Horae Latinae

Studies In Synonyms and Syntax, by Robert Ogelvie

For everybody eager to learn Latin, we proudly present Latinitium’s digital edition of Horae Latinae by Robert Ogelvie, originally published posthumously in 1901.

Here you will find almost 500 English words and expressions with detailed descriptions of how to best render them in Latin, and with copious quotes from classical authors illustrating the usage. It is thus an excellent complement to the English–Latin dictionary by Smith & Hall.

For more resources on Latin synonyms, see our blog post A guide to Dictionaries of Latin synonyms!

Tips, updates, and learning material.


a or an first (adverb) play
abandon first who if you please
about flee poet
abroad flow poetry
access to forget poisoned
accompany former—latter politics
of one’s own accord freedman as—as possible
accurate great friend poverty
accuse on the front power
accuser fruitful prejudice
across garden present
advocate general pretend
affirm grateful prevail on
African gratification prevent
after Greeks pride
afterwards grief priest
again happen prithee
age happiness promise
ago hasten proof
all but health prove
along the river hear province
also hear well publicly
altar heart quarrel
although high rather than
angry hither and thither really
animal hitherto refer
annual hold refuse
any one honour reign
Apennines hope relations
appeal horse remember
appear on horseback remove
apple host report
appoint a dictator hour represent
arm how resign office
arms however rest
army hunger the rest
as if return
as far as if not reward
as to ignorant rightly
as well as immortal river
assemble with impunity robber
assembly in an author Roman
assuredly indeed rose
attain influence royal
audience inhabit rule
author inhabitants rustic
baggage insanity safe
banker instead of same as
bargain international law I say
because invade I will not say
become inveigh against as they say
before is to be scarcely
before (adverb) joy sculpture
before (of place) judge seat
begin justice second
belief kill secretly
believe know seize
besides we know self
beware of know how sell
beyond Lacedaemonian serious
blame land services
blood last ship
bloodless too late shore
bloody lately shortly
in a book Latin show
books laugh sickness
both learn siege
both—and at least sight
bridge legislator silent
bring leisure sing
build lend six hundred
burn much less sloping
but letter smell
by in a letter soldier
canvassing liberty some
carry life some one
cattle light sometimes
cause lightning soul
cease like speak
certain likely speak against
character little staff
children how little statue
cold live stay
command long (adjective) step
commit long (adverb) storm (verb)
common for a long while strength
conceal no longer style
confess lose subjects
conscience love such
conscious lungs suitable
consul Macedonian sustain
consult magnanimity sword
content majesty take away
continue make a speech take up arms
contract man tempest
control how many territory
corn forced march than
country marriage thankfulness
fellow-countryman marry that of
cousin master the
crime mean theory
crown from memory this (that)
cui bono? in memory of three
custom mind throne
daily (adjective) modesty time
daily (adverb) money one time
day more at the same time
two days more than title
the dead more than once too
deal with many more towards
death morning trade
debt the morrow trader
defend mortal travel
deny most tributary
deserve multitude in triumph
despise name troops
despoil namely trust
die nation truth
different natural uncle
diligence necessity undertake
dislodge neck unjustly
divide new of us
doubt by night in vain
dream noble vote
dress nor wall
drink and not wander about
drunk do not want
drunkenness not even wanting
each not one water
each other not so very way
earthly not to say on the way
either—or nothing when (interrogative)
embark nothing but whenever
employed now where
enemy oath whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
enjoy obey whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
enough obstructionist which?
entreat obtain while
envy oh that! for a while
epidemic old age white
especially omit whoever
estate one why not?
even one of wisdom
ever one more with
everywhere only with one
for example not only not within
exception open without
exile openly witness
expect opinion word
expense or work at
express or not workman
extend orator world
face otherwise worse
fail our would be
famous own wound
fault palace wretch
favour passenger a year after
for fear paternal yes and no
feast people yesterday
few perhaps yield
how few persuade you
first (adjective) places younger
a or an how little
abandon live
about long (adjective)
abroad long (adverb)
access to for a long while
accompany no longer
of one’s own accord lose
accurate love
accuse lungs
accuser Macedonian
across magnanimity
advocate majesty
affirm make a speech
African man
after how many
afterwards forced march
again marriage
age marry
ago master
all but mean
along the river from memory
also in memory of
altar mind
although modesty
angry money
animal more
annual more than
any one more than once
Apennines many more
appeal morning
appear the morrow
apple mortal
appoint a dictator most
arm multitude
arms name
army namely
as nation
as far as natural
as to necessity
as well as neck
assemble new
assembly by night
assuredly noble
attain nor
audience and not
author do not
baggage not even
banker not one
bargain not so very
because not to say
become nothing
before nothing but
before (adverb) now
before (of place) oath
begin obey
belief obstructionist
believe obtain
besides oh that!
beware of old age
beyond omit
blame one
blood one of
bloodless one more
bloody only
in a book not only not
books open
both openly
both—and opinion
bridge or
bring or not
build orator
burn otherwise
but our
by own
canvassing palace
carry passenger
cattle paternal
cause people
cease perhaps
certain persuade
character places
children play
cold if you please
command poet
commit poetry
common poisoned
conceal politics
confess as—as possible
conscience poverty
conscious power
consul prejudice
consult present
content pretend
continue prevail on
contract prevent
control pride
corn priest
country prithee
fellow-countryman promise
cousin proof
crime prove
crown province
cui bono? publicly
custom quarrel
daily (adjective) rather than
daily (adverb) really
day refer
two days refuse
the dead reign
deal with relations
death remember
debt remove
defend report
deny represent
deserve resign office
despise rest
despoil the rest
die return
different reward
diligence rightly
dislodge river
divide robber
doubt Roman
dream rose
dress royal
drink rule
drunk rustic
drunkenness safe
each same as
each other I say
earthly I will not say
either—or as they say
embark scarcely
employed sculpture
enemy seat
enjoy second
enough secretly
entreat seize
envy self
epidemic sell
especially serious
estate services
even ship
ever shore
everywhere shortly
for example show
exception sickness
exile siege
expect sight
expense silent
express sing
extend six hundred
face sloping
fail smell
famous soldier
fault some
favour some one
for fear sometimes
feast soul
few speak
how few speak against
first (adjective) staff
first (adverb) statue
first who stay
flee step
flow storm (verb)
forget strength
former—latter style
freedman subjects
great friend such
on the front suitable
fruitful sustain
garden sword
general take away
grateful take up arms
gratification tempest
Greeks territory
grief than
happen thankfulness
happiness that of
hasten the
health theory
hear this (that)
hear well three
heart throne
high time
hither and thither one time
hitherto at the same time
hold title
honour too
hope towards
horse trade
on horseback trader
host travel
hour tributary
how in triumph
however troops
hunger trust
if truth
if not uncle
ignorant undertake
immortal unjustly
with impunity of us
in an author in vain
indeed vote
influence wall
inhabit wander about
inhabitants want
insanity wanting
instead of water
international law way
invade on the way
inveigh against when (interrogative)
is to be whenever
joy where
judge whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
justice whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
kill which?
know while
we know for a while
know how white
Lacedaemonian whoever
land why not?
last wisdom
too late with
lately with one
Latin within
laugh without
learn witness
at least word
legislator work at
leisure workman
lend world
much less worse
letter would be
in a letter wound
liberty wretch
life a year after
light yes and no
lightning yesterday
like yield
likely you
little younger


Ludere, to play at a game (as a pastime), e.g., pila ludere, to play at ball (pila = ablative of means or instrument); canere, to play on a musical instrument, e.g., fidibus canere, to play on the lyre. Cantare is used by Nepos, but not by Cicero, Caesar, or Livy.

  • Phil. 2, 23 non dubitavit vel in foro alea ludere.
  • Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 59 pueri ludentes “rex eris” aiunt.
  • Tus. 1, 2 Epaminondas fidibus praeclare cecinisse dicitur.

To play a rôle, partes agere. He played the rôle of a fool, stulti partes egit, or stulti personam sustinuit.


Si placet, without tibi. So usually nisi molestum est, but we say si videtur or si tibi videtur indifferently. Hofmann, Letters of Cicero (p. 78 (2)), says “si videtur” is more polite than “si tibi videtur”. Similarly, Livy tells us = Livius dicit; this story teaches us, haec fabula docet.

  • Tus. 3, 6 et primo, si placet, Stoicorum more agamus.
  • Ac. 1, 4 ista renovari a te, nisi molestum est, velim, et simul, adsidamus, inquam, si videtur (“I should be glad if you would refresh my memory on this point, if it is not troubling you”; and at the same time I said, “let us sit down, if you please”).
  • Tus. 1, 12 expone igitur, nisi molestum est, animos, si potes, remanere post mortem.
  • Fat. 2 si tibi non est molestum.
  • Leg. 2, 3 sed, si videtur, considamus hic in umbra.
  • Tus. 1, 11 nunc, si videtur, hoc, illud alias.
  • Or. 2, 73 nunc, si tibi videtur, Antoni, demonstres velim, qua re tu hoc ita magnum putes.

Si dis placet, if it pleases heaven, is always ironical = save the mark.

  • Fin. 2, 10 quoniam, si dis placet, ab Epicuro loqui discimus (since heaven help us! we learn from Epicurus how to talk).
  • Tus. 5, 10 Epicuro etiam, si dis placet, videtur semper sapiens beatus.
  • L. 4, 3, 8 quin etiam, si dis placet, nefas aiunt esse consulem plebeium fieri.
  • L. 44, 22 in omnibus circulis, atque etiam, si dis placet, in conviviis sunt.


Vates, a seer, soothsayer, was the oldest name for a poet, but the word fell into complete contempt and was discarded for the Greek poeta.* Vergil and succeeding writers restored it once more to honour, and denoted by it an inspired bard, something higher than poeta (Munro, Lucr. 1, 102).

  • L. 25, 1 sacrificuli ac vates ceperant hominum mentes (sacrificers and oracle-mongers had enslaved mens’ understandings).
  • Verg. E. 9, 34 me quoque dicunt vatem pastores (I am called an inspired bard myself by the shepherds).
  • Tac. Or. 9 Saleium nostrum, egregium poetam vel, si hoc honorificentius est, praeclarissimum vatem.


Poetica,* the art. Poesis, the production.

* [The spelling need cause no difficulty, as the Greeks of the best period wrote ποεῖν, ποητής, ποητική, πόησις.]

  • Tus. 4, 32 o praeclaram emendatricem vitae poeticam.
  • Tus. 1, 1 serius poeticam nos accepimus.
  • Tus. 4, 33 Anacreontis tota poesis est amatoria.
  • Tus. 5, 39 at eius picturam, non poesin, videmus.


The poisoned dart, telum venenatum; the poisoned cup, poculum mortiferum or mortis, not venenatum or veneni. Exhausit poculum mortiferum, he drank the poisoned cup to the dregs.

  • Quinct. 2 quasi venenatum aliquod telum.
  • Tus. 1, 29 poculum illud mortiferum (the poisoned chalice).


Res publica, politics, political life; ad rem publicam accedere, to enter on political life; rem publicam attingere, to meddle with politics; in re publica versari, to be a politician.

  • N. Them. 1 totum se dedidit rei publicae (he devoted himself entirely to public affairs).
  • Sall. I. 4 decrevi procul a re publica aetatem agere.
  • Rosc. A. 1 nondum ad rem publicam accessi (Cicero was not quaestor till five years later).
  • Verr. 1, 12 antequam iste ad magistratus remque publicam accessit.
  • Fam. 15, 16, 3 posteaquam forum attigisti (since you applied yourself to public afairs).

Res novae, political changes, a revolution.


The highest possible degree is expressed (1) by a superlative adjective, preceded by quantus, and accompanied by the verb posse; (2) by quam with a superlative adjective or adverb, with or without posse; (3) by ut and posse, combined with a superlative adverb. He cries out in as loud a tone as possible, quanta maxima potest voce clamat, or quam maxima (potest) voce clamat; I spoke as cautiously as possible, locutus sum quam (potui) cautissime, or locutus sum ut potui cautissime.

  • L. 22, 3 Hannibal quantam maximam vastitatem potest caedibus incendiisque ostendit.
  • Am. 20 tanta est inter eos, quanta maxima potest esse, morum studiorumque distantia.
  • Sall. I. 48 Iugurtha quam maxumas potest copias armat.
  • L. 5, 25, 9 grata ea res ut quae maxime senatui umquam fuit.
  • Fam. 7, 17 Caesari te commendavi, ut diligentissime potui.
  • Fam. 5, 17 ut potui accuratissime, te tuamque causam tutatus sum.

As soon as possible, quam primum, or primo quoque tempore.


Paupertas, narrowness of means, in opposition to riches, a bare competency; egestas (inopia), scarcity of means, galling poverty; mendicitas, absence of means, beggary. The pauper has a little, and with economy can live on that little; the egens has too little, is pinched, and has recourse to shifts to live; the mendicus has nothing at all, and lives on the bounty of others. “Egens” is the common equivalent for our word “poor”. “Pauper” (not in Caesar and Sallust) is rare in Cicero’s speeches, and in his other writings is oftenest used in a general or abstract sense, in opposition to “dives,” which also occurs far seldomer in his speeches than “locuples” (see Merguet’s Lexicon). “Pauper,” however, gradually supplants “egens” and “egenus,” neither of which is found in Nepos and Curtius. [Cf. the survival of pauper in Span. pobre, Fr. pauvre.]

  • Par. 6 istam paupertatem vel potius egestatem ac mendicitatem tuam numquam obscure tulisti.
  • Sen. Ep. 17, 6 non est quod paupertas nos a philosophia revocet, ne egestas quidem.
  • Cat. 4, 5 adiungit etiam publicationem bonorum, ut omnes animi cruciatus et corporis etiam egestas ac mendicitas consequatur.
  • Phil. 2, 25 cogebat egestas; quo se verteret non habebat.
  • Caes. C. 3, 59, 2 locupletes ex egentibus fecerat.
  • L. 4, 4, 9 cur enim non confertis, ne sit conubium divitibus ac pauperibus?


Potentia, power viewed as a subjective possession, irresponsible or unconstitutional power = δύναμις; potestas, power viewed as an objective possession, magisterial or delegated power = ἐξουσία. Potestas is a general term for political office, while imperium, as carrying with it power to command an army, is used only of a certain class of magistrates (consul, dictator, praetor). We say “tribunicia potestas” but “consulare imperium,” as well as “consularis potestas”.

  • Sall. C. 19 iam tum potentia Pompei formidolosa erat.
  • Sall. C. 39 plebis opes imminutae, paucorum potentia crevit.
  • R. P. 1, 44 ex nimia potentia principum oritur interitus principum.
  • N. Mil. 8 Athenienses propter Pisistrati tyrannidem nimiam suorum civium potentiam extimescebant.
  • Caes. 7, 32 alterum (esse) Cotum, hominem summae potentiae.
  • Att. 6, 2, 10 invideo potentiae Vestorii.
  • N. Cato 2, 2 tum non potentia sed iure res publica administrabatur.
  • N. Cato 2, 3 Cato, censor cum eodem Flacco factus, severe praefuit ei potestati.
  • Tus. 1, 30, 74 tamquam a magistratu aut ab aliqua potestate legitima, sic a deo evocatus atque emissus exierit.
  • L. 32, 21, 32 mare in potestate habent; terras, quascumque adeunt, extemplo dicionis suae faciunt.
  • L. 4, 13 itaque se dictatorem Quinctium dicturum; ibi animum parem tantae potestati esse.
  • R. P. 1, 40 omne imperium nostri penes singulos esse voluerunt.
  • Phil. 5, 16 imperium, sine quo res militaris administrari, teneri exercitus, bellum geri non potest.

In the power of one is always “in alicuius potestate”. In the power of the gods, in deorum potestate. To be one’s own master, esse in sua potestate, or sui iuris or suae potestatis.

  • N. Att. 6 existimabat eos non in sua potestate esse qui se civilibus fluctibus dedissent.
  • L. 31, 45 nec se potestatis suae esse respondebant.


Invidia, praeiudicata opinio, or simply opinio; praeiudicium = a previous decision which establishes a precedent, a leading case. Praeiudicium never = prejudice (see Heitland’s Pro Rabirio (Cambr. Press), p. 62).

  • Clu. 1 invidia iam inveterata iudicii Iuniani (long cherished prejudice arising from the trial before Junius).
  • N. D. 1, 5 tantum opinio praeiudicata poterat, ut etiam sine ratione valeret auctoritas (such was the force of prejudice that mere authority without argument was decisive).
  • Tus. 3, 1 opinio confirmata (deeply-rooted prejudice).
  • Caecil. 4 non praeiudicium, sed plane iudicium iam factum (not a ruling verdict on an analogous issue, but an actual judgment passed on the merits of the case itself).
  • Verr. 3, 65, 152 praeiudicium se de capite C. Verris per hoc iudicium nolle fieri.
  • Mur. 28, 60 existimabit iudicium accusatoris in reum pro aliquo praeiudicio valere oportere.
  • Caes. C. 2, 32, 3 vestri facti praeiudicio demotus Italia excessit.
  • L. 5, 11, 10 praeiudicium iam de reis et ab senatu et ab populo Romano et ab ipsorum collegis factum esse.


Interesse, to be present and take part in a transaction; adesse, to be present; with dative, to be present in aid, especially to be present in court in defence of an accused person.

  • Caes. 7, 87 adcelerat Caesar, ut proelio intersit.
  • Fam. 1, 6 Pollio omnibus negotiis non interfuit solum, sed praefuit.
  • Rosc. A. 6 iste, qui adest, Magnus vocatur (the one yonder who is present is called Magnus).
  • Verr. 2, 29 iste homo liberalis negat se quemquam retinere eorum, qui Petilio vellent adesse.
  • Off. 1, 4 belua ad id solum, quod adest quodque praesens est, se accommodat.
  • Fin. 1, 17 nam corpore nihil nisi praesens et quod adest sentire possumus.
  • Att. 6, 3, 6 respondi lenius, quam putabant oportuisse, qui aderant.
  • Rosc. 1, 1 omnes hi, quos videtis adesse.
  • Am. 11, 37 aderam Laenati et Rupilio consulibus in consilio.
  1. Praesens is used of the present in a general and abstract sense, in opposition to the past and the future, and also, in a relative sense, in the graphic narration of a past event.

    • Tus. 5, 26 non video quo modo sedare possint mala praesentia praeteritae voluptates.
    • L. 30, 13 movit Scipionem fortuna pristina viri praesenti fortunae conlata.
  2. Hic (rarely praesens) is used for the present in reference to the circumstances or times of the speaker or writer. The present consuls, hi consules; at the present time, hoc tempore; during the present winter, hac hieme.

    • Clu. 35 nedum his temporibus, his moribus, his magistratibus, sine vestra sapientia ac sine iudiciorum remediis, salvi esse possimus (in our degenerate day, with our present morals and present magistrates, if it were not for your wisdom and the redress of the law-courts, we could not be at all safe).
    • Pomp. 7, 19 haec fides atque haec ratio pecuniarum, quae Romae, quae in foro versatur … ruere illa non possunt, ut haec non eodem labefacta motu concidant.
  3. For the present, in praesentia, seldom in praesenti; in praesens in Livy, ad praesens in Tacitus and later writers.

    • Tus. 5, 35 vestrae quidem cenae non solum in praesentia, sed etiam postero die iucundae sunt.
    • Caes. 1, 15 satis habebat in praesentia hostem rapinis prohibere.
    • L. 6, 26 pacem in praesentia nec ita multo post civitatem etiam impetraverunt.
    • L. 2, 42 ea pars rei publicae vicit, nec in praesens modo, sed in venientem etiam annum consules dedit.
    • L. 30, 17, 1 ingenti hominum et in praesens laetitia et in futurum spe.
    • Tac. A. 4, 31 quod aspere acceptum ad praesens, mox in laudem vertit (this sentence, severe as it was thought at the moment, after-wards redounded to his honour).
  4. Those present, (ii) qui adsunt; all present said so, omnes, qui aderant, ita dixerunt; in their presence, eis praesentibus; he said so in the presence of all, ita dixit omnibus praesentibus.

    • Clu. 54 nolo quemquam eorum, qui adsunt, existimare, me, quae de lege ab Accio dicta sunt, si reticuerim, comprobare (I do not wish any one here present to imagine that by silence I am assenting to Accius’ criticism of the law).
    • Caes. 1, 32 omnes qui aderant, magno fletu auxilium a Caesare petere coeperunt.
    • Verr. 4, 25 hominem in foro iubet sellam ponere et facere anulum omnibus praesentibus.


Simulare, to pretend that a thing which is fictitious is real, to counterfeit; dissimulare, to pretend that a thing which is real is fictitious, to conceal. He pretends to be ill, simulat se esse aegrum. He pretends not to be ill, dissimulat se esse aegrum, not simulat se non esse aegrum.

  • Off. 1, 30 Solon furere se simulavit.
  • Phil. 10, 9, 17 desinant … ii, qui non timent, simulare se timere.
  • Verr. 8, 21 cupiebam dissimulare me id moleste ferre, cupiebam animi dolorem vultu tegere et taciturnitate celare.
  • Att. 8, 1, 4 dissimulare non potero mihi, quae adhuc acta sint, displicere.
  • Off. 3, 15 nec quicquam simulabit aut dissimulabit vir bonus.
  • Fam. 10, 8 numquam diffitebor multa me simulasse invitum et dissimulasse cum dolore.


Exorare, by entreaty; impetrare, by request; persuadere, by argument, or inducement. I prevailed on him to come, eum exoravi (ab eo impetravi, ei persuasi) ut veniret.

  • Verr. 1, 52 negat illa posse hominem exorari.
  • Caes. 5, 41 sperare pro eius iustitia quae petierint impetraturos.
  • L. 45, 4 et petiere et impetravere, ut aliqui ad eum mitterentur.
  • Caes. 5, 45, 3 servo spe libertatis magnisque persuadet praemiis, ut litteras ad Caesarem deferat.
  • Caes. 3, 18 huic magnis praemiis pollicitationibusque persuadet, uti ad hostes transeat.

Vincere, to prevail, get the better of; valere, to have force, avail. This opinion prevailed, haec sententia vicit, i.e., was adopted in preference to other opinions; a tradition prevails, fama valet.

  • Phil. 8, 1 vicit L. Caesaris, amplissimi viri, sententia.
  • L. 40, 12 tandem vicit dolorem ipsa necessitas.
  • L. 26, 8, 6 has diversas sententias media sententia P. Valeri Flacci vicit.
  • L. 40, 37 haec quoque vox valuit, cur Hostilia damnaretur.
  • Am. 16 hoc praeceptum ad tollendam amicitiam valet.
  • L. 1, 4, 6 tenet fama, … lupam … cursum flexisse.


Impedire (like ἐμποδίζω, to entangle the feet), to impede, make a thing more difficult; prohibere (pro + habere, to hold in front), to keep back, prevent. We say, as in English, prohibere (not impedire) iniuriam ab aliquo, to prevent harm to one, or prohibere aliquem (ab) iniuria, to prevent one from harm. Vi prohibere, to prevent by force; a vi prohibere, to prevent recourse to force.

  • L. 25, 11, 16 multa, quae impedita natura sunt, consilio expediuntur.
  • Caes. C. 1, 68 saxa multis locis praerupta iter impediebant.
  • Lig. 8 prohibiti estis in provincia vestra pedem ponere.
  • Fam. 12, 5, 2 hiemps adhuc rem geri prohibuerat.
  • Att. 2, 18 illa legatio non impedit, quo minus adsim, cum velim.
  • Caes. C. 3, 18 Vibullium loqui plura prohibuit.
  • Sull. 33 sed iam impedior egomet, dolore animi, ne de huius miseria plura dicam.
  • Sen. 17 aetas non impedit, quo minus haec studia teneamus.
  • Fam. 13, 5, 1 neque … te impedio, quo minus susceptum negotium … gerere possis.
  • Caes. 6, 23, 9 (eos) ab iniuria prohibent.
  • Pomp. 7 a quo periculo prohibete rem publicam.
  • Rosc. 52, 151 di prohibeant, iudices, ne hoc … praesidium sectorum existimetur.
  • Caecil. 10, 33 quod et potuisti prohibere ne fieret et debuisti.
  • Fam. 12, 5 hiemem credo adhuc prohibuisse, quo minus de te certum haberemus.
  • L. 25, 15 quo praesidio agros populationibus possent prohibere (a force with which they might protect their lands from being pillaged).
  • Pomp. 7 est igitur humanitatis vestrae magnum numerum civium calamitate prohibere.
  • Sall. I. 107 ab iniuria Maurum prohibet (shields from violence).
  • L. 1, 7 quem ad speluncam vadentem Cacus vi (by force) prohibere conatus est.
  1. Caesar always uses prohibere with infinitive; so usually Cicero and Livy, unless sometimes when a negative precedes. On the other hand, “quo minus” (sometimes “ne”) is the more usual construction after “impedire”. In Cicero the infinitive follows only (but not always) when the subject of “impedire” is a thing (Krebs). Quid est igitur quod me impediat ea, quae probabilia videantur, sequi? (Off. 2, 2).

  2. The accusative is rarely retained if “ne,” oftener, however, if “quo minus,” follows. Idem te impediret, quo minus mecum esses, quod nunc etiam impedit (Att. 12, 16).


Superbia, pride, that thinks one’s self above others, generally in a bad sense; adrogantia, pride, that claims more than one’s due, assumption. Tarquinius was superbus, Ariovistus adrogans.

  • Tus. 1, 29 adhibuit (Socrates) liberam contumaciam, a magnitudine animi ductam, non a superbia.
  • Caecil. 11 nam cum omnis adrogantia odiosa est, tum illa ingenii atque eloquentiae multo molestissima.

Cf. Fam. 7, 13 quae tua gloria est, puto te malle a Caesare consuli quam inaurari.

The proud name, nomen magnificum.


Sacerdos is the general term for a priest; antistes, the priest of a particular temple; flamen, the priest of a particular deity; pontifex, a priest as a member of the collegium which regulated the religious affairs of the State. The pontifices, or college of priests, consisted of the pontifex maximus, the rex sacrorum, and fifteen flamines.

  • L. 26, 23 sacerdotes publici aliquot eo anno demortui sunt.
  • Verr. 4, 50 habitare apud sese Cererem Hennenses arbitrantur; ut mihi non cives illius civitatis, sed omnes sacerdotes, omnes accolae atque antistites Cereris esse videantur.
  • Leg. 2, 8 divis omnibus pontifices, singulis flamines sunto (all gods in common shall have pontifices, each god a special flamen).
  • L. 1, 20 [the whole chapter is very instructive as to these words].


Quaeso, prithee = I pray thee, serves to soften an imperative, and is inserted parenthetically. Quaeso and quaesumus are the only parts in use.

  • Att. 3, 26 tu, quaeso, festina ad nos venire (prithee make haste to come to us).
  • Att. 7, 10 tu, quaeso, crebro ad me scribe (prithee write to me often).
  • Att. 13, 38, 2 iuva me, quaeso, consilio.
  • Leg. 1, 2 quam ob rem adgredere, quaesumus, et sume ad hanc rem tempus.


Promittere, to promise for oneself or for another; polliceri = pro liceri (cf. porrigere, portendere), to offer, is always used by Cicero of a promise, the fulfilment of which depends on oneself, hence = to guarantee.

  • Fam. 7, 5 neque minus prolixe de tua voluntate promisi, quam eram solitus de mea polliceri.
  • Planc. 42, 101 Holden nihil tibi ego tum de meis opibus pollicebar, sed de horum erga me benivolentia promittebam.

A man of great promise, vir summae (optimae, eximiae) spei.


Monumentum, that which preserves the remembrance of anything, a memorial; documentum, an instructive example, a lesson or warning.

  • Verr. 2, 2 urbem ita reliquit ornatam, ut esset idem monumentum victoriae, mansuetudinis, continentiae.
  • L. 4, 16 domum deinde, ut monumento area esset oppressae nefariae spei, dirui extemplo iussit.
  • L. 8, 11, 16 monumento ut esset, aeneam tabulam in aede Castoris Romae fixerunt.
  • Hor. C. 3, 30, 1 exegi monumentum aere perennius (I have finished a monument more enduring than brass).
  • L. 45, 40 non Perseus tantum per illos dies documentum humanorum casuum fuit, sed etiam victor Paulus.
  • L. 5, 51 tantum poenarum dedimus, ut terrarum orbi documento essemus.

Testimonium, proof, evidence.

  • Caes. 6, 28, 3 relatis in publicum cornibus, quae sint testimonio.
  • Top. 19, 73 testimonium nunc dicimus omne, quod ab aliqua re externa sumitur ad faciendam fidem.


Probare, to show to be good, make acceptable, hence to hold as good, approve. Si hoc tibi probo, if I prove this to your satisfaction. This proved a failure, is done by sum, demonstro, etc.

  • Att. 4, 14 quos libros, ut spero, tibi valde probabo.
  • Tus. 4, 4 mihi egregie probata est oratio tua.
  • Fin. 5, 25 ego non quaero quid tibi a me probatum sit.


Provincia in classical Latin = subjugated territory out of Italy under Roman government; it never means a division of a kingdom. Ireland is divided into four provinces, Hibernia in quattuor partes (not provincias) divisa est. [The local application is later.] The ground-meaning of the word is sphere of duty (generally).

  • Pl. Mil. 1159 Tyrrell [or Brix] nunc tibi hanc impero provinciam.
  • Ter. Phorm. 1, 2, 22 (72) provinciam cepisti duram.
  • Verr. 4, 23, 51 homo nobilis … ferebat graviter illam sibi ab isto provinciam (i.e., the duty of procuring chased silver and Corinthian bronze vessels) datam.
  • Verr. 2, 1 Sicilia prima omnium provincia est appellata.


Palam or aperte, publicly, openly, opposed to clam or occulte; publice, in a public capacity, in the name of the state, opposed to privatim, in a private capacity. Palam interfectus est, he was put to death before the eyes of all; publice interfectus est, he was put to death by the order of the state.

  • Verr. 5, 17 navem palam aedificatam sumptu publico tibi datam esse dico.
  • L. 3, 26 navis Quinctio publice parata fuit (at the public expense).
  • Verr. 5, 16 quam palam principes dixerunt contra!
  • Verr. 3, 44 legationis eius princeps publice dixit (in the name of the state).
  • Brut. 62, 224 is praetor … Mario et Flacco consulibus publice est interfectus.
  • Sall. I. 8 Iugurtham monuit uti potius publice quam privatim amicitiam populi Romani coleret (he advised Jugurtha to seek the friendship of the Roman people by services to the state rather than bribes to individual citizens).

In public, i.e., in a public place, in publico, or in publicum. He was never seen in public afterwards, postea in publico (sc. loco) numquam visus est; after he made his first public appearance, postquam primum in publicum prodiit. This pleased the public, hoc populo (not publico) placuit.

  • Pl. Stich. 4, 2, 34 (614) per hortum transibo, non prodibo in publicum.
  • Verr. 5, 35 in publico esse non audet (does not dare to appear in the streets), includit se domi.
  • Verr. 4, 11 iacuit et pernoctavit in publico.
  • Att. 8, 11 scio equidem te in publicum non prodire.
  • Verr. 1, 31 prodeundi tibi in publicum potestatem factam negas.


Iurgium, a quarrel confined to words, an altercation, a wrangle. Rixa, a quarrel which comes to blows, an affray.

  • L. 29, 9, 3 iurgium inde et clamor, pugna postremo orta inter Plemini milites tribunorumque.
  • Tac. H. 1, 64 iurgia primum, mox rixa inter Batavos et legionarios (first came taunts, then a brawl between the Batavi and the legionaries).
  • Iuv. 15, 52 sed iurgia prima sonare incipiunt; haec tuba rixae.
  • Am. 21 cavendum est ne etiam in graves inimicitias convertant se amicitiae, ex quibus iurgia, maledicta, contumeliae gignuntur.
  • L. 2, 18 rixa ac prope proelium fuit.
  • L. 3, 49 hinc atrox rixa oritur.


Potius quam in classical prose usually connects like constructions, unless in the case in which the first alternative stands in the simple indicative, when the subjunctive almost always follows.

He will rather fight than go away, pugnabit potius quam abeat; he said that he would rather fight than go away, dixit se potius pugnaturum quam abiturum; it was his duty to fight rather than go away, debuit pugnare potius quam abire, or ei pugnandum potius quam abeundum fuit.

  • Tus. 2, 22 perpessus est omnia potius, quam conscios delendae tyrannidis indicaret.
  • Fin. 2, 20 Verginius virginem filiam sua manu occidit potius quam ea Claudi libidini dederetur.
  • Ac. 2, 1 privabo potius illum debito testimonio quam id cum mea laude communicem.
  • Ac. 2, 8, 23 Reid statuit omnem cruciatum perferre, intolerabili dolore lacerari potius, quam … officium prodat.
  • L. 10, 35, 14 etiamne circumsedebimur in castris, ut fame potius per ignominiam quam ferro, si necesse est, per virtutem moriamur?
  • Fam. 7, 2, 1 inlicitatorem potius ponam, quam illud minoris veneat.
  • Fam. 10, 3, 4 ut potius amorem tibi ostenderem meum quam ostentarem prudentiam.
  • Att. 7, 6, 2 qui non concedendum putaret Caesari, quod postularet, potius quam depugnandum.
  • Am. 16, 60 ferendum id Scipio potius quam inimicitiarum tempus cogitandum putabat.
  • L. 7, 40, 14 vel iniquis standum est potius quam inpias inter nos conseramus manus.
  • L. 7, 18, 6 si quod tristius sit imperii nomen, patiendum esse potius, quam ambos patricios consules videant.
  • Att. 7, 7, 7 depugna potius quam servias (fight to the last rather than be a slave).
  • Fam. 2, 16, 3 nonne tibi adfirmavi quidvis me potius perpessurum quam ex Italia ad bellum civile exiturum?
  • Off. 1, 31 Catoni moriendum potius quam tyranni vultus aspiciendus fuit.
  • Brut. 91 quodvis potius periculum mihi adeundum quam a sperata dicendi gloria discedendum putavi.
  • Caes. 7, 78 illo potius utendum consilio, quam aut deditionis aut pacis subeundam condicionem (rather than submit to terms either of capitulation or peace).
  • Caes. C. 1, 35 debere eos Italiae totius auctoritatem sequi potius quam unius hominis voluntati obtemperare.
  1. The subjunctive is common in Livy in all cases other than where an infinitive present precedes. Livy also sometimes (Cicero never) inserts ut after quam.

    • L. 23, 9 hic te deterreri sine potius quam illic vinci (suffer yourself to be dissuaded here rather than defeated there).
    • L. 40, 4 se potius omnes interfecturam quam in potestatem Philippi venirent.
    • L. 4, 2 se miliens morituros potius, quam ut tantum dedecoris admitti patiantur.
  2. Similarly prius (citius) quam, used in the sense of potius quam.

    • Att. 2, 20 addit etiam se prius occisum iri ab eo quam me violatum iri.
    • Lig. 5, 16 suam citius abiciet humanitatem quam extorquebit tuam.
    • Caes. C. 3, 49 prius se cortice ex arboribus victuros, quam Pompeium e manibus dimissuros.
    • L. 5, 24 morituros se citius quam quicquam earum rerum rogaretur.
    • L. 35, 31 in corpora sua citius per furorem saevituros, quam ut Romanam amicitiam violarent.
    • Hor. S. 2, 5, 35 eripiet quivis oculos citius mihi quam te contemptum cassa nuce pauperet.


Re vera, re ipsa, or re alone = really, actually, opposed to in appearance or in name (specie, opinione, nomine, verbo).

  • N. Phoc. 3 causam apud Philippum regem verbo, re ipsa quidem apud Polyperchontem iussus est dicere.
  • Agr. 2, 13 dat praeterea potestatem, verbo praetoriam, re vera regiam.
  • L. 33, 11 venit, specie ut indutiae essent, re vera ad petendam veniam.
  • L. 35, 31, 12 proiecit tum quoque specie liberam Demetriadem esse, re vera omnia ad nutum Romanorum fieri.
  • L. 3, 9, 3 nomine enim tantum minus invidiosum, re ipsa prope atrocius quam regium esse.
  • Quinct. 17, 56 haec ille, si verbis non audet, re quidem vera palam loquitur.
  1. No Latin equivalent is needed for the English really, actually, in fact, where a sentence introduced by ut or sicut is added to confirm an assertion, or express the actuality corresponding to an hypothesis, intention, or injunction.

    • Sal. I. 105 equites rem, uti erat, quietam nuntiant.
    • L. 2, 28 eam rem consules rati, ut erat (as it really was), perniciosam ad patres deferunt.
    • L. 2, 30 multis, ut erat, horrida et atrox videbatur Appi sententia.
    • Brut. 9 suavis, sicut fuit (as he really was), videri maluit quam gravis.
    • Att. 10, 4 (epistulam accepi) saepe legendam, sicuti facio.
    • Lig. 5 si est in exsilio, sicuti est, quid amplius postulatis?
    • Rosc. A. 8 quamvis ille felix sit, sicut est (as is really the case).
    • Or. 1, 53 quamvis scelerati illi fuissent, sicuti fuerunt.
    • Leg. 1, 5 sit ista res magna, sicut est.
    • Phil. 4, 5 incumbite in causam, ut facitis.
    • Caes. 4, 32, 2 Caesar id, quod erat, suspicatus.
    • L. 39, 13 mulier haud dubie, id quod erat, Aebutium indicem arcani rata esse.
  2. Sometimes, however, certe, sane, or profecto is inserted.

    • Brut. 19 sit Ennius sane, ut est certe, perfectior.
    • Tus. 4, 34 sin autem est aliquis amor, ut est certe.
  3. Similarly no such particle as the English really is needed in Latin, where it is added that an event, which was possible, intended, desired, or predicted, actually occurs, or in certain circumstances would have occurred. They could deny and they actually did deny, negare potuerunt, et negaverunt.

    • Tus. 1, 40 ei eam mortem est auguratus, quae brevi consecuta est (which actually occurred soon after).
    • Verr. 2, 38 bona eius statim coepit vendere: et vendidisset, si, etc.
    • Tus. 1, 36, 86 haec morte effugiuntur, etiamsi non evenerunt, tamen, quia possunt evenire.


Ferre rem ad plebem or ad populum, to refer a matter to the people for approval or rejection. Referre rem ad senatum, to refer a matter to the senate, as being a deliberative body. The presiding magistrate had alone the right to submit a matter to the senate, and if he simply made a statement for the information of the senate, he was said “rem ad senatum deferre”. “Reicere rem” is used of a matter rejected by one tribunal and referred to another.

  • L. 4, 30 consul de bello ad populum tulit.
  • L. 8, 21 ex auctoritate patrum latum ad populum est ut Privernatibus civitas daretur.
  • L. 27, 11 ex auctoritate patrum latum ad plebem est plebesque scivit.
  • L. 1, 46, 1 ausus est ferre ad populum, vellent iuberentne se regnare.
  • L. 33, 25, 6 ni prius ipsi ad plebem tulissent, vellent iuberentne cum rege Philippo pacem esse.
  • Verr. 4, 39, 85 refert rem ille ad senatum; vehementer undique reclamatur.
  • L. 26, 32 consul alter de postulatis Siculorum ad patres rettulit.
  • L. 2, 28 eam rem consules rati, ut erat, perniciosam ad patres deferunt.
  • L. 2, 27 senatus a se rem ad populum reiecit.
  • L. 40, 29 ab tribunis ad senatum res est reiecta.
  • L. 27, 8 tribuni appellati ad senatum reiecerunt.


(De)negare, to refuse what is asked; reicere, what is offered; recusare, what is either asked or offered. He refused the tribute, tributum (de tributo) recusavit; he refused to pay the tribute, recusavit, ne tributum penderet [recuso is rather I object, I give reasons (causae, cf., for the spelling, claudo and cludo) against, protest (see Reid on Mil., § 100)].

  • Att. 7, 2 quod postulabam, id negavit.
  • Att. 4, 1, 7 nihil Pompeio postulanti negarunt.
  • Or. 2, 29, 128 nihil tibi a me postulanti negabo.
  • Caes. C. 1, 32, 6 expetita conloquia et denegata.
  • Caes. 1, 42 cum id quod antea petenti denegasset, ultro polliceretur.
  • Phil. 2, 34 ille diadema cum plausu reiciebat.
  • Off. 3, 27 Regulus sententiam ne diceret recusavit.
  • Ac. 2, 3, 7 non possumus, quin alii a nobis dissentiant, recusare.
  • Att. 1, 8, 1 quod ille recusarat satisdare amplius abs te non peti.
  • Caes. C. 1, 32, 5 qui, quod ab altero postularent, in se recusarent.
  • L. 28, 40, 10 recusantem … quo minus … imperium mecum aequaretur.
  • Fin. 1, 3, 7 nec vero … recusabo, quo minus omnes mea legant.
  • Caes. 5, 41 ut nihil nisi hiberna recusent.
  • Caes. 1, 44 si pace uti velint iniquum esse de stipendio recusare.

He refused to go, recusavit ne iret (the only classical construction); he did not refuse to go, non recusavit quin (quo minus) iret, or (sometimes) non recusavit ire. The infinitive is used only in negative or quasi-negative sentences (not in Cicero). Nec adhuc repertus est quisquam qui mori recusaret (Caes. 3, 22).


Regnare, to reign, as a king; imperare, as an emperor. In the reign of Romulus = Romulo regnante (rege); in the reign of Tiberius, Tiberio imperante (principe, imperatore).

Regnare is always neuter in good prose, and consequently is not used personally in the passive, as it is in Tac. H. 1, 16 gentibus, quae regnantur. The passive is admissible only in impersonal constructions, e.g., L. 1, 60 regnatum Romae ab condita urbe ad liberatam, Rome was a monarchy from the foundation of the city till its liberation.

  • L. 4, 4 augures Romulo regnante nulli erant.
  • L. 1, 17, 11 ut senatus decerneret qui Romae regnaret.
  • Tac. H. 1, 16 imperaturus es hominibus, qui nec totam servitutem pati possunt nec totam libertatem (you are to reign over men who cannot bear either absolute slavery or absolute freedom).


Cognati* include all relations who trace their descent to the legitimate marriage of a common pair; agnati embrace that portion of the cognati who trace their descent exclusively through males; adfinis, a relation by marriage, is used of the relationship between the husband and the cognati of his wife, and between the wife and the cognati of her husband, e.g., socer, gener, nurus; propinquus (with or without genere) is a general term, less definite than cognati = near of kin, a kinsman. In the strictest sense, germani is used of children born of the same father and mother, uterini of the same mother, consanguinei of the same father. Consanguinei is often applied to nations which have a common origin. Necessarii, connected by friendship or other intimate tie, not related by blood or marriage.

* If we begin with the father and mother, we have the relationship of brothers and sisters, if we take the grandfather and grandmother, cognation expresses the relationship of uncles and aunts and their descendants. The higher up the line of ascent we choose our starting-point, the more we multiply the number of cognates. If we take a table of cognates and omit all the descendants of females, we get a table or genealogical tree of agnates. The agnates also included all persons male or female who were admitted into the family by adoption. The person adopted, though still a cognatus with respect to his own family, became an agnatus of the family he entered. Hence, cognation was in one sense wider, in another narrower, than agnation. Agnation was based on the patria potestas of the father. If a son was emancipated by his father, he lost all rights of agnation, and if a daughter married, herself and her children fell under the patria potestas of her husband.—Maine’s Ancient Law.

  • L. 26, 50 parentes inde cognatique virginis appellati.
  • L. 26, 60 orabant, ut sibi liberos fratres cognatosque redderent.
  • Verr. 2, 10 ut quisque te maxime cognatione, adfinitate, necessitudine aliqua attingebat, ita maxime manus tua putabatur.
  • Post. Red. S. 7 tu meum generum, propinquum tuum, tu adfinem tuam, filiam meam, crudelissimis verbis a genibus tuis reppulisti.
  • Off. 1, 17 cari sunt parentes, cari liberi, propinqui, familiares.
  • Fin. 5, 1 L. Cicero, frater noster cognatione patruelis, amore germanus (by relationship, my father’s brother; by affection, my true brother).
  • Caes. 1, 11 Ambarri necessarii et consanguinei Haeduorum.


Memini legere, I remember to read (as a duty); memini me legere or legisse, I remember reading (as a fact).

  • Att. 15, 26 Varroni memineris excusare tarditatem litterarum mearum.
  • L. 30, 42 populum Romanum eo invictum esse, quod in secundis rebus sapere et consulere meminerit.
  • Hor. C. 2, 3, 1 aequam memento rebus in arduis servare mentem.
  • Att. 5, 9, 2 memento curare per te … ut … maneat.
  • Iuv. 5, 7 dextram cohibere memento.
  • Am. 3 memini Catonem disserere.
  • Fam. 9, 16 memini te mihi Pharmeae cenam narrare.
  • Att. 14, 14, 3 nonne meministi clamare te omnia perisse?
  • Fam. 9, 22, 2 memini in senatu disertum consularem ita eloqui.
  • L. 34, 31, 13 tum me regem appellari a vobis memini.
  • Rosc. A. 42 meministis me ita distribuisse initio causam.
  1. If a person who remembers an occurrence was a witness of it, he may graphically recall it as a present transaction, in which case the present infinitive is used; but if he simply recalls the fact or the result of the occurrence, the perfect infinitive is used. Memini te dubitare = I remember the incident; memini te dubitasse = I recollect the fact.

    • Sest. 22 memineram C. Marium senile corpus paludibus occultasse (not occultare) demersum.
  2. Memini patrem = I still remember my father; memini patris = I think of my father. “Memini de patre” is not Ciceronian. De Planco (= quod ad Plancum attinet) memini (Att. 15, 27).

    • Fin. 5, 1 vivorum memini (I am mindful of the living).
    • L. 5, 54, 3 minus iniuriae vestrae quam meae calamitatis meminisse iuvat.
    • L. 10, 37, 8 vestrae maiestatis meminero.
    • Sen. 5, 14 Reid quem quidem probe meminisse potestis.
    • Phil. 5, 6 Cinnam memini, vidi Sullam, modo Caesarem (I remember Cinna, I have seen Sulla, and just lately Caesar).

Memento mori is modern Latin for memento mortem, or memento te moriturum esse, te mortalem esse, hominem te esse natum.


Tollere, to take away, opposed to relinquere or restituere e.g., statuam sustulit, he removed (took away) the statue; removere, to shift the place of a thing, e.g., librum removit, he removed the book, i.e., put it out of the way; transferre, to transfer a thing from one place to another, e.g., Constantinus imperii sedem a Roma ad Constantinopolim transtulit, Constantine removed the seat of government from Rome to Constantinople.

  • Verr. 4, 34 simulacrum Dianae tollendum locatur.
  • Off. 3, 31 Pomponius remotis arbitris ad se adulescentem iussit venire.
  • L. 27, 28 Hasdrubal castra in tumulum, in quo pugnatum erat, extemplo transfert.
  • N. Ar. 3 quae omnis pecunia Athenas translata est.

Migrare, to change one’s place of abode. He removed to Athens, Athenas migravit.


Rumor, a report or rumour circulated either openly or secretly respecting a recent occurrence; fama, a prevalent report publicly circulated respecting either a recent or a traditional event. The rumores are the individual communications, and though referring to one and the same thing may be many in number; fama indicates the survival of the fittest, and becomes the public expression of what is seen, heard, or believed. A tradition is prevalent, fama (not rumor) valet.

  • Ter. And. 1, 2, 14 (185) meum gnatum rumor est amare.
  • Caes. 6, 20, 1 quis quid de re publica a finitimis rumore aut fama acceperit.
  • Sall. C. 29, 1 rem ad senatum refert, iam antea volgi rumoribus exagitatam.
  • Fam. 1, 8 rem te valde bene gessisse rumor erat.
  • Caes. C. 1, 53 multa rumor affingebat.
  • L. 26, 26 otium, ut solet, excitavit plebis rumores.
  • L. 28, 24 de vita imperatoris dubii rumores allati sunt.
  • Fam. 12, 9 nihil perfertur ad nos praeter rumores, satis illos quidem constantes, sed adhuc sine auctore.
  • Pomp. 9 calamitas tanta, ut eam ad aures Luculli non ex proelio nuntius, sed ex sermone rumor afferret.
  • Caes. 6, 30 accidit ut prius eius adventus ab hominibus videretur, quam fama ac nuntius afferretur.
  • L, 1, 7 vulgatior fama est ludibrio fratris Remum novos transiluisse muros.
  • L, 21, 1, 4 fama est etiam, Hannibalem … iure iurando adactum (esse).

Fama is rarely used in the plural. Two reports, duplex fama; many reports, multiplex fama. Duplex inde fama est (L. 1, 1).


Facere, to represent = inducere, fingere, takes either the participle or the infinitive. Livy represents Camillus as thus speaking, Livius Camillum ita loqui or loquentem facit.

  • Tus. 5, 39 Polyphemum Homerus cum ariete colloquentem facit eiusque fortunas laudare, quod qua vellet ingredi posset.
  • Sen. 15, 54 Homerus Laertam colentem agrum facit.

Cf. Am. 1, 4 Catonem induxi senem disputantem.

  • N. D. 3, 15 quem Homerus apud inferos conveniri facit ab Ulixe.

Facere is followed by the subjunctive with (sometimes without) ut, when it means to cause, bring about; by the infinitive, when it means to imagine, suppose.

  • Att. 4, 8b statim fac ut sciam (do let me know at once).
  • Att. 13, 24 facies ergo ut sciam (you will be good enough, therefore, to let me know).
  • Sall. C. 44, 5 fac cogites, in quanta calamitate sis.
  • Att. 14, 14, 2 fac id potuisse aliquo modo.
  • Phil. 5, 5, 13 sed fac non esse (but suppose that is not the case).
  • N. D. 1, 27, 75 fac id … mihi esse persuasum (suppose that I am convinced).
  • Fam. 15, 18 facio me alias res agere.

Pythagoras is represented as coming to Italy at that time, Pythagoras eo tempore in Italiam venisse dicitur; to him he represented the ease with which the city might be taken, ei ostendit quam facile urbs capi posset. Truth was represented under the figure of a woman with a torch in her hand, efficta est veritas sub imagine mulieris lampada manu tenentis.


Abire magistratu, to resign or go out of office at the expiry of the usual or fixed term; abdicare se magistratu, to resign office voluntarily, before the regular time expires.

  • L. 2, 27 tandem invisi plebi consules magistratu abeunt.
  • L. 5, 31 cum ex senatus consulto consules magistratu se abdicassent, interrex creatur Camillus.
  • L. 2, 21 Postumius, quia collega dubiae fidei fuit, se consulatu abdicavit.
  • L. 4, 24 ut sciatis, quam mihi diuturna non placeant imperia, dictatura me abdico.
  • L. 9, 34, 14 dictatura se abdicavit.


Quies, rest, in opposition to activity, absolute rest, hence used for somnus or mors; requies, rest after activity, recreation.

  • Cat. 4, 4 mors laborum ac miseriarum quies est.
  • L. 1, 31, 5 nulla tamen ab armis quies dabatur a bellicoso rege.
  • Off. 2, 2 sive oblectatio quaeritur animi requiesque curarum.
  • Or. 1, 60 aliquid ad requiem senectutis excogitat.


Ceteri, the rest in a general sense, especially as contrasted with those named, hence always praeter ceteros; reliqui, the rest in an arithmetical sense, the remainder, hence always reliqui duo, reliqui tres.

  • Arch. 3 hunc Tarentini civitate ceterisque praemiis donarunt.
  • Arch. 6 ceteros pudeat; me autem quid pudeat?
  • Fam. 14, 9 ad ceteras meas miserias accessit dolor de Dolabellae valetudine.
  • N. D. 1, 34 cur igitur, cum ceteris rebus inferiores simus, forma pares sumus?
  • Fam. 13, 78 Democritus Sicyonius me praeter ceteros colit.
  • Tus. 1, 47 iudicavisse deum dicunt, et eum quidem deum, cui reliqui di concessissent, ut praeter ceteros divinaret.
  • L. 9, 15 Samnitium imperator sub iugum cum ceteris est missus.
  • Verr. 3, 6 inter Siciliam ceterasque provincias hoc interest.
  • N. Ep. 1 haec praecipienda videntur lectoribus, ne ea apud ceteros fuisse arbitrentur.
  • Sall. I. 53 elephanti quattuor capti, reliqui omnes interfecti.
  • Caes. 4, 38 duae omnino civitates obsides miserunt, reliquae neglexerunt.
  • Caes. C. 1, 13 nonnulla pars militum domum discedit; reliqui ad Caesarem perveniunt.
  • Caes. 7, 50 duobus interfectis reliquos a porta paululum submovit.
  • Tus. 1, 38 quasi vero quisquam ita nonaginta annos velit vivere, ut, cum sexaginta confecerit, reliquos dormiat!

Alii is frequently found in Livy (seldom in writers before his time) in the sense of ceteri, e.g., 26, 8 Iovem deosque alios. So likewise from Livy onwards ante alios or ante omnes is common for praeter ceteros = in greater measure than others. Prae ceteris would mean that the quality in question does not attach to the others at all. Tu prae nobis beatus (es), your lot is a happy one compared with ours (Fam. 4, 4, 2).


Redire, with reference to the return journey, in opposition to iter facere. He was slain as he was returning from dinner,

occisus est a cena rediens. Reverti, to turn or come back (opposed to proficisci), especially to turn back before the end of the journey has been reached. He had scarcely travelled two days when, warned in a dream, he turned back, vix bidui viam progressus erat cum somnio monitus revertit. Revenire, to return, revisit, is not found in Caesar or Livy, and in the few instances in which it occurs in Cicero is always joined with domum.

  • L. 10, 5 dictator triumphans in urbem rediit (“reverti” would not do here, as the manner of the return is expressed).
  • Phil. 8, 11 redeat ad imperatorem suum Varius, sed ea lege ne umquam Romam revertatur.
  • Tus. 5, 37 qui, semel egressi, numquam domum reverterunt.
  • Div. 1, 15 Deiotarus persaepe revertit ex itinere, cum iam progressus esset multorum dierum viam (“redire” here inadmissible).
  • Phil. 2, 30 quaerebat cur ego ex ipso cursu tam subito revertissem.
  • Caes. 4, 4 tridui viam progressi rursus reverterunt.
  • Att. 16, 7 quam valde ille reditu vel potius reversione mea laetatus effudit illa omnia quae tacuerat! (in his delight at my return, or turning back rather, how he poured out joyously everything he had kept in silence!).
  • Or. 1, 40 postea Mancinus domum revenit.

Let us return to Italy, redeamus in Italiam (to the country), ad Italiam (to the subject). Sed ad iter Italiamque redeamus (Phil. 2, 39).


Praemium, a reward of merit, a prize which confers distinction on the recipient = ἆθλον; merces (from mereo), pay for services rendered, fee, hire = μισθός; pretium, that for or by which anything is bought or sold = ὦνος. At what prices are pigs sold here? quibus hic pretiis porci veneunt?

  • Caes. 6, 13 Druides praemia poenasque constituunt.
  • L. 8, 12 praemiis poenaque pro cuiusque merito persolutis, Manlius Romam rediit.
  • Fam. 10, 10 honos virtutis est praemium.
  • N. Praef. nulla Lacedaemoni tam est nobilis vidua, quae non ad cenam eat, mercede conducta (hired by wages = tempted by a present).
  • Fam. 16, 14 medico, mercedis quantum poscet, promitti iubeto.
  • Phil. 2, 4 iam invideo magistro tuo qui te tanta mercede nihil sapere doceat (who teaches you for so high a fee to know nothing).
  • L. 41, 20 voluntarios facile paravit gladiatores, operam ultro ad depugnandum exigua mercede offerentes.
  • Verr. 3, 98 annona pretium nisi in calamitate fructuum non habet (corn is of no value except when there is a damage of crops. In late Latin, “pretium non habere,” to have no price = to be above price).
  • Rosc. C. 12 iacent pretia praediorum (the prices of landed estates are low).

Operae pretium est, it is worth while; magni, parvi, preti esse, to be high or low in price, of great or of small value.


Iure, with good cause, justifiably, deservedly; iuste, righteously, uprightly; recte, properly, correctly, in due form; rite, according to ceremonial usage.

  • Fin. 2, 1 Socrates parens philosophiae iure dici potest (Socrates may be rightly styled the father of philosophy).
  • Off. 2, 8 iure igitur plectimur (we are deservedly punished then).
  • Mil. 3 cum interrogaretur quid de Gracchi morte sentiret, respondit iure (justifiably) caesum videri.
  • N. D. 3, 36 propter virtutem iure laudamur et in virtute recte gloriamur.
  • L. 5, 27 sunt et belli sicut pacis iura, iusteque ea non minus quam fortiter didicimus gerere.
  • N. D. 3, 3 haec, si recte memini, partitio fuit.
  • Fin. 1, 11 doloris omnis privatio recte nominata est voluptas (complete absence of pain is rightly called pleasure).
  • L. 37, 14 sacrificio, ut adsolet, rite facto, Aemilius consilium advocavit.


Fluvius, a river simply as a geographical term; flumen, not fluvius, is used if the reference is to the stream or current, or if the sense is metaphorical, e.g., adverso flumine (not fluvio), flumen orationis, flumen verborum. Amnis is used of the strength or vastness of a flowing stream.

  • Tus. 1, 39 apud Hypanim fluvium Aristoteles ait bestiolas quasdam nasci, quae unum diem vivant.
  • L. 1, 3, 5 ut Etruscis Latinisque fluvius Albula, quem nunc Tiberim vocant, finis esset.
  • L. 26, 10, 3 ad Anienem fluvium tria millia passuum ab urbe castra admovit.
  • Div. 1, 35 tantos terrae motus factos esse, ut flumina in contrarias partes fluxerint atque in amnes mare influxerit.
  • L. 1, 3 Tiberinus in traiectu Albulae amnis submersus celebre ad posteros nomen flumini dedit.
  • R. P. 2, 19, 34 influxit enim non tenuis quidam e Graecia rivulus in hanc urbem, sed abundantissimus amnis illarum disciplinarum et artium.
  • L. 23, 19, 11 imbribus deinde continuis citatior solito amnis (a river swifter than its wont).
  • Or. 2, 45 tantum est flumen gravissimorum verborum.

A flood of tears, vis (not flumen) lacrimarum. Quem ut vidi, equidem vim lacrimarum profudi (Som. Scip. 14(3), 14).


Praedo is a general term for a robber, one who makes booty whether by sea or land; latro, a highwayman, a bandit, with the accessory notion of fierceness; pirata, a pirate = praedo maritimus; raptor and direptor, the robber of a particular person or thing.

  • L. 38, 40 alibi praedo, alibi praedae vindex cadit.
  • Mil. 21 non semper viator a latrone, non numquam latro a viatore occiditur.
  • Verr. 3, 80 classis pulcherrima piratarum manibus incensa est.
  • Pl. Trin. 2, 1, 22 (254) raptores panis et peni.


Romanus, with reference to the people and the state; Latinus, with reference to speech and literature; populus Romanus (not Romanus populus), the Roman people; litterae Latinae, Roman literature; poetae Latini, the Roman poets. The monument bore an inscription in Roman and Greek characters, litteris Latinis Graecisque monumentum inscriptum est.

  • Brut. 33 damnum enim illius immaturo interitu res Romanae Latinaeque litterae fecerunt.
  • L. 40, 29 litteris Latinis Graecisque utraque arca scripta erat.
  • Fin. 1, 3 sentio et saepe disserui, Latinam linguam non modo non inopem, sed locupletiorem etiam esse quam Graecam.
  • Ac. 1, 3 quid enim causae est cur poetas Latinos Graecis litteris eruditi legant, philosophos non legant?

“Quirites” is a civil appellation = lance-men or burgesses. In every rude community the function of men is to bear arms. Among the Anglo-Saxons men and women were distinguished as “spearside” and “spindleside”. In the early days of Rome the duty of bearing arms devolved on the burgesses, and the burgesses only. Hence “quirites” or lance-men came to be synonymous with burgesses.

Quiris, quiritis, or quirinus, literally means [according to some] lance-bearer, from quiris or curis = lance and ire. The Iuno quiritis, the (Mars) quirinus, the Ianus quirinus are primarily characterised by that epithet as divinities that hurl the spear; and, when used in reference to men, quiris denotes the warrior, that is, the full burgess. With this view the usus loquendi coincides. Where the locality was meant to be referred to, “quirites” was never used, but always “Rome” and “Romans” (urbs Roma, populus, civis, ager Romanus), because the term quiris had as little of a local meaning as civis or miles. For the same reasons these designations could not be combined: they did not say civis quiris, because both denoted, though from different points of view, the same conception in law. On the other hand, the solemn announcement of the funeral of a burgess ran in the words: “This warrior has departed in death” (ollus quiris leto datus); and in like manner the party aggrieved employed this word in calling the burgesses to aid him (quiritare); the king addressed the assembled community by this name; and, when he sat in judgment, he spoke according to the law of the warrior-freemen (ex iure quiritium), quite similar to the later ex iure civili. The phrase populus Romanus quirites thus means “the community and the individual burgesses”. Populus Romanus quiritium corresponds to the well-known phrases colonia colonorum, municipium municipum (Mommsen).

  • L. 45, 37 nec quirites vos, sed milites videor appellaturus.
  • L. 5, 41 populus Romanus quiritium.


Rosa, in good prose, is used only in the singular = a rose, or roses. Many roses, multa rosa; on a bed of roses, in rosa. The plural is poetic and post-classical.

  • Verr. 5, 11 cum rosam (roses) viderat, tunc incipere ver arbitrabatur.
  • Hor. C. 1, 36, 15 neu desint epulis rosae.


Regius, belonging to or characteristic of a king, magnificent = quod regis est. Regalis, befitting a king = quod rege dignum est.

  • Off. 3, 9 erat autem regius pastor.
  • Verr. 5, 72, 184 Iuppiter optime maxime, quoius iste donum regale … dignum regio munere, tibi factum ab regibus … de manibus regiis extorsit.
  • Sall. I. 54, 4 praeter regios equites nemo omnium Numida ex fuga regem sequitur.
  • Off. 1, 12, 39 regalis sane et digna Aeacidarum genere sententia.
  • L. 1, 47 te domus regia et in domo regale solium et nomen Tarquinium creat vocatque regem.
  • L. 27, 19 dixit regium nomen alibi magnum, Romae intolerabile esse; regalem animum in se esse tacite iudicarent.

“Royal” in certain cases must be rendered by rex or regina. The royal prophet, rex vates (the person being both king and prophet). The royal shepherd, rex pastor. Regius pastor would mean the shepherd belonging to the king. Regina sacerdos, the royal priestess. Regius or regia sacerdos, the priest or priestess belonging to the king or queen.

  • Div. 1, 40 reges augures rempublicam religionum auctoritate rexerunt.
  • Off. 3, 9 regem dominum interemit (he murdered his royal master).


Regula, a test or standard; lex or praeceptum, a regulation or maxim; praecepta loquendi, the rules of grammar, as a body of precepts; regula (not regulae) loquendi, the rules of grammar, as a code according to which correct speaking is judged.

  • Brut. 41 regula qua vera et falsa iudicarentur.
  • Off. 1, 31 nos studia nostra nostrae naturae regula metiamur.
  • Off. 3, 18 eadem utilitatis quae honestatis est regula.
  • Leg. 1, 6, 19 ea iuris atque iniuriae regula.
  • Or. 3, 49 hanc ad legem formanda nobis oratio est.
  • Off. 1, 3, 7 officiorum praecepta traduntur.
  • Off. 2, 13 quaedam praecepta danda sunt.
  • Or. 3, 13 praetereamus igitur praecepta Latine loquendi.


Rusticus, belonging to the country, in opposition to the town, engaged in country operations; agrestis is stronger than rusticus, wild, as though growing or bred in the fields, hence uncouth, boorish. The “rusticus” violates the conventional, the “agrestis” the natural, laws of good breeding. Rusticanus, milder than rusticus, is used of one who has been brought up or who lives in the country, often applied to the inhabitant of a municipium or free town, e.g., homines rusticani ex municipiis. Vita rusticana, country life = a life spent in the country; vita rustica, country life = a life spent in rural occupations; vita agrestis, country life = the clownish life of a peasant. The country youth, iuventus rusticana, not rustica.

  • Rosc. A. 27 vita haec rustica, quam tu agrestem vocas, parcimoniae magistra est (this country life, boorish as you call it, is the teacher of thrift).
  • L. 10, 4 iubet peritos linguae adtendere animum, pastorum sermo agresti an urbano propior esset.
  • L. 9, 36 iere pastorali habitu, agrestibus telis, falcibus gaesisque binis, armati.
  • Tus. 2, 22 Marius rusticanus vir, sed plane vir, cum secaretur, vetuit se alligari.
  • Att. 8, 13 multum mecum municipales homines loquuntur, multum rusticani (the people of the municipal towns and the country squires talk a good deal with me).


Salvus, safe, opposed to being destroyed; incolumis, safe, opposed to being touched, especially as having passed through danger, unscathed; sospes (mostly poetic), safe and sound by the blessing of heaven; tutus, safe objectively, free from danger; securus, safe subjectively, not apprehending danger, free from fear. A person is “tutus” when he is in safety, “securus” when he believes himself to be so. Ne sit securus, qui non est tutus ab hoste, let him not feel secure, who is not safe from the enemy.

  • Fam. 8, 14 Caesari autem persuasum est, se salvum esse non posse, si ab exercitu recesserit.
  • Phil. 1, 8 aliter enim nostri negant posse se salvos esse.
  • Caes. C. 2, 32 an paenitet vos quod salvum atque incolumem exercitum transduxerim?
  • L. 9, 9 dedite interea profanos nos, quos salva religione potestis.
  • L. 30, 25 navis tantum iactura facta, incolumes ipsi evaserunt.
  • Caes. 6, 40 per medios hostes perrumpunt incolumesque ad unum omnes in castra perveniunt.
  • Caes. 7, 88 pauci ex tanto numero se incolumes in castra recipiunt.
  • Mil. 34, 93 (Milo’s reported words) valeant cives mei; sint incolumes, sint florentes, sint beati.
  • L. 2, 13 sospites omnes Romam ad propinquos restituit.
  • L. 22, 7 unam feminam sospiti filio repente oblatam in complexu eius exspirasse ferunt (one woman unexpectedly meeting her son, who had miraculously escaped, is said to have died in his arms).
  • N. Dion. 7 nemo enim, illo interfecto, se tutum putabat.
  • L. 3, 44, 8 iam a vi tută erat.
  • Flacc. 20 securus Hermippus Temnum proficiscitur.
  • Sen. Ep. 97, 13 tuta scelera esse possunt, secura non possunt.
  1. Incolumis is also used in a political sense of “one whose position is unimpaired,” i.e., ono who has not incurred a conviction (calamitas) involving total or partial forfeiture of civil rights.

    • Att. 3, 15 si tu incolumis me requiris, quo modo a me ipsam incolumitatem desiderari putas? (if you, who are in full possession of your rights, regret my absence, how bitterly, think you, must I feel the loss of those very rights?).
  2. Tuto is generally used instead of “tutus,” if the reference is to a safe place = in security.

    • Att. 8, 1 tu, censeo, Luceriam venias; nusquam eris tutius.
    • Att. 14, 22, 2 mihi videntur ubivis tutius quam in senatu fore.
    • Att. 8, 11a te hic tutissime puto fore.
    • Fam. 14, 3, 3 ut tuto sim.
    • Fam. 11, 5, 1 in iis locis, in quibus maxime tuto me esse arbitrabar.
    • N. Con. 2, 1 ubi ipse tuto viveret.
    • Sall. I. 14 extorrem patria et domo effecit, ut ubivis tutius quam in meo regno essem (so that I was safer anywhere than in my own kingdom).


Idem qui = the same as; rarely idem ac or atque, and only when the same verb is repeated or understood.

This is the same as that, hoc idem est quod illud. Plato held the same opinion as Pythagoras, Plato idem sensit quod (atque) Pythagoras. Plato held the same opinion as Pythagoras had taught, Plato idem sensit quod (not atque) Pythagoras docuerat.

  • Fin. 4, 3 iidem abeunt, qui venerant (they go away just as they came).
  • Verr. 5, 15 idem, qui semper fueras, inventus es.
  • Ter. Haut. 265 nam et vitast eadem et animus te ergo idem ac fuit.
  • Dom. 20, 51 unum et idem videtur esse atque id, quod de me ipso nominatim tulisti.
  • Plin. ep. 2, 6, 4 liberti mei non idem quod ego bibunt, sed idem ego quod liberti.


Inquam is often used to repeat and emphasise a word or statement. You, you, I say, kindled those torches, tu, tu, inquam, illas faces incendisti.

  • Mil. 25 tuas, inquam, suspiciones perhorrescimus.
  • Planc. 36 armis fuit, armis, inquam, fuit dimicandum.
  • Verr. 5, 62, 162 crux, crux, inquam, infelici et aerumnoso … comparabatur.
  • Tus. 1, 31, 75 nam quid aliud agimus, … quid, inquam, tum agimus?

But if the repetition is expressed interrogatively, or in a qualified form, dico is used. We, the consuls, we, I say frankly, are wanting in decision, nos, nos, dico (not inquam) aperte, consules desumus. Unless the antecedent word is in the nominative, the construction is not affected by dico.

  • Phil. 14, 5 tanta multitudine hostium interfecta, (hostium dico; ita, inquam, hostium).
  • Sest. 24 illo, inquam, ipso die—die dico, immo hora atque etiam puncto temporis eodem.
  • L. 31, 7, 8 Pyrrho certe aequabitis, “aequabitis” dico?
  • Sest. 25, 55 nam latae quidem sunt consulibus illis—tacentibus dicam?
  • Flacc. 5, 13 qui comitatus in inquirendo! Comitatum dico.
  • Att. 16, 15, 5 me res familiaris movet. Rem dico; immo vero existimatio.


Non modo (not non solum) = non dico (or dicam) implies that the first clause contains too much, and that we must abide by the second and more limited one = descensio ad minus.

  • L. 39, 31 si illi loco cedant, neminem ejus exercitus non modo Italiam sed ne Tagi ulteriorem ripam umquam visurum.
  • Caecil. 18 quid habes quod possis dicere quam ob rem non modo mihi sed cuiquam anteponare? (I do not say to me, but to any one at all).
  • Verr. 3, 31, 73 an poterat, non modo Apronius, sed quivis, … improbare Siculum frumentum?
  • Sest. 50, 108 quis non modo adprobavit, sed non indignissimum facinus putavit illum non dicam loqui, sed vivere ac spirare?
  • L. 4, 3, 11 L. Tarquinium non Romanae modo sed ne Italicae quidem gentis.
  • L. 24, 8, 15 create consulem T. Otacilium, non dico, si omnia haec, sed si aliquid eorum rei publicae praestitit.
  • Mil. 13 quid erat cur Milo non dicam admitteret, sed optaret?
  • Phil. 13, 19 tibi cum Lepido societas aut cum ullo, non dicam bono cive, sed homine sano?
  • Pis. 23 quis tibi, non dicam horum civium, sed tuorum legatorum obviam venit?
  • Fin. 2, 28 an id exploratum cuiquam potest esse, quo modo se hoc habiturum sit corpus, non dico ad annum, sed ad vesperum?
  • Tus. 1, 12 ego enim istuc ipsum vereor ne malum sit, non dico carere sensu, sed carendum esse.

Non modo, going with the second clause = a fortiori, i.e. much more or much less, according as the leading assertion is positive or negative.

  • Fam. 4, 14 secundas etiam res nostras, non modo adversas, pertimescebam (non modo, and not only = and much more).
  • Ac. 2, 29 per me vel stertas licet, non modo quiescas (much more sleep).
  • Att. 8, 12 nihil praetermissum est quod non habeat sapientem excusationem, non modo probabilem (non modo, and not merely = much more (probabilis) plausible).
  • Div. 2, 55 (Apollinis oracula) numquam ne mediocri quidem cuiquam, non modo prudenti, probata sunt.

Sometimes non dico = adscensus ad maius.

  • Leg. 1, 7 quid est autem, non dicam in homine, sed in omni caelo atque terra, ratione divinius?
  • Mil. 13 haec, non dico, maiora fuerunt in Clodio, quam in Milone, sed in illo maxima, nulla in hoc.
  • Fam. 11, 17 magna eius in me, non dico officia, sed merita.

Vel dicam = vel potius. Mihi placebat Pomponius maxime, vel dicam minime displicebat (Brut. 57). A plerisque, vel dicam ab omnibus (Fam. 4, 7).

Dico or non dico in independent sentences often = I will or will not say. All I will say, hoc unum dico; I will not say that, illud non dico; similarly, I will not hope, non spero.

  • Quinct. 24, 76 emisti bona Sex. Alfeni L. Sulla dictatore vendente; socium tibi in his bonis edidisti Quinctium. Plura non dico.


As they say, as people say, as the proverb or the phrase goes = ut aiunt, ut dicitur, not ut dicunt; but we can say ut Graeci (Stoici, poetae) dicunt.

  • Or. 2, 44 facilius est currentem, ut aiunt, incitare quam commovere languentem (it is easier to spur on a galloping horse, as the proverb goes, than to move a sluggish one).
  • Off. 3, 33 cum his “viris equisque,” ut dicitur (as the proverb is), decertandum est.
  • L. 7, 13, 7 conpressis, quod aiunt, manibus.
  • Ac. 2, 18, 58 ab hac mihi non licet transversum, ut aiunt, digitum discedere.
  • Phil. 12, 2, 5 posteriores enim cogitationes, ut aiunt, sapientiores solent esse.
  • Tus. 2, 24, 58 toto pectore, ut dicitur, cogitare.
  • Fam. 1, 6 praesta te eum, qui mihi “a teneris,” ut Graeci dicunt (as the Greeks say), “unguiculis” es cognitus.

As Ennius says, ut ait Ennius, rarely, if ever, ut Ennius ait.


Vix, almost not, is a modified negative; aegre, with much ado, is affirmative. Vix refers to a result all but not accomplished, in opposition to omnino non; aegre refers to a process accomplished with difficulty, in opposition to facile. Pons vix defensus est, the bridge was all but not defended; pons aegre defensus est, the bridge was defended, but the operation was difficult.

  • Att 3, 23 vix aut omnino non (almost or altogether not).
  • Att. 11, 9 quas (res) sustinere vix possum, vel plane nullo modo possum.
  • Caes. 6, 37 aegre portas nostri tuentur.
  • Sen. 20 omnis conglutinatio recens aegre, inveterata facile divellitur.

We say “dici vix potest” or “vix potest dici,” not “vix dici potest”.


Ars fingendi, or ars signa faciendi (not sculptura). So fictor (not sculptor) = a sculptor.

  • Or. 3, 7 una fingendi est ars.
  • N. D. 1, 29, 81 deos ea facie novimus, qua pictores fictoresque voluerunt.


Sedes is abstract = a place for sitting, whether natural or artificial; sella is concrete = a seat of a particular description, a movable seat, a chair, a stool, e.g., sella aurea, sella curulis. Sedile for sella is poetic and post-Augustan.

  • Or. 3, 5 et enim est in eo loco sedes huic nostro non importuna sermoni.
  • Verr. 4, 25 hominem in foro iubet sellam ponere.
  • Phil. 2, 34 sedebat in rostris conlega tuus in sella aurea.
  • Fam. 9, 18 sella tibi erit in ludo (a teacher’s chair).

About Latinitium..Quid sit Latinitium

This is a place for Latin audio, video, and other resources for learning to read and speak Latin.

Follow us on:..Sequimini nos apud:
Support Latinitium..Adiuvate Latinitium

Get access to more content by clicking below and supporting Latinitium on Patreon!

Support Latinitium