensive sustentare is used only figuratively in good prose = to keep up what is more or less infirm, e.g., valetudinem. Fulcire, to prop up, to make what is weak or tottering secure.

  • Sen. 10 cum Milo umeris sustineret bovem vivum.
  • Verr. 1, 4 sustinebunt tales viri se tot hominibus honestissimis non credidisse.
  • Fam. 7, 1 tu istam imbecillitatem valetudinis tuae sustenta et tuere.
  • Att. 3, 19, 1 nusquam facilius hanc miserrimam vitam vel sustentabo vel, quod multo est melius, abiecero.
  • Fam. 14, 4, 5 sustenta te, mea Terentia, ut potes honestissime.
  • Sen. 15 vitis natura caduca, nisi fulta est, ad terram fertur.
  • Phil. 2, 21 labentem et prope cadentem rem publicam fulcire cupiebatis (you were desirous of propping up the republic, which was almost tottering to its fall).

He sustained a defeat, cladem accepit.


Gladius is the usual word for a sword; ensis, barring a solitary instance in Livy (7, 10), is peculiar to poetry. Ferrum, iron, is frequently used, by metonymy, for a sword, almost always if the sense is general or abstract, e.g., ferro (not gladio) ignique, by fire and sword.

In metonymy one word is put for another related to it; e.g., Or. 3, 42 “Neptunus” pro “mare,” “curia” pro “senatu,” “toga” pro “pace,” “arma” ac “tela” pro “bello”. In metaphor a word or phrase is transferred from one subject and applied in a figurative sense to another; e.g., Sest. 9 clavum tanti imperii tenere et gubernacula rei publicae tractare.

  • Caes. C. 3, 93 celeriter gladios strinxerunt (drew their swords).
  • Caes. 1, 25 gladiis destrictis in eos impetum fecerunt.
  • Sall. C. 58 ferro iter aperiundum est.
  • Phil. 11, 14 huic urbi ferro ignique minitantur.
  • L. 22, 39 plures fame quam ferro absumpti.
  • L. 40, 10 quid illis defuit nisi ferrum?


Demere, to take a part from a whole, or an item from a budget, or a burden from its bearer, e.g., partem de die, secures de fascibus; eximere, to take out of, free from, exempt, e.g., dentem, agrum de vectigalibus; “plerumque de mala re dicitur”; adimere, to take to oneself, hence naturally used of a good thing, to take a possession from its possessor, e.g., vitam, libertatem. We say adimere alicui aliquid, eximere aliquem ex or de aliqua re, and demere alicui aliquid, e.g., iugum, curam, sollicitudinem, but demere de of a part from a total, e.g., de sorte demere, to take from capital.

  • Ac. 2, 16 cum aliquid gradatim additur aut demitur (when a gradual addition or diminution takes place).
  • L. 1, 12 deme terrorem Romanis, fugamque foedam siste.
  • L. 9, 11 i, lictor, deme vincla Romanis.
  • N. D. 3, 34 Dionysius Æsculapi barbam demi iussit.
  • Or. 23 primum igitur oratorem tanquam e vinculis numerorum eximamus.
  • N. Att. 10 Antonius Canum de proscriptorum numero exemit.
  • Verr. 5, 32 aditum litoris Syracusanis ademerunt.
  • L. 30, 44 tunc flesse decuit, cum adempta sunt nobis arma (the proper time to shed tears was when our arms were taken from us).
  1. Adimere implies the exercise of a power or authority which commands submission; eripere, to take by force, to snatch; surripere, to take by stealth, to purloin; auferre is a general expression for taking away, or carrying off, and does not of itself imply or exclude the owner’s consent.

    • Off. 1, 14 multi eripiunt aliis, quod aliis largiantur.
    • L. 5, 51 obsessam (urbem) ex hostium manibus eripuimus (not here “hostibus ex manibus”).
    • Caecil. 5 quod auri, quod argenti, quod ornamentorum in meis urbibus fuit, id mihi tu eripuisti atque abstulisti.
    • Par. 6, 3 virtus nec eripi nec subripi potest.
    • Fam. 13, 77 servus multos libros surrupuit.
  2. Eripere, to resque, is followed by ex; when it means to snatch away, it takes the dative of the person, or e or de with ablative of thing (Reid Sull. 9). He rescued me from the flames, me ex flammis eripuit; he snatched the book out of my hands, mihi librum e manibus eripuit.

    • Caes. 4, 12 fratrem ex periculo eripuit.
    • Verr. 1, 4 ex manibus populi Romani eripi nullo modo potest.
    • Par. 4, 1, 29 si illam mentem, unde haec consilia manarunt, mihi eripuisses.


Sumere arma, to take up arms as a deliberate act = to declare or commence war; capere arma, strictly, to take arms into one’s hands, then, in a general sense, to have recourse to arms.

  • Att. 9, 11a, 2 semper pacis auctor fui nec sumptis armis belli ullam partem attigi (I always counselled peace, and after hostilities had begun, I took no part whatever in the war).
  • L. 2, 43 ab Aequis arma sumpta.
  • L. 3, 19 nisi Latini sua sponte arma sumpsissent, capti et deleti eramus.
  • L. 22, 5 tantum aberat, ut sua signa noscerent, ut vix ad arma capienda competeret animus (that they had scarcely presence of mind to take up their arms).
  • L. 1, 25 foedere icto trigemini sicut convenerat arma capiunt.
  • L. 21, 42, 3 alacer inter gratulantes gaudio exsultans cum sui moris tripudiis arma raptim capiebat.
  • L. 25, 18, 12 permissu eorum arma cepit equumque conscendit.


Tempestas, weather, especially in malam partem, a storm, a tempest; procella, a furious wind; turbo, a whirlwind, a tornado. Tempestas is generic, comprising all ingredients of the storm. Procella and turbo = a storm of wind, the latter as localised, the former as spreading itself far and near (Munro, Lucr. 6, 259).

  • Q. F. 2, 6 navigationem, dum modo idonea tempestas sit, ne omiseris.
  • L. 39, 46 tempestas cum magnis procellis coorta.
  • Hor. S. 1, 4, 31 uti pulvis collectus turbine (like the dust-cloud of a tornado).


Fines, with reference to the boundaries, ager, with reference to the surface or soil. We say “fines latissimi,” but “feracissimi agri”.

  • Caes. 6, 22 neque quisquam agri modum certum aut fines habet proprios.
  • Caes. 1, 31 Ariovistus in Sequanorum finibus consedit tertiamque partem eorum agri, qui erat optimus totius Galliae, occupavit.
  • Pomp. 6 Asia ubertate agrorum facile omnibus terris antecellit.


The ablative of comparison is used, especially in negative and quasi-negative sentences, instead of the nominative or accusative with quam: only in poetry, and very rarely, instead of the other cases.

  1. The ablative means starting or judging from, and it always implies a positive standard, i.e., it cannot be used when we start from zero. Judging from Hortensius, Cicero was more eloquent, Cicero erat eloquentior Hortensio. The Cyclops himself was no wiser than the ram, nihilo erat ipse Cyclops quam aries (not ariete) prudentior.
  2. Hence the ablative is naturally used when we start from an object possessing the quality in question in a superlative degree. Sweeter than honey, dulcior melle (not quam mel). Whiter than snow, nive candidior.
  3. The ablative is always used when an object is compared with itself in reference to a distinguishing characteristic. Davus surpasses himself in finesse, Davus Davo callidior est.
  4. So always alius alio = one (more) than another. There must be degrees of happiness, alium esse alio beatiorem necesse est.
  5. Relative pronouns attaching a negative clause to a definite antecedent always take the ablative in place of quam. The Punic war, the greatest the Romans ever carried on, Punicum bellum, quo nullum maius Romani gessere.
  6. Quam is necessarily used where the ablative would lead to ambiguity. I hold Lucius more dear than Tatius, Lucium quam Tatium (not Tatio) cariorem habeo. The earth is larger than the moon, terra maior est quam luna. The sun is larger than the earth, sol maior est terra or quam terra.
  7. The ablative cannot be used with an adjective which does not belong to the members of the comparison, but to another word. To none a greater grief than to thee, nulli flebilior quam tibi.
  8. Comparative adverbs are generally followed by quam, rarely (except in poetry) by other than the idiomatic ablatives opinione, spe, exspectatione, aequo (in Livy and later writers solito, iusto, dicto, etc.). Quicker than all hoped, spe omnium celerius.
  • Am. 8 nihil est virtute amabilius.
  • Ov. A. A. 1, 475 quid magis est saxo durum, quid mollius unda?
  • Curt. 6, 34 hic Attalo, quo graviorem inimicum non habui, sororem suam in matrimonium dedit.
  • R. P. 1, 10 quem auctorem locupletiorem Platone laudare possumus? (what more trustworthy authority can we quote than Plato?).
  • Sen. 10 ex eius lingua melle dulcior fluebat oratio (from his tongue words flowed sweeter than honey).
  • Hor. Ep. 2, 1, 112 invenior Parthis mendacior.
  • Hor. C. 1, 16, 1 o matre pulchra filia pulchrior.
  • R. P. 2, 14, 27 sequamur … Polybium nostrum, quo nemo fuit in exquirendis temporibus diligentior (than whom no one was more careful, etc.).
  • Cat. 1, 3 luce sunt clariora nobis tua consilia omnia.
  • Fin. 5, 28 (respondebunt), nihilo beatiorem esse Metellum quam Regulum (they will answer that Metellus was no happier than Regulus).
  • Q. F. 3, 1, 1 offendi Diphilum Diphilo tardiorem.
  • Att. 7, 2, 3 epistulas tuas sescentas accepi, aliam alia iucundiorem (I have received) no end of letters from you, every one more charming than another).
  • Ac. 2, 41, 128 nec enim possunt dicere aliud alio magis minusve comprehendi.
  • Fam. 7, 24, 2 Sardos venalis alium alio nequiorem (every one worse than another).
  • L. 2, 59, 2 multo Appio quam Fabio violentior fuit.
  • Att. 12, 15 secundum te nihil est mihi amicius solitudine.
  • Catull. 99, 3 Ellis amplius horam suffixum in summa me memini esse cruce.
  • Fin. 5, 27, 81 quid minus probandum quam esse aliquem beatum?
  • Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 11 pane egeo, iam mellitis potiore placentis (I want bread, which I like better now than honeyed cakes).
  • Hor. C. 1, 8, 9 cur olivum sanguine viperino cautius vitat? (why does he shun oil more cautiously than viper’s blood?).
  • L. 26, 13 Capuae infestiores quam Carthagini sunt.
  • Brut. 1 opinione omnium maiorem animo cepi dolorem (I experienced more heartfelt grief than was generally thought).
  • Fam. 14, 23 Caesar opinione celerius venturus esse dicitur.
  • L. 26, 26 serius spe omnium venit (he arrived later than all hoped).
  • Cat. 4, 3, 6 latius opinione disseminatum est hoc malum.
  • Phil. 11, 5, 12 Cafo, quo neminem veterani peius oderunt.
  1. Where the first member involves a predication which is inadmissible in the second, or where difference of time is distinctly expressed or implied, a new sentence is formed with quam.

    You have slain a better man than yourself, meliorem, quam ipse es, virum occidisti. He is weaker to-day than yesterday, hodie infirmior est, quam fuit heri.

    • Att. 9, 11a magis idoneum, quam ego sum, ad eam causam profecto reperies neminem (you will assuredly find no one better fitted for such a task than I am).
    • L. 26, 15 me quoque iube occidi, ut gloriari possis multo fortiorem, quam ipse es, virum abs te occisum esse.
    • Verr. 4, 20 (Verres) homini non gratiosiori quam Calidius est (not quam Calidio) Curidio argentum reddidit.
    • Q. F. 2, 3, 3 Pompeius dixit se munitiorem fore, quam Africanus fuisset (Pompey said that he should be better secured than Africanus).
    • Fam. 7, 23, 4 ut eius rei tu cupidior sis, quam ego sum.
  2. But where the first object is an accusative, the second is sometimes put in the same case by attraction.

    I have not come across a more acute fellow than Phormio, ego hominem callidiorem vidi neminem quam Phormionem (= quam Phormio est).

    • Planc. 12 hominem inferiorem quam te aedilem factum esse miraris?
    • Fam. 5, 7 ut tibi multo maiori, quam Africanus fuit (not quam Africano), me non multo minorem quam Laelium (= quam Laelius fuit) facile et in re publica et in amicitia adiunctum esse patiare.


Gratias agere, to express one’s thankfulness in words; gratiam referre, to express one’s thankfulness by deeds; gratiam habere, to feel thankful.

  • Marc. 11 maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus; maiores etiam habemus.
  • Fam. 5, 11 tu mihi non modo habuisti gratiam, verum etiam cumulatissime rettulisti.
  • Off. 2, 20 inops etiam referre gratiam non potest, habere certe potest.
  • Fam. 14, 4 huic utinam aliquando gratiam referre possimus! habebimus quidem semper.

The plural of “gratia” is always used with “agere,” while the singular is the normal construction with “referre” and “habere”.

  • Phil. 3, 15 ut honores eis habeantur gratiaeque referantur (gratiae = plural of attraction).


“That” and “those” in the expressions “that of,” “those of,” have the nature of true pronouns, and are expressed by means of the article in Greek, but never by hic, ille, or is in Latin. The substantive is either repeated or understood. He preferred the death of Epaminondas to that of Caesar, Epaminondae mortem Caesaris morti anteposuit; does the moon shine by its own light or by that of the sun? utrum luna suo lumine an solis utitur?

  • Fin. 2, 30 Leonidae mortem huius morti antepono.
  • Fin. 3, 22 animi lineamenta pulchriora sunt quam corporis (the features of the mind are fairer than those of the body).
  • Mil. 36 cur non id meo capite potius luitur quam Milonis?

Cf. Arch. 11 nullum enim virtus aliam mercedem desiderat praeter hanc laudis et gloriae (hanc = that of which I am just now speaking).

  • Caecil. 11 nam cum omnis adrogantia odiosa est, tum illa ingeni atque eloquentiae multo molestissima (illa is descriptive of, not substituted for, adrogantia = the well-known).
  • Verr. 1, 40, 76 flebat … pater de filii morte, de patris filius (the father was weeping for the death of his son, the son for that of his father).
  • Tus. 1, 19, 43 nulla est celeritas, quae possit cum animi celeritate contendere (there is no swiftness which can compare with that of the spirit).
  • Tus. 5, 23 cum huius vita … Platonis aut Archytae vitam comparabo.
  • Att. 4, 1, 4 ibi mihi Tulliola mea fuit praesto natali suo ipso die, qui casu idem natalis erat et Brundisinae coloniae et tuae vicinae Salutis.
  1. The substantive is usually omitted where it would be repeated in the same case, or where the case is indicated by a preposition. The speeches of Demosthenes are superior to those of Cicero, Demosthenis orationes meliores sunt quam Ciceronis, or Demosthenis orationes meliores sunt orationibus Ciceronis; the will of the son depends on that of the father, voluntas filii ex patris pendet (la volonté du fils dépend de celle du père).

    • Cael. 32 meam domum diruit, mei fratris incendit.
    • Phil. 9, 5 nemo umquam unici filii mortem magis doluit, quam ille maeret patris.
    • Fin. 5, 29 ille Metelli vitam negat beatiorem quam Reguli.
    • Phil. 11, 4 quis est qui possit conferre vitam Treboni cum Dolabellae? (with that of Dolabella).
    • Att. 16, 2 duas epistulas accepi, unam a meo tabellario, alteram a Bruti.

    Cf. Phil. 7, 6 Gracchorum potentiam maiorem fuisse arbitramini, quam huius gladiatoris futura sit?

    • Att. 12, 21 Catonem primum sententiam putat dixisse; et, cum ipsius Caesaris (that of Caesar) tam severa fuerit, consularium (those of men of consular rank) putat leniores fuisse.
    • Caes. 3, 13, 1 carinae aliquanto planiores quam nostrarum navium.
    • Att. 2, 13, 2 neminem adhuc offendi, qui haec tam lente, quam ego fero, ferret.
  2. But there are cases in which the substantive must be repeated. Caesar opposed his own authority to that of the Senate, Caesar senatus auctoritati suam opposuit (here no doubt is left that auctoritatem is understood). He opposed the authority of Cicero to that of Caesar, Ciceronis auctoritatem Caesaris auctoritati opposuit (he might oppose Cicero’s authority to Caesar’s legions or to anything else). He preferred his own safety to that of his father, patris saluti suam anteposuit; he preferred the safety of his country to that of his father, patriae salutem saluti patris anteposuit.

    The repetition of the substantive may be sometimes avoided by altering the construction of the sentence. He compared his labour to that of Hercules, laborem suum labori Herculis comparavit, or labori Herculis suum comparavit, or laborem suum cum Herculis comparavit.

    • Off. 3, 23 patriae salutem anteponet saluti patris.
    • Fin. 5, 15, 38 ita fiet, ut animi virtus corporis virtuti anteponatur.
    • L. 27, 42 Hannibal copiis eius ad suas additis Venusiam repetit.
  3. Abbreviated expressions are sometimes found where the property of one person is compared with another person = comparatio compendiaria.

    • Or. 1, 44 si cum Lycurgo et Dracone et Solone nostras leges conferre volueritis (= cum legibus Lycurgi, etc.).
    • Or. 1, 44 hominum nostrorum prudentiam ceteris omnibus et maxime Graecis antepono (= ceterorum omnium prudentiam).
    • N. D. 2, 61 vita existit par et similis deorum (= vitae deorum).


There are various modes of supplying the want of a Latin word corresponding to the article “the”.

  1. By an adjective pronoun.

    1. When it refers to something going before = the aforesaid. He resolved to kill the consul and hid himself in the senate-house for the (aforesaid) purpose, consulem occidere statuit, seque ad eam rem in curiam abdidit; Pythagoras came to Italy, Superbus being king at the time, Pythagoras in Italiam venit, Superbo eo tempore regnante; in the time of Superbus, Pythagoras came to Italy, temporibus Superbi Pythagoras in Italiam venit (here temporibus is sufficiently defined by Superbi).

      • Or. 2, 86, 352 quom … cecinisset id carmen, quod in eum scripsisset.
      • Mil. 18, 47 liberatur Milo non eo consilio profectus esse, ut insidiaretur.
      • Caes. 6, 35, 6 infra eum locum, ubi pons erat perfectus.
      • Att. 7, 16, 1 de mandatis Caesaris … scripsi ad te litteris iis, quas a. d. V. Kal. Capua dedi.
      • Sall. C. 50 Silanus primus sententiam rogatus, quod eo tempore (at the time) consul designatus erat.
      • Sall. I. 93 ei negotio proxumum diem constituit (he fixed the following day for the attempt).
    2. When it is followed by a restrictive relative or other defining clause. He entered the senate-house with the intention of killing the consul, curiam eo consilio ingressus est, ut consulem occideret; if I succeed in portraying the orator you are in quest of, si eum oratorem, quem quaeris, expressero.

      • Or. 2, 32 haec ego non eo consilio disputo, ut homines eruditos redarguam.
      • Ac. 2, 4 ea pars, quae contra Philonem erat, praetermittenda est (the disquisition against Philo must be passed over).
      • Q. F. 1, 4 sed de hoc scripsi ad te in ea epistula, quam Phaethonti dedi (in the letter I sent by Phaethon).
      • Sall. I. 61, 1 in eis urbibus, quae ad se defecerant … praesidia imponit.
  2. By a dependent interrogative. I know the grief you feel, scio quam (or quantum) doleas; you see the little I am contented with, vides quam parvo contentus sim; you see the (great) sacrifice I have made, vides quantam iacturam fecerim. Si scissem in quo periculo esses (the danger in which, etc.), statim ad te advolassem (Cic.).

    • L. 10, 5, 4 cernit ex superiore loco in quanto discrimine praesidium esset (the critical situation of the garrison).
    • Att. 1, 18 nunc vides quibus fluctibus iactemur.
    • Sull. 9 non sum nescius quanto periculo vivam.
  3. By a relative clause. The party on the hill, qui in monte erant = οἱ ἐπὶ τῷ ὔρει; the men on board, qui in nave sunt = οἱ ἐν τῇ νηὶ ὄντες.

    • Caes. C. 2, 43 qui in classe erant, proficisci properabant.
  4. By a circumlocution by means of “sic” or “ita”. They define anger as the violent desire of revenge, iracundiam sic definiunt, ut ulciscendi libidinem esse dicant; or iracundiam sic definiunt; ulciscendi libidinem (Nägelsbach).

    • Fin. 5, 26 percipiendi vis ita definitur a Stoicis, ut negent quidquam posse percipi, nisi tale verum, quasi falsum esse non possit.
    • Fin. 2, 4, 13 vitiosa res, ut Stoici putant, qui eam sic definiunt.
  5. By adverbs used as adjectives. The succeeding kings, deinceps reges; the surrounding country, ager circa.

    • L. 37, 17 agrum circa Romani hostiliter depopulati sunt.
    • Serv. ap. Fam. 4, 5, 4 coepi regiones circumcirca prospicere (I began to contemplate the surrounding places).
    • L. 24, 3, 3 templum … sanctum omnibus circa populis.
    • L. 23, 27, 2 omni circa agro potiuntur.
  6. In the case of proper names defined by an adjective of quality the class stands in opposition to the individual. The learned Cato, Cato, vir doctissimus, or Cato ille doctus (not Cato doctus); the sagacious Nasica, Nasica, vir prudens, or Nasica ille prudens; the famous Corinth, Corinthus, urbs nobilissima. But Laelius the Wise, Laelius Sapiens (Sapiens being a cognomen); Alexander the Great, Alexander Magnus.

    • Att. 2, 13, 2 cuius cognomen una cum Crassi Divitis cognomine consenescit (the text is doubtful).
    • Verr. 1, 43 Annia, pecuniosa mulier, testamento fecit heredem filiam (the wealthy Annia).
    • Rab. Post. 9 Callisthenem, doctum hominem, comitem Magni Alexandri, ab Alexandro necatum.
    • N. D. 3, 32 cur omnium crudelissimus tam diu Cinna regnavit? (here crudelissimus = cum crudelissimus esset).

    Exceptions occur in epistolary and familiar style. Ego et suavissimus Cicero valemus, I and our sweet pet Cicero are well (Fam. 14, 5); ego cum tuo Servio iucundissimo coniunctissime vivo, I am on terms of the greatest intimacy with your charming friend Servius (Fam. 13, 27); Cicero bellissimus (Fam. 14, 7, 3).

  7. With comparatives = on this account, eo. “This is not the usual definite article but the instrumental case of it” (Skeat). I am the better for your inquiries after me, eo melior sum, quod de me percontaris; he was the more distinguished as he was the son of a distinguished father, eo clarior quod clari patris filius fuit; cf. of the two sons Marcus was the more distinguished, ex duobus filiis Marcus clarior fuit.

    • Am. 1 meministi profecto, et eo magis quod Sulpicio utebare multum.

    He is very learned for the times, doctissimus est, ut his temporibus; he was very learned for the times, doctissimus fuit, ut illis temporibus.

THE—THE = in what degree, in that degree, tanto—quanto, or eo—quo, the clause with quanto or quo often preceding. The sooner the better, quanto citius, tanto melius; the denser the atmosphere, the nearer to the earth, eo crassior aer est, quo terris propior. In general propositions, instead of the comparative, we may use the superlative with ut quisque—ita, or with quisque alone. The better a man is, the more reluctant he is to esteem others bad, ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime alios improbos suspicatur; the braver a man is, the more generous he is, fortissimus quisque liberalissimus est.

  • L. 2, 51 quo plures erant (Veientes), eo maior caedes fuit (the more numerous the Veientes were, the greater the slaughter was).
  • N. D. 1, 22 quanto diutius considero, tanto mihi res videtur obscurior.
  • Mil. 9 quanto ille plura miscebat, tanto hic magis in dies convalescebat.
  • Sall. C. 52 quanto vos attentius ea agetis, tanto illis animus infirmior erit.
  • Off. 1, 19 quo difficilius, hoc praeclarius (the greater the difficulty the greater the glory).
  • Att. 11, 11 eo gravior est dolor, quo culpa maior.
  • L. 34, 7 quo plus potestis, eo moderatius imperio uti debetis.
  • Sen. 18 potest enim quidquam esse absurdius quam quo minus viae restat eo plus viatici quaerere?
  • Att. 15, 15, 4 Cicero noster quo modestior est, eo magis me commovet.
  • Or. 1, 26, 120 ut enim quisque optime dicit, ita maxime dicendi difficultatem … pertimescit.
  • L. 25, 38, 2 hoc imperium, ut amplum iudicio vestro, ita re ipsa grave ac sollicitum esse.
  • Phil. 1, 8 ut quisque sordidissimus videbitur, ita libentissime severitate iudicandi sordes suas eluet.
  • Sall. I. 31 quam quisque pessume fecit, tam maxume tutus est (the more criminal each man’s conduct has been, the greater is his security).
  • Fin. 2, 25 optimum quidque rarissimum est (the higher any kind of excellence is, the scarcer it is).


Ratio, theory, opposed to exercitatio or usus, practice.

  • Or. 3, 21 qui ad eam rationem (theory) adiungat hunc usum exercitationemque dicendi.
  • Or. 3, 24 verborum eligendorum et collocandorum facilis est vel ratio vel sine ratione ipsa exercitatio.
  • Caes. 4, 1 sic neque agri cultura nec ratio atque usus belli intermittitur.

Rationem alicuius rei habere, to take into consideration.

  • Sen. 11 habenda ratio valetudinis, health has to be taken into account.


Hic = that which is near to the speaker in place, time or idea; iste = that which is near to the person addressed; ille = that which is comparatively remote from both. Is is a pure demonstrative, and, unlike hic, ille, and iste, never in itself involves a predication. Hence, unless it refers to a person or thing previously named, it must be followed by a relative or other defining clause. Is cannot, for example, express that which follows = hic. The following are the words, verba haec sunt. Virtue has this advantage, that it delights, virtus habet hoc (not id), ut delectet. But ita, which is allied to is, can be used to express as follows. Cat. 3, 5 erant autem sine nomine, sed ita, the letter was anonymous, but ran as follows. Hic et ille, ille et ille, are used for distribution; e.g., this and that, hoc et illud; this and that man, ille et (aut) ille.

  • Att. 12, 18 longum illud tempus, cum non ero, magis me movet quam hoc exiguum.
  • Att. 10, 8 tempus est nos de illa perpetua iam, non de hac exigua vita cogitare.
  • Att. 4, 3 nova quaedam divina mitto; sed haec summa est.
  • Am. 1 Cato, quo erat nemo fere senior temperibus illis.
  • Top. 11 si hoc est, illud non est.
  • Rosc. A. 21 credo quaesisse, num ille aut ille defensurus esset.
  • Verr. 1, 20 non dicam illinc hoc signum ablatum esse et illud.
  • Verr. 11 ita fiet, ut tua ista ratio existimetur astuta, meum hoc consilium necessarium.
  • N. D, 1, 21 non ille, ut plerique, sed isto modo, ut tu, distincte, graviter, ornate (dicebat) (he did not speak as most do, but in that manner of yours, clearly, impressively, elegantly).
  • R. P. 6, 24 nec enim tu is es, quem forma ista declarat.
  • Caes. 4, 17, 2 rationem pontis hanc instituit (the following is a plan of a bridge he resolved upon).
  • L. 4, 4, 10 quod privatorum consiliorum ubique semper fuit, … id vos sub legis superbissumae vincula conicitis.
  • Top. 11, 46 eius generis haec sunt …
  • Caes. 3, 7, 2 eius belli haec fuit causa.
  • Sall. C. 50, 5 huiusce modi verba locutus est.
  • Ter. Phorm. 5, 9, 2 (991) quis hic homost?
  • Leg. 1, 1, 1 lucus quidem ille et haec Arpinatium quercus agnoscitur saepe a me lectus in Mario.
  • Att. 6, 3, 3 digna eis libris, quos tu dilaudas.
  • Or. 1, 37, 170 praecipue in hoc ferendum et laudandum puto, quod cet.
  • Verg. A. 8, 466 filius huic Pallas, illi comes ibat Achates.
  • Clu. 7, 22 haec cum agere instituisset, oppressa morbo est.
  • Caes. C. 1, 32, 7 sin timore defugiant illi (for the second person in direct), se oneri non defuturum.
  • Fin. 1, 8, 28 unam rem explicabo, eamque (and that too) maximam.
  • L. 22, 22, 7 id agebat, ut quam maxumum emolumentum novis sociis esset.
  1. Hic is used of what is present, or linked with the present, modern; hic cultus, modern civilisation; haec licentia, present day licence; haec hiems, the present winter; haec tempora, hi mores, the present times, the present manners; hic dies, to-day; his paucis diebus, a few days ago (abhinc paucos dies); his duobis mensibus, within the last two months; hi mores, the spirit of the age. Noster = our, belonging to us. Vergilius noster, Ennius noster.

    • Pl. Mil. 2, 3, 62 (334) hic obsistam, ne imprudenti huc ea se subrepsit mihi.
    • Pl. Most. 1, 3, 77 (234) ut … haec sit heres.
    • L. 4, 4, 3 decem viros legibus scribendis intra decem hos annos creavimus.
    • L. 6, 4, 11 opus vel in hac magnificentia urbis conspiciendum.
    • Fam. 7, 4 me hoc biduo aut triduo exspecta.
    • Att. 2, 19, 2 hunc statum, qui nunc est.
    • Caes. 6, 19, 2 huius omnis pecuniae coniunctim ratio habetur fructusque servantur.
    • L. 2, 41, 3 tum primum lex agraria promulgata est, numquam deinde usque ad hanc memoriam … agitata.
    • Som. Scip. 2 hanc (urbem) hoc biennio evertes (in less than two years).
    • R. P. 1, 37 his annis quadringentis Romae rex erat (four hundred years ago or less).
    • Brut. 35 Catulus non antiquo illo more, sed hoc nostro, eruditus (not in that ancient fashion, but in this modern one of our own).
  2. Ille is used of a well-known or celebrated person or thing. Alexander ille Magnus, the famous Alexander the Great; Medea illa, the notorious Medea; illud Solonis, the well-known saying of Solon.

    • Tus. 5, 36 hic est ille Demosthenes (the great Demosthenes).
    • N. Thras. 4 Pittacus ille (the illustrious Pittacus).
    • Fin. 2, 4 maiores nostri ab aratro adduxerunt Cincinnatum illum, ut dictator esset.
    • N. Ag. 6, 1 accidit illa calamitas apud Leuctra Lacedaemoniis.
    • Verg. A. 2, 274 quantum mutatus ab illo Hectore, qui redit exuvias indutus Achilli.
    • Tus. 1, 30, 74 dominans ille in nobis deus.
  3. The neuter illud often serves to introduce an emphatic statement = the following.

    • Fam. 14, 14 etiam illud verendum est, ne brevi tempore fames in urbe sit.
    • Fam. 2, 12 illud moleste fero, nihil me adhuc his de rebus habere tuarum litterarum.
    • Brut. 56 in his oratoribus illud animadvertendum est, posse esse summos, qui inter se sint dissimiles.
    • Arch. 7 etiam illud adiungo, saepius ad laudem naturam sine doctrina quam sine natura valuisse doctrinam.
  4. Ille = the other, hence used to mark a change of person or subject. The father called his son, but he would not come, pater filium vocavit, ille autem venire noluit; the father called his son and admonished him, pater filium vocavit admonuitque.

    • N. Dat. 11 quem (locum) cum digito monstraret, et ille (the other) respiceret, aversum ferro transfixit.
    • Am. 16 non est igitur amici talem esse in eum, qualis ille in se est.
    • Sest. 3 ad eum filiam eius adduxit, ut ille aliquam partem maeroris sui deponeret.
    • Am. 20, 73 primum quantum ipse efficere possis, deinde etiam quantum ille, quem diligas atque adiuves, sustinere.
  5. Iste is used of an object that is pointed to. Give me that gold cup there, da mihi istud aureum poculum.

    • Sen. 17 multae istarum arborum mea manu sunt satae.
  6. Iste is also used of an opponent in a law-suit, in opposition to hic, my client, the man near me, and hence to express contempt or dislike. Ille is used of an opponent, when the orator is speaking of him by way of explanation; iste, when he is speaking at him. Even hic is employed, when an adversary is contrasted with others who are more remote.

    • Verr. 2, 18 quae est ista praetura? (what sort of praetorship is that of yours?).
    • Cat. 1, 7 nunc vero quae tua est ista vita?
    • Verr. 2, 39 aderat in senatu pater istius.
    • Sull. 12 mihi de memet ipso tam multa dicendi necessitas quaedam imposita est ab illo.
    • Verr. 4, 22 tum testes ex Sicilia dabo, quem volet ille (Verres) eligat, quem ego interrogem.
    • Verr. 4, 14 ait ille (Verres) idem sibi videri.
    • Verr. 4, 4 idcirco nemo superiorum attigit, ut hic (= Verres) tolleret?
    • Verr. 4, 22 hic emblemata evellenda curavit (hic = Verres, opposed to the absent Eupolemus).
    • Verr. 5, 56 Cyclops alter multo inportunior; hic enim totam insulam obsidebat, ille Aetnam solam tenuisse dicitur.
    • Cat. 2, 8 exponam vobis, Quirites, ex quibus generibus hominum istae copiae comparentur.
    • Cat. 2, 10, 23 verum tamen quid sibi isti miseri volunt?
    • Verr. 4, 52, 116 eum isto praetore Cilicum myoparoni praedonibusque patuisse.
    • Verr. 1, 35, 89 manent istae litterae Mileti, manent et, dum erit illa civitas, manebunt.
    • Ros. 6, 17 duo isti sunt T. Roscii (quorum alteri Capitoni cognomen est, iste, qui adest, Magnus vocatur) homines eius modi.
  7. Is is used in correlation to a relative, or in reference to something previously mentioned. We praise those like ourselves, laudamus eos, qui nostri sunt similes, or laudamus nostri similes; they attacked them while crossing, eos transeuntes aggressi sunt; they attacked those crossing, transeuntes (without eos) aggressi sunt. Is qui is used even of the first person (cf. Dräger, Hist. Synt., § 479).

    • Caecil. 4 eos, qui adsunt, appellabo.
    • Att. 16, 2, 2 ut ii, qui debent, non respondeant ad tempus.
    • L. 21, 5, 12 quod metu cessisse credebant hostem, id morari victoriam rati.
    • L. 9, 9 tridui iter expeditis erat (it was a march of three days for those tightly equipped).
    • Caes. 7, 85 laborantibus submittit.
    • Ac. 2, 20, 66 nec tamen ego is sum, qui nihil umquam falsi adprobem.
  8. And that (too), emphasising some quality of a foregoing word = et is (quidem), isque, atque is. They lived in one house, and that a small one, una in domo, et ea quidem angusta, vivebant. The neuter id is used, if the reference is to the assertion in general = καὶ τοῦτο. He replied, and that too at great length, respondit idque multis verbis.

    • Am. 27 una domus, idem victus, isque communis.
    • Fin. 1, 20 at vero Epicurus una in domo (school), et ea quidem angusta, quam magnos tenuit amicorum greges!
    • L. 4, 57 uno atque eo facili proelio caesi ad Antium hostes.
    • Phil. 2, 27 totos dies potabatur, atque id locis pluribus.
    • Phil. 5, 12 bello decertandum est, idque confestim.
  9. Hic, qui (with interpunctuation) is distinguished from is qui in that in the former qui is simply explicative, in the latter determinative. Is qui (ii qui) = celui qui (ceux qui) one who, or a man who (those who); hic, qui = celui-ci lequel, this one before us, this one we are speaking or thinking about).

    • Phil. 1, 10 de his tamen legibus, quae promulgatae sunt, saltem queri possumus; de eis, quae iam latae dicuntur, ne illud quidem licuit (the clause “quae promulgatae sunt” is explicative and might be omitted).
    • Caes. 1, 40, 6 propterea quod, quos aliquamdiu inermes sine causa timuissent, hos postea armatos ac victores superassent.
    • Fin. 2, 2 hunc ipsum finem definiebas id esse, quo omnia, quae recte flerent, referrentur.
    • Phil. 14, 5 is enim demum est iustus triumphus, cum bene de re publica meritis testimonium a consensu civitatis datur (here the cum clause defines).
    • Fam. 11, 8 Romae dilectus habetur totaque Italia, si hic dilectus appellandus est, cum ultro se offerunt omnes (here the cum clause expands).


Tres, three; terni, three each, or three by three. He gave the children three apples, tria mala pueris dedit; he gave his sister’s children three apples each, terna mala sororis liberis dedit. Trini is used instead of tres with substantives of plural form with singular meaning. Three camps, trina castra; three letters, trinae litterae; three letters each, ternae litterae; three letters (of the alphabet), tres litterae.

  • L. 41, 21 tres simul soles effulserunt.
  • Or. 59 ternae autem sunt utriusque partes.
  • Fam. 9, 22 cum loquimur “terni,” nihil flagitii dicimus.
  • Fam. 15, 16 ego, si semper haberem, cui (litteras) darem, vel ternas in hora darem.
  • L. 34, 42, 1 in dies ternos supplicatio ab senatu decreta est.

Three days, triduum = a space of three days; tres dies = three separate days.

  • Caes. C. 3, 40 triduum moratus discessit.
  • Fam. 7, 4 me hoc biduo aut triduo exspecta.
  • Tus. 2, 17, 40 aniculae saepe inediam biduum aut triduum ferunt.
  • L. 43, 13 Apollo triduum ac tres noctes lacrimavit.
  • L. 39, 13 tres in anno statos dies habuisse.
  • L. 39, 13 pro tribus in anno diebus (instead of three days yearly).
  • (L.) 45, 39 in tres dies distributa est pompa spectaculi.


Solium, or regia sedes, the throne (literally), the chair of State; regnum, the throne (figuratively), sovereign power. Sitting on his throne he thus addressed the ambassadors, in solio sedens legatos ita allocutus est; he succeeded his father on the throne, patri in regnum successit.

  • L. 1, 47 domus regia et in domo regale solium.
  • Phil. 7, 5, 15 (Antonius) regna addixit pecunia (Antony sold thrones to the highest bidder).
  • L. 40, 11 non primus regnum fraterna caede petiero.
  • Caes. C. 3, 112 filia minor Ptolomaei regis vacuam possessionem regni sperans.


Tempus, time, in reference to its varying circumstances, also time in general, a portion or period of time; dies, time in reference to its unvarying flight, lapse of time (in this abstract sense always feminine). Tempus docebit = the course of events, or the right time, will teach; dies docebit = length of time (indefinite) will teach.

  • Mil. 15 at quod erat tempus? (now, what were the circumstances of the time?).
  • Fam. 5, 16 nos, quod est dies allatura, id consilio anteferre debemus neque exspectare temporis medicinam.
  • Quinct. 23, 74 hoc tempore ubi sunt?
  • Serv. ap. Fam. 4, 5, 6 nullus dolor est, quem non longinquitas temporis minuat ac molliat.
  • Att. 14, 20, 4 consilia temporum sunt, quae in horas commutari vides (the state of things changes, you see, every hour).
  • L. 37, 21, 1 eodem ferme tempore atque in eundem locum processerunt.
  • L. 10, 20, 15 acciti edicto domini ad res suas noscendas recipiendasque praestituta die.
  • Hor. C. 3, 6, 45 damnosa quid non inminuit dies?
  • Att. 3, 15 dies autem non modo non levat luctum hunc, sed etiam auget (lapse of time, so far from healing this wound, inflames it).
  • Fam. 1, 6 ipsa die, quae debilitat cogitationes.
  • Iuv. 10, 265 longa dies quid contulit? (what did length of days bring to him?).
  1. It is time to rest, tempus est quiescere = it is high time to; tempus est quiescendi = it is the proper time for. It is time for me to go away, tempus est me (not mihi) abire (ὥρα ἤδη ἔστιν μοι ἀπιέναι, Xen. Anab. 3, 4, 34).

    • L. 21, 54 nunc corpora curare tempus est.
    • L. 6, 18 tempus est etiam maiora conari.
    • Tus. 1, 41 sed tempus est iam hinc abire me.
    • Or. 2, 42 tempus est iam de ordine argumentorum aliquid dicere.
    • Caes. 7, 83 adeundi tempus definiunt.
    • Caes. C. 3, 10 hoc unum esse tempus de pace agendi.
    • Mur. 21 aliud tempus est petendi, aliud persequendi.
    • L. 1, 47, 8 iam agendae rei tempus visum est.
  2. In the time of Pyrrhus, Pyrrhi temporibus (not tempore) = not a point of time, but the whole time during which Pyrrhus lived and acted with others. The time of Homer is uncertain, Homeri incerta sunt tempora. Tempora, the times as a whole, e.g., o tempora! o mores! His temporibus, in these times; hoc tempore, at this critical juncture.

    • Tus. 5, 3 Lycurgi temporibus Homerus etiam fuisse traditur.
    • Ag. 2, 30 Hispaniarum vectigal temporibus Sertorianis nullum fuit.
    • Div. 2, 56 Pyrrhi temporibus iam Apollo versus facere desierat.
    • Tac. A. 1, 1 temporibus Augusti dicendis non defuere decora ingenia (polished intellects were not wanting to describe the times of Augustus).

In tempore (in Cicero tempore only), in time, opportunely; in ipso tempore, in the very nick of time; ad tempus, at the fixed or appointed time, at the right time. Ad tempus also = for a time, temporarily (“temporarius” late Latin).

  • Off. 3, 14 ad cenam tempori venit Canius.
  • Fam. 7, 18 ego enim renovabo commendationem, sed tempore (but at the right time).
  • L. 25, 30, 1 in tempore legati a Marcello redierunt.
  • Verr. 5, 11 si quae castiores erant, ad tempus veniebant (at the customary time).
  • L. 28, 42 dux ad tempus lectus.
  • Tac. A. 1, 1 dictaturae ad tempus sumebantur.

Ex tempore, on the spur of the moment, extempore; pro tempore, according to the exigencies of the moment.

For some time aliquamdiu, paulisper, parumper. He stayed all the time he could, tamdiu, quamdiu potuit, mansit. I have no time, egeo tempore (Q. F. 3, 5, 4).


Quondam, one time (which it is unnecessary to specify), once on a time, relates to the past = quodam tempore; olim (from olle = ille) relates to a remote time, past, or future = illo tempore. I remember one time saying we should all one day return, memini me quondam dicere nos omnes olim redituros esse. Aliquando is a general term referring to the past, the present, or the future = at some undefined time or times.

  • Cat. 1, 1 fuit, fuit ista quondam in hac re publica virtus.
  • Arch. 3 Archias natus est Antiochiae, celebri quondam urbe (at one time a populous city).
  • Or. 2, 37, 154 referta quondam Italia Pythagoreorum fuit.
  • L. 28, 29, 1 Coriolanum quondam damnatio iniusta … impulit.
  • Verg. A. 1, 203 forsan et haec olim meminisse iuvabit (perchance some day even this will be remembered with pleasure).
  • Att. 7, 11 nostri olim urbe reliqua capta arcem tamen retinuerunt.
  • Att. 11, 4 utinam coram tecum olim potius quam per epistulas!
  • Verr. 2, 32 forsitan aliquis aliquando eiusmodi quidpiam fecerit (possibly somebody or other at one time or other may have done something of the kind).
  • Off. 3, 3 liceret ei dicere utilitatem aliquando cum honestate pugnare (he would be entitled to say that there are occasions when expediency conflicts with rectitude).
  • Fam. 14, 4, 2 huic utinam aliquando gratiam referre possimus!
  • Or. 1, 21, 95 nec despero fore aliquem aliquando, qui … existat talis orator (I don’t despair of there being some one some day, etc.).
  • Or. 2, 6, 24 mihi enim liber esse non videtur qui non aliquando nihil agit.
  • Fin. 2, 32, 104 sapiens semper beatus est et est aliquando in dolore.
  • Caes. C. 1, 26, 6 ita saepius rem frustra temptatam Caesar aliquando dimittendam sibi iudicat.
  • Sall. I. 14, 17 quisquam nostri misereri potest, qui aliquando vobis hostis fuit?
  • L. 30, 30, 15 mihi talis aliquando fortuna adfulsit.

Uno tempore, at one (and the same) time. Multas uno tempore accepi epistulas tuas, I received a number of letters from you at one time (Att. 7, 5).


Eodem tempore, at the same point or period of time, the element of time being the emphatic notion; simul, at the same time, associates the things spoken of and subordinates the element of time. An olive appeared in one part of the city, and at the same time a horse issued from the earth in another, olea in alia parte urbis apparuit, et eodem tempore (not simul) equus in alia ex terra erupit. Cutters are ships which are propelled by sails and oars at the same time, actuariae naves sunt, quae velis simul et remis aguntur (here “simul” associates two motor agencies). I will produce several witnesses at the same time, plures testes simul producam = I will produce witnesses in batches; I will produce witnesses, and I will produce several at the same time (emphatic), producam testes, et producam plures eodem tempore (Verr. 2, 72). Laelius had been instructed so to regulate the speed of his ships that the army might come in sight and the fleet enter the harbour at the same time. The fleet and the army arrived at Carthage at the same time on the seventh day: Laelius ita moderari navium cursum iussus erat, ut eodem tempore exercitus ostenderetur et classis portum intraret. Septimo die Carthaginem ventum est simul terra marique (L. 26, 42). (Here “eodem tempore” refers to precise instructions, and the army and the fleet are viewed as dissociated entities, like the olive and the horse; in “simul” they are brought together and viewed in concert as in the action of the sails and the oars.)

  • L. 26, 27 pluribus simul locis circa forum incendium ortum; eodem tempore septem tabernae arsere.
  • Or. 3, 34 quadraginta annos praefuit Athenis et urbanis eodem tempore et bellicis rebus.
  • Sall. C. 60 strenui militis et boni imperatoris officia simul exsequebatur.
  • Caes. C. 1, 50 erat difficile eodem tempore opera perficere et tela vitare.
  • Brut. 18 nihil est enim simul et inventum et perfectum (for nothing was ever invented and perfected at once).
  • Brut. 22 Galba alii aliud dictare eodem tempore solitus est.
  • Sall. I. 85 doctus sum eodem tempore inopiam et laborem tolerare.
  • Sall. C. 51 neque quisquam omnium lubidini simul et usui paruit.
  • Off. 1, 22 nec plus Africanus in excidenda Numantia rei publicae profuit, quam eodem tempore Nasica, cum Gracchum interemit.
  • L. 8, 25 eodem tempore etiam in Samnio res prospere gesta.
  • L. 45, 23 legatos eodem tempore et ad vos et ad Persea de pace misimus (eodem tempore emphatic, as shown by the context).
  • Q. F. 3, 1, 3 mihi uno die tres litterae sunt redditae, et quidem, ut videbantur, eodem abs te datae tempore.
  • Div. 2, 44, 92 necesse est ortus occasusque siderum non fieri eodem tempore apud omnis.
  • L. 23, 3, 5 duae res simul agendae vobis sunt, ut et veterem senatum tollatis et novum cooptetis.
  • Fam. 16, 9 eodem tempore simul nobiscum in oppidum introiit Terentia (they came from opposite directions).
  • L. 41, 21 tres simul soles effulserunt.
  • Sall. I. 57 deinde signo dato undique simul clamor ingens oritur.
  • L. 36, 38 prima luce duabus simul portis eruptionem fecit.
  • Or. 2, 24 ita assequor, ut alio tempore cogitem quid dicam et alio dicam; quae duo plerique ingenio freti simul faciunt.

Simul is used to mark a connexion with something going before = along with that. You cannot condemn me without at the same time (= along with that) condemning yourself, me condemnare non potes quin simul te ipsum condemnes. You cannot pardon Lentulus without at the same time pardoning Catiline, Lentulo ignoscere non potestis, quin simul Catilinae ignoscatis.

  • Sall. C. 52 cum de Lentulo statuetis, pro certo habetote, vos simul de omnibus coniuratis decernere.
  • Mil. 11 non potestis hoc facinus improbum iudicare, quin simul iudicetis, omnibus, qui in latrones inciderint, aut illorum telis aut vestris sententiis esse pereundum.
  • L. 1, 26 stricto itaque gladio simul verbis increpans transfigit puellam.
  • Verr. 1, 51 iste Habonium quiescere iubet, et simul ei non nullam spem societatis ostendit.
  • Sall. I. 101 exclamat Marium sua manu interfectum; simul gladium sanguine oblitum ostendit.

At the same time is rendered by idem when something similar or antithetical is predicated of a person or thing already mentioned. Why do you accuse Marcus when you at the same time commend Bibulus? cur accusas Marcum, cum idem laudes Bibulum?

  • Tus. 1, 6 quem esse negas, eundem esse dicis.
  • Tus. 5, 9 negat quemquam iucunde posse vivere, nisi idem honeste vivat.
  • Fin. 2, 20 Thorius utebatur eo cibo, qui et suavissimus esset et idem facillimus ad concoquendum.


Titulus, title, honour, is used of an eulogistic inscription, but is late Latin for the title of a book, inscriptio or index.

  • Pis. 9 qui posset sustinere titulum consulatus.
  • L. 7, 1 par titulo tantae gloriae fuit (he sustained the repute of such great glory).
  • L. 28, 46 aram condidit dedicavitque cum ingenti rerum gestarum titulo Punicis Graecisque litteris insculpto.
  • Top. 1 qua inscriptione commotus continuo a me eorum librorum sententiam requisisti.
  • Or. 2, 14 deceptus indicibus (titles) librorum.
  • Ac. 2, 4 librum edidit, qui Sosus inscribitur (he published a book which bears the title of Sosus).

In modern Latin, index = the index of a book. The Latin writers had no use for such a word, as they did not make indexes to their books.

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