Horae Latinae

Studies In Synonyms and Syntax, by Robert Ogelvie

For everybody eager to learn Latin, we proudly present Latinitium’s digital edition of Horae Latinae by Robert Ogelvie, originally published posthumously in 1901.

Here you will find almost 500 English words and expressions with detailed descriptions of how to best render them in Latin, and with copious quotes from classical authors illustrating the usage. It is thus an excellent complement to the English–Latin dictionary by Smith & Hall.

For more resources on Latin synonyms, see our blog post A guide to Dictionaries of Latin synonyms!

Tips, updates, and learning material.


a or an first (adverb) play
abandon first who if you please
about flee poet
abroad flow poetry
access to forget poisoned
accompany former—latter politics
of one’s own accord freedman as—as possible
accurate great friend poverty
accuse on the front power
accuser fruitful prejudice
across garden present
advocate general pretend
affirm grateful prevail on
African gratification prevent
after Greeks pride
afterwards grief priest
again happen prithee
age happiness promise
ago hasten proof
all but health prove
along the river hear province
also hear well publicly
altar heart quarrel
although high rather than
angry hither and thither really
animal hitherto refer
annual hold refuse
any one honour reign
Apennines hope relations
appeal horse remember
appear on horseback remove
apple host report
appoint a dictator hour represent
arm how resign office
arms however rest
army hunger the rest
as if return
as far as if not reward
as to ignorant rightly
as well as immortal river
assemble with impunity robber
assembly in an author Roman
assuredly indeed rose
attain influence royal
audience inhabit rule
author inhabitants rustic
baggage insanity safe
banker instead of same as
bargain international law I say
because invade I will not say
become inveigh against as they say
before is to be scarcely
before (adverb) joy sculpture
before (of place) judge seat
begin justice second
belief kill secretly
believe know seize
besides we know self
beware of know how sell
beyond Lacedaemonian serious
blame land services
blood last ship
bloodless too late shore
bloody lately shortly
in a book Latin show
books laugh sickness
both learn siege
both—and at least sight
bridge legislator silent
bring leisure sing
build lend six hundred
burn much less sloping
but letter smell
by in a letter soldier
canvassing liberty some
carry life some one
cattle light sometimes
cause lightning soul
cease like speak
certain likely speak against
character little staff
children how little statue
cold live stay
command long (adjective) step
commit long (adverb) storm (verb)
common for a long while strength
conceal no longer style
confess lose subjects
conscience love such
conscious lungs suitable
consul Macedonian sustain
consult magnanimity sword
content majesty take away
continue make a speech take up arms
contract man tempest
control how many territory
corn forced march than
country marriage thankfulness
fellow-countryman marry that of
cousin master the
crime mean theory
crown from memory this (that)
cui bono? in memory of three
custom mind throne
daily (adjective) modesty time
daily (adverb) money one time
day more at the same time
two days more than title
the dead more than once too
deal with many more towards
death morning trade
debt the morrow trader
defend mortal travel
deny most tributary
deserve multitude in triumph
despise name troops
despoil namely trust
die nation truth
different natural uncle
diligence necessity undertake
dislodge neck unjustly
divide new of us
doubt by night in vain
dream noble vote
dress nor wall
drink and not wander about
drunk do not want
drunkenness not even wanting
each not one water
each other not so very way
earthly not to say on the way
either—or nothing when (interrogative)
embark nothing but whenever
employed now where
enemy oath whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
enjoy obey whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
enough obstructionist which?
entreat obtain while
envy oh that! for a while
epidemic old age white
especially omit whoever
estate one why not?
even one of wisdom
ever one more with
everywhere only with one
for example not only not within
exception open without
exile openly witness
expect opinion word
expense or work at
express or not workman
extend orator world
face otherwise worse
fail our would be
famous own wound
fault palace wretch
favour passenger a year after
for fear paternal yes and no
feast people yesterday
few perhaps yield
how few persuade you
first (adjective) places younger
a or an how little
abandon live
about long (adjective)
abroad long (adverb)
access to for a long while
accompany no longer
of one’s own accord lose
accurate love
accuse lungs
accuser Macedonian
across magnanimity
advocate majesty
affirm make a speech
African man
after how many
afterwards forced march
again marriage
age marry
ago master
all but mean
along the river from memory
also in memory of
altar mind
although modesty
angry money
animal more
annual more than
any one more than once
Apennines many more
appeal morning
appear the morrow
apple mortal
appoint a dictator most
arm multitude
arms name
army namely
as nation
as far as natural
as to necessity
as well as neck
assemble new
assembly by night
assuredly noble
attain nor
audience and not
author do not
baggage not even
banker not one
bargain not so very
because not to say
become nothing
before nothing but
before (adverb) now
before (of place) oath
begin obey
belief obstructionist
believe obtain
besides oh that!
beware of old age
beyond omit
blame one
blood one of
bloodless one more
bloody only
in a book not only not
books open
both openly
both—and opinion
bridge or
bring or not
build orator
burn otherwise
but our
by own
canvassing palace
carry passenger
cattle paternal
cause people
cease perhaps
certain persuade
character places
children play
cold if you please
command poet
commit poetry
common poisoned
conceal politics
confess as—as possible
conscience poverty
conscious power
consul prejudice
consult present
content pretend
continue prevail on
contract prevent
control pride
corn priest
country prithee
fellow-countryman promise
cousin proof
crime prove
crown province
cui bono? publicly
custom quarrel
daily (adjective) rather than
daily (adverb) really
day refer
two days refuse
the dead reign
deal with relations
death remember
debt remove
defend report
deny represent
deserve resign office
despise rest
despoil the rest
die return
different reward
diligence rightly
dislodge river
divide robber
doubt Roman
dream rose
dress royal
drink rule
drunk rustic
drunkenness safe
each same as
each other I say
earthly I will not say
either—or as they say
embark scarcely
employed sculpture
enemy seat
enjoy second
enough secretly
entreat seize
envy self
epidemic sell
especially serious
estate services
even ship
ever shore
everywhere shortly
for example show
exception sickness
exile siege
expect sight
expense silent
express sing
extend six hundred
face sloping
fail smell
famous soldier
fault some
favour some one
for fear sometimes
feast soul
few speak
how few speak against
first (adjective) staff
first (adverb) statue
first who stay
flee step
flow storm (verb)
forget strength
former—latter style
freedman subjects
great friend such
on the front suitable
fruitful sustain
garden sword
general take away
grateful take up arms
gratification tempest
Greeks territory
grief than
happen thankfulness
happiness that of
hasten the
health theory
hear this (that)
hear well three
heart throne
high time
hither and thither one time
hitherto at the same time
hold title
honour too
hope towards
horse trade
on horseback trader
host travel
hour tributary
how in triumph
however troops
hunger trust
if truth
if not uncle
ignorant undertake
immortal unjustly
with impunity of us
in an author in vain
indeed vote
influence wall
inhabit wander about
inhabitants want
insanity wanting
instead of water
international law way
invade on the way
inveigh against when (interrogative)
is to be whenever
joy where
judge whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
justice whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
kill which?
know while
we know for a while
know how white
Lacedaemonian whoever
land why not?
last wisdom
too late with
lately with one
Latin within
laugh without
learn witness
at least word
legislator work at
leisure workman
lend world
much less worse
letter would be
in a letter wound
liberty wretch
life a year after
light yes and no
lightning yesterday
like yield
likely you
little younger


Magis, more in degree; plus, more in quantity; amplius, more in extent, more in addition, further.

  1. Magis is used with adjectives, adverbs, and verbs. Magis (not plus) idoneus, more suitable; magis (not plus) aperte, more openly.
  2. Magis means rather far oftener than more. Magis opto quam spero = I fain hope rather than expect, i.e., opto expresses my meaning more accurately than spero.
  3. Plus, like its positive multum, is used with verbs both absolutely and in construction with a genitive. He owed me more (money), plus (pecuniae) mihi debebat.
  4. Plus or magis (= more) is used with verbs according as the idea of measure or degree predominates. I love more, magis amo = amantior sum; plus amo = I show more proofs of love; I ploughed more, plus (not magis) aravi.
  5. Magis = rather, throws the second clause into the background. Eos magis rei publicae quam familiaritatis gratia diligo = I esteem them as public men rather than as private friends: eos plus rei publicae quam familiaritatis gratia diligo = I esteem them still more as public men than as private friends.
  6. Amplius and plus (not magis) are used with cardinal numbers, the former without, the latter with or without, quam. More than six months, amplius sex menses, or sex menses et amplius, not amplius quam sex menses; more than five feet, plus (quam) quinque pedes.
  7. Excepting with cardinals and a few expressions, such as annus, biennium, dimidium, dimidia pars, plus must be followed by quam. We must say plus quam satis, plus quam pares, not plus satis, plus pares.
  8. Potius is distinguished from magis in that it is subjective, and implies preference. Diogenem magis quam Antipatrum sequor, I follow Diogenes rather than Antipater; Diogenem potius quam Antipatrum sequor = I elect to follow Diogenes rather than Antipater. Cf. Fam. 5, 21, 2 qui nihil umquam mea potius quam meorum civium causa fecerim.
  • Phil. 5, 11 sunt alia, quae magis timeam et cogitem.
  • Fin. 4, 16 mihi videntur omnes quidem illi errasse, sed alius alio magis (in my opinion they have all gone more or less astray).
  • Mil. 24 cavebat magis Pompeius quam timebat.
  • L. 1, 46, 9 magis non prohibente Servio quam adprobante.
  • R. P. 1, 38 apud me argumenta plus quam testes valent (circumstantial evidence has more weight with me than witnesses).
  • Ac. 2, 4 equidem feci plus quam vellem (for my part I have done more than I could have wished).
  • Rosc. A. 4 plus oneris sustuli, quam ferre me posse intellego.
  • Quinct. 12 at tecum plus annum vixit.
  • Tus. 2, 16 plus dimidiati mensis cibaria (supplies for more than a fortnight).
  • Att. 6, 2, 8 “non amplius,” inquis, “quinquaginta” (only fifty, you say).
  • Fin. 5, 21 virtutem ipsam incohavit, nihil amplius (nothing more).
  • Or. 1, 17 non luctabor tecum amplius (I will not wrestle with you any longer).
  • Planc. 7 nihil dico amplius (I have nothing more to say).
  1. Plus (not magis or amplius) quam is used alike with substantives and adjectives, where a thing which cannot be described by a predicate of its own is compared with something else which falls short of it.

    Plus quam tyrannus, more than a tyrant; plus quam humanus, more than human; plus quam fraternus, more than a brother’s. This idiom must not be confused with the use of plus quam with numerals, e.g., plus quam unus, plus quam quattuor.

    • L. 21, 4 perfidia plus quam Punica (a perfidy more than Punic).
    • Phil. 2, 13 confiteor eos plus quam sicarios, plus quam homicidas, plus etiam quam parricidas esse.
    • L. 2, 59, 2 multo Appio quam Fabio violentior fuit (where multo violentior = multo magis violens).

    Cf. Mil. 7 nisi forte magis erit parricida (more a parricide), si qui consularem patrem quam si quis humilem necarit.

  2. Non magis (plus) quam = just as much as, or, if the second member is negative, = just as little as.

    Brutum non magis amo quam Cassium = I love Cassius just as much as Brutus, or = I love Brutus just as little as Cassius. Aditus ad consulatum non magis nobilitati quam virtuti patet, the consulship is just as open to merit as to rank = aditus ad consulatum non minus virtuti quam nobilitati patet.

    • Tus. 3, 5, 10 animus non magis est sanus quam corpus (the mind is no more sound than the body).
    • L. 9, 22, 7 nec, ut fit, ad ducis casum perculsa magis quam inritata est multitudo.
    • L. 32, 21, 1 non magis consilium vobis … deest quam lingua.
    • Verr. 4, 3 domus erat non domino magis ornamento quam civitati (just as much to the city as to its owner).
    • Sall. C. 9 ius bonumque apud eos non legibus magis quam natura valebat (as much by nature as by coercion).
    • L. 2, 16 nec magis (as little) post proelium quam in proelio caedibus temperatum est.
    • Tus. 1, 8 scis me Graece loqui in Latino sermone non plus (just as little) solere, quam in Graeco Latine.
    • Sen. 9 nec nunc quidem vires desidero adulescentis, non plus, quam (just as little) adulescens tauri aut elephanti desiderabam.

    More than all = maxime omnium, not plus quam omnes. You have helped me more than all, tu maxime omnium me adiuvisti.

    • Att. 9, 12, 3 tu, quaeso, nunc vel maxime, quid agendum nobis sit, cogita.


When two qualities of the same object or action are compared, they are both expressed in the comparative, or in the positive with magis, which goes with the first. The latter construction is distinguished from the former in that it rather depreciates or minimises the second quality.

He is more brave than wise, fortior est quam sapientior = he is wise, but still more brave [also a Greek construction, a favourite with Dionysius of Halicarnassus]; magis fortis est quam sapiens = he is brave, but not particularly wise.

The positive with magis is the only possible construction, when one or both of the adjectives or adverbs are not used in the comparative.

“Vehementius quam caute” (Tac. Ag. 4) is an irregularity.

  • L. 5, 23 triumphus clarior quam gratior fuit (the triumph was more magnificent than popular).
  • L. 27, 48 longior quam latior acies erat (the line was more deep than broad).
  • L. 5, 43 qui alia bella fortius semper quam felicius gessissent.
  • L. 22, 24, 3 ferocius quam consultius rem hostes gesturos.
  • L. 22, 47, 3 acrius tamen quam diutius pugnatum est.
  • L. 5, 44, 4 gens est, cui natura corpora animosque magna magis quam firma dederit.
  • Att. 5, 21 mihi impudens magis quam stultus videbatur.
  • Brut. 68 ad dicendum veniebat magis audacter quam parate.
  • Phil. 13, 15 magis facilis disputatio est quam necessaria.


Plus quam semel or plus semel, more than once, in a literal sense; more than once, i.e., several times = saepius, identidem, non semel, semel et saepius, etc.

  • Verr. 4, 56 (quam magnitudinem) nimium esset videre plus quam semel.
  • Off. 3, 15, 61 uterque … non plus quam semel eloquetur.
  • Caes. C. 2, 35 ille saepius appellatus respexit ac restitit.


Multi alii = an additional number; multo plures = a larger number.

  • Verr. 5, 17 eam navem nuper egomet vidi Veliae multique alii viderunt.
  • Fam. 3, 7 multo plures esse qui de tributis recusent quam qui exigi velint.


Mane is commonly used adverbially = in the morning. On the following morning, postridie mane, postero die mane, or postridie eius diei mane (Caes. 5, 10); this morning, hodie (hodierno die) mane; yesterday morning, hesterno die (heri) mane; very early in the morning, bene mane, or multo mane; very early this morning, prima hodierna luce (L. 1, 16).

  • Fam. 9, 2 at tibi repente venit ad me Caninius mane (tibi = dativus ethicus).
  • Verr. 2, 38 postridie mane descendit.
  • Caes. C. 2, 27 Varus postero die mane legiones ex castris educit.
  • Att. 4, 9 bene mane haec scripsi.
  • Att. 5, 4 litteras tuas Funisulanus multo mane mihi dedit.


Posterus or insequens dies must be used in the narration of a past event. Cras or crastinus dies = the morrow of an actually present today. On the morrow he breathed his last, postero die animam efflavit.

  • Off. 3, 14, 58 ad cenam hominem in hortos invitavit in posterum diem.
  • Tus. 5, 35, 100 Timotheum … ferunt, cum cenavisset apud Platonem … vidissetque eum postridie, dixisse: “Vestrae quidem cenae non solum in praesentia, sed etiam postero die iucundae sunt”.
  • Sest. 34, 74 ille se adfirmare postero die moram nullam esse facturum.
  • L. 2, 51, 7 postero die luce orta nonnihil et hesterna felicitate pugnae ferox.
  • L. 3, 69, 6 omnes iuniores postero die prima luce in campo Martio adessent.
  • L. 3, 46, 10 postero die mane de retinendo eo nequiquam litterae redduntur.
  • L. 38, 25, 2 tempus in posterum diem constituitur.
  • L. 2, 48 iussi armati postero die ad limen consulis adesse.
  • Caes. C. 1, 67 postridie constituunt proficisci (they make up their minds to start on the morrow).

But crastinus, if appropriate in oratio recta, may be retained in obliqua. Cf. adhuc; he said that he had not yet arrived, negavit eum adhuc pervenisse.

  • L. 30, 32 Roma an Carthago iura gentibus daret, ante crastinam noctem scituros.


Mortalis, subject to death. Mortifer, causing death. Man is mortal, homines (not homo) sunt mortales. He was seized with a mortal ailment, morbo mortifero correptus est.

  • N. D. 3, 13 omne animal confitendum est esse mortale.
  • L. 2, 47 consul mortifero vulnere ictus cadit.
  • L. 24, 42 pavor ceperat milites ne mortiferum esset vulnus Scipionis.

Mortal hatred, odium capitale. Mortal enmity, inimicitiae graves.

  • Am. 1 is tribunis plebis capitali odio a Quinto Pompeio dissidebat (he as tribune).
  • Hor. S. 1, 7, 13 ira fuit capitalis.
  • Prov. Con. 9 quae fuerunt inimicitiae graviores quam Lucullorum atque Serviliorum?
  • Sall. C. 49, 2 uterque cum illo gravis inimicitias exercebant.


Plerique, most, absolutely, i.e., the greater part of the whole; plurimi, most, comparatively, the largest proportion. Most erred in this, plerique in hoc peccaverunt = the majority erred in this; plurimi in hoc peccaverunt = more failed in this than in any other part. Plerique has no genitive, plurimorum being used instead.

  • N. D. 1, 1 plerique (the majority) deos esse dixerunt, dubitare se Protagoras, nullos esse Diagoras.
  • Sall. C. 16 plerique Sullani milites (the greater part of Sulla’s soldiers).
  • Sall. I. 54, 10 eorum plerique inermes cadunt, multi capiuntur.
  • N. Them. 3 huius consilium plerisque civitatibus displicebat.
  • Sall. C. 33 plerique patriae, sed omnes fama atque fortunis expertes sumus.
  • Caes. 6, 28 qui plurimos ex his (sc. uris) interfecerunt magnam ferunt laudem.
  • Fam. 9, 14, 1 neminem conveni—convenio autem cottidie plurimos—quin omnes mihi gratias agant (I have met no one, and I daily meet very many, but they all thank me).
  • L. 41, 4 is, pede saucio relictus, longe plurimos hostium occidit.
  • Curt. 8, 10 Ptolemaeus plurimas urbes, Alexander maximas cepit.
  • L. 6, 4 longe plurimos captivos ex Etruscis ante currum duxit.
  • R. P. 2, 22 curavit, quod semper in re publica tenendum est, ne plurimum valeant plurimi.
  • Ac. 2, 6 e quibus industriae plurimum in Clitomacho fuit (of these Clitomachus showed most application).
  • Planc. 25, 60 ut is maxime gloria excellat, qui virtute plurimum praestet.
  1. Plurimi is also used as a superlative absolute = very many. He spoke before a very large audience, plurimis audientibus locutus est.

    • Brut. 22, 88 plurumis audientibus … illam causam … dixisse Galbam.
  2. Most of the captives, plerique captivi; most of the ships, pleraeque naves; but, most of them, plerique eorum; most of whom, quorum plerique; most of us have sworn, plerique iuravimus; most of you remember, plerique meministis.


Multitudo, the multitude; multitudo hominum, a multitude.

  • Off. 3, 20 quid multa? nemo umquam multitudini fuit carior (in a word, no man was ever better liked by the masses).
  • Brut. 95, 326 mirantur adulescentes, multitudo movetur.
  • L. 1, 15, 8 multitudini tamen gratior fuit quam patribus.
  • L. 3, 49, 4 franguntur a multitudine fasces.
  • Rosc. 5, 11 Landgraf quanta multitudo hominum convenerit ad hoc iudicium, vides.
  • Clu. 60 cum eius in nuptiis multitudo hominum pranderet (when a large company was breakfasting at his wedding).


Most Romans of distinction had three names, (1) a praenomen, as Publius, Gaius, which marked the individual, (2) a nomen, as Cornelius, Iulius, which marked his gens or clan, (3) a cognomen, as Scipio, Caesar, which marked his familia or branch of his gens. Women, as a rule, had no praenomen, and were called by their gentile name, as Cornelia, Iulia.

  • Sen. de benef. 4, 8, 3 si, quod a Seneca accepisses, Annaeo te debere diceres vel Lucio, non creditorem mutares, sed nomen, quoniam sive praenomen eius sive nomen dixisses sive cognomen, idem tamen ille esset.
  • L. 30, 18 Quinctilius praetor cum filio, cui Marco praenomen erat, ad equites pergit.
  1. Sometimes a second cognomen (in later Latin agnomen) was added as an honorary title derived from some great action (Africanus, Asiaticus, Macedonicus), or as a sign of adoption (Octavianus, Aemilianus, Mucianus).

    The person adopted took the full name of his patron with the addition of his own nomen, the termination ius being changed into anus. Thus the Emperor Augustus, whose original nomen was Octavius, when adopted by Caesar and subsequently invested with the title of Augustus, became Gaius Iulius Caesar Octavianus Augustus.

  2. Slaves had only one name, and freedmen assumed and placed before their own the praenomen and nomen of their liberator. Thus Cicero’s faithful Tiro became M. Tullius Tiro, and Afer (a name probably due to his African origin) was known as P. Terentius Afer, after his manumitter P. Terentius Lucanus.

    • Iuv. 5, 126 si quid temptaveris umquam hiscere, tamquam habeas tria nomina (if you but venture to open your mouth on the strength of your three names).
  3. In common intercourse the praenomen alone was used by relatives and intimate friends, as also by slaves. Well-known personages, such as Cicero, Caesar, Scipio, Sulla, were distinguished by their cognomen or surname alone, just as we speak of Shakespeare, Milton, Tennyson.

    • Hor. S. 2, 5, 32 gaudent praenomine molles auriculae.
    • Phil. 2, 31 “quis tu?” “a Marco tabellarius”.
    • Fam. 7, 32 sine praenomine familiariter, ut debebas, ad me epistulam misisti.
    • Att. 2, 13, 2 quanto in odio noster amicus Magnus!
  4. When a public work, or a public place, regarded as state property, is associated with the name of an individual, the gentile name is used adjectively, while the termination anus, ianus, and inus is used if the reference is to something belonging to, or controlled by, the individual. Thus, we say, lex Sulpicia, leges Sestiae, via Appia, porticus Aemilia, portus Iulius, theatrum Pompeium, but classis Sulpiciana, dicta Sestiana, castra Corneliana (but Castra Cornelia, Caes. C. 2, 30, 3 MSS.), equitatus Pompeianus. The partisans of Sulla = Sullani; Livy’s plays, fabulae Livianae (or Livi).

    • Phil. 1, 8 quid? isti ordini iudicatus lege Iulia, etiam ante Pompeia, Aurelia non patebat?
    • L. 3, 26 colebat agrum, quae prata Quinctia vocantur.
    • N. Att. 2 cum alii Sullanis, alii Cinnanis faverent partibus.
    • Verr. 1, 46 negabant mirandum esse, ius tam nequam esse Verrinum (a punning allusion to verrinum ius, pork-broth).
    • Att. 1, 14 operae Clodianae pontes occuparant.
    • Att. 1, 13, 5 Tyrrell in illam orationem Metellinam (of Metellus) addidi quaedam.
    • Brut. 59, 242 illa Rosciana (of Roscius) imitatio senis.
    • Phil. 13, 16 neminem Pompeianum, qui vivat, teneri lege Hirtia dictitatis.
  5. Greek or foreign names have usually only one adjectival form, e.g., Carneadia illa sententia, Euripideum carmen, Socratica ratio (the Socratic method).

    • Brut. 4 illud Hesiodium (Hesiod’s famous maxim) laudatur a doctis.

    Cf. Phil. 2, 14 illud Cassianum (Cassius’ famous test), “cui bono” fuerit.

  6. Nomen is generic, and is the word used in derived and metaphorical acceptations. The letter was anonymous, litterae sine nomine scriptae sunt; his name was Phormio, ei nomen erat Phormio or Phormioni (the nominative is the more usual in Cicero and Caesar); what is your name? quod tibi est nomen? not quod tuum est nomen? the book bears the name of Laelius, or concerning friendship, liber inscribitur Laelius, sive (not vel) de Amicitia; he bore the name of Seleucus, nomen Seleuci habuit or tulit (not gessit); nam habent illi non nulla Latina nomina (Verr. 5, 43).

    • L. 27, 28, 5 litterae ab Hannibale allatae sunt Marcelli nomine compositae.
    • Pl. Pers. 4, 4, 71 (623) quid nomen tibist?
  7. In my name, in reference to something written or spoken to one = meis verbis; in the name of the king, regis verbis (usual order); in the name of the senate, senatus verbis (L. 9, 36); in the name of the dictator, dictatoris verbis (L. 22, 58, 9).

    • Fam. 7, 29, 2 bene vale Tironemque meum saluta nostris verbis.
    • Fam. 9, 6, 1 Caninius noster me tuis verbis admonuit, ut cet.
    • Sall. I. 21, 4 senatus populique Romani verbis nuntient cet.
    • L. 37, 36, 8 abi, nuntia meis verbis, bello absistat.


When a specific notice stands in apposition to a general description, the English namely is untranslated in Latin. Two most powerful cities, namely, Carthage and Corinth, duae potentissimae urbes, Carthago et Corinthus.

  • Pomp. 2 bellum grave vestris vectigalibus a duobus potentissimis regibus infertur, Mithridate et Tigrane.
  • L. 2, 16, 8 duae coloniae Latinae, Pometia et Cora.
  • Or. 49 duae sunt res, quae permulceant aures, sonus et numerus.
  • Rosc. A. 39 duas res sanctissimas violat, amicitiam et fidem.
  1. Where a general expression is defined by a previous reference, dico is sometimes inserted for the sake of clearness.

    • Or. 58 haec duo animadvertunt et iucunda sibi censent, verba dico et sententias.

    Cf. Off. 3, 1 ita duae res, quae languorem adferunt ceteris, illum acuebant, otium et solitudo.

  2. When one word or phrase explains another, the apposition is usually introduced by dico, id est, qui or quod est. Dico has no influence on the construction, unless the word or words explained are in the nominative. Would that Bibulus, the father I mean, had had such luck! utinam id Bibulo, patri dico, contigisset!

    • Att. 2, 3 fuit apud me Cornelius, hunc dico Balbum, Caesaris familiarem.
    • Att. 4, 17, 7 (16, 14) Caesaris amici—me dico et Oppium (Caesar’s friends, that is, Oppius and myself).
    • Att. 8, 2 qui urbem reliquit, id est (or rather) patriam.
    • Opt. Gen. 2 pure et emendate loquentes, quod est Latine.


Gens, a race or stock; natio is a subdivision of gens = a tribe, often used of semi-civilised nations. The human race, gens (not natio) humana. Populus is purely political = a nation as an organised community, a state.

  • Pomp. 11 testes nunc vero iam omnes orae atque omnes exterae gentes ac nationes.
  • N. D. 3, 39 non curat deus singulos homines; non mirum; ne nationes quidem et gentes (the deity, you say, takes no notice of individuals; no wonder; he does not care even for tribes and nations).
  • Sall. C. 10 nationes ferae et populi ingentes vi subacti.
  • Tac. G. 2 ita nationis nomen, non gentis evaluit (it was thus the name of a tribe, not of a race, that prevailed).

Populi is always used in a plural sense of communities, cities, or other political aggregates.

  • L. 5, 1 offendit ea res populorum Etruriae animos non maiore odio regni quam ipsius regis; gravis iam is antea genti fuerat (this gave umbrage to the Etruscan states, not so much because of their dislike to monarchy, as to the king personally; he was a man who had formerly been oppressive to the nation).
  • L. 4, 56 eorum legatos utriusque gentis populos circumisse.

Gens is at once wider and narrower than “populus”. “Gens” may include several “populi,” as in the above examples, and “populus” may include several “gentes” or clans, e.g., “gens Fabia,” “gens Claudia,” “gens Cornelia”.


Naturalis, formed by nature. Tumulus naturalis, a natural mound; dies naturalis, a natural day, i.e., from sunrise to sunset. But necessaria mors, natural death (Mil. 7).

  • Caes. C. 3, 40 ex altera parte molem tenuit naturalem obiectam.
  • Sest. 42 neque naturali neque civili iure descripto.
  • Fin. 2, 28, 91 naturales divitias dixit parabiles esse, quod parvo esset natura contenta.

It is very natural = minime mirum (or quid (interrog.) mirum) si. Naturally = ut fit, etc.

  • Or. 2, 13 minime mirum, si ista res adhuc nostra lingua inlustrata non est.
  • Sen. 11 quid mirum in senibus, si infirmi sint aliquando?
  • Planc. 14 cum ille eum salutasset et, ut fit, dixisset, “quid agis, Grani?” (and naturally said, “how do you do, Granius?”).


Necessitas, necessity, exigency (cf. res necessaria); necessitudo, intimacy arising from any kind of tie, as familiarity, obligation, office, relationship, affinity.

  • Fam. 4, 9 tempori cedere, id est necessitati parere (to make a virtue of necessity), semper sapientis est habitum.
  • Sest. 17 M. Crassus, quocum mihi omnes erant amicitiae necessitudines.
  • Sall. I. 80 Iugurthae filia Boccho nupserat; verum ea necessitudo apud Numidas Maurosque levis ducitur (but that tie does not count for much among the Numidians and Mauretanians).
  • Verr. 3, 30, 72 Siculos re necessaria coactos auxilium a patronis … petivisse.
  • Caes. 1, 17, 6 quod necessariam rem coactus Caesari enuntiarit.
  • Caes. C. 1, 40, 5 necessaria re coactus locum capit superiorem.


Cervices always in Cicero and Sallust (not found in Caesar). Livy uses cervix, but only in a literal sense. After Livy the singular becomes more and more common.

  • Tus. 5, 21, 61 ut (gladius) impenderet illius beati cervicibus.
  • L. 31, 29 virgae tergo, secures cervicibus imminent.
  • L. 42, 50 Carthaginiensium opes fregisse sese, et cervicibus eorum praepotentem finitimum regem imposuisse.
  • L. 24, 8, 17 non imponi cervicibus tuis onus, sub quo concidas.
  • L. 35, 11 deformis ipse cursus rigida cervice et extento capite currentium.
  • L. 8, 7 cervice caesa fusus est cruor.


Novus, that which did not exist in former times; recens, that which has not long been in existence; “recens ad tempus, novus ad rem refertur”; nova vestigia, footprints not long ago made; recentia vestigia, footprints which have not long existed; nova victoria, a new or additional victory; recens victoria, a victory fresh in memory.

  • L. 7, 7 dictatoris adventu novus veteri exercitus iungitur.
  • Tus. 3, 31 huic erat illa opinio cotidie recens; quae tum denique non appellatur recens, cum vetustate exaruit.
  • Verr. 2 Verres infamia non recenti, sed vetere ac diuturna flagrabat.

The comparative of novus is recentior (magis novus and novior unclassical), and the superlative novissimus = the last (not newest); novissimi, the rear of an army, the soldiers in the last line.

Novae res, a revolution; novae tabulae, new account books = cancelling of old debts; novus homo, a man newly ennobled, an upstart.


* This article has been re-written by the editor.

Nocte or noctu, by night; de nocte, before daybreak (lit., (taking a portion) from the night).

  • L. 1, 47, 1 nec nocte nec interdiu conquiescere.
  • Att. 4, 3 nihil esse quod in campum nocte (by night) veniretur; se hora prima in comitio fore; itaque in comitium Milo de nocte (shortly before daybreak) venit.
  • Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 32 ut iugulent hominem surgunt de nocte latrones.

Similarly die, in the day time; de die, before nightfall, while yet it is day, often used of occupations, such as feasts, which begin earlier than the usual time. Partem solido demere de die (Hor. C. 1, 1).

  • L. 23, 8 epulari coeperunt de die (the feasting began before nightfall).
  • Catull. 47, 5 vos convivia lauta sumptuose de die facitis.
  • Q. F. 2, 1 fac ut considerate diligenterque naviges de mense Decembri (before December ends).


Patricii = the ancient clans or privileged classes of Rome; patres, strictly = the senators, but in a wider sense often = patricii. A patrician = (vir) patricius, or vir patriciae gentis (not pater). Nobilis = a Roman (whether patrician or plebeian), whose father or any of whose ancestors had held a curule office, i.e., had been consul, dictator, praetor, or curule aedile. The Nobiles were entitled to have in their halls, and to exhibit at funerals, the waxen portrait-masks (imagines) of their ancestors. As the senate was always largely composed of ex-magistrates, every senator came in time to be accounted nobilis, hence senatorius ordo = nobilium ordo.

  • Phil. 13, 13, 28 pater conscriptus repente factus est.
  • L. 6, 18, 2 et patribus et plebi peropportune externa pax data.
  • L. 7, 32, 13 patricius enim eras et a liberatoribus patriae ortus.
  • L. 4, 25, 2 omnes patricii creati sunt (all those who were appointed were patricians).
  • L. 6, 20, 3 quod primus a patribus ad plebem defecisset.
  • Sall. C. 31, 7 sibi, patricio homini.
  • L. 2, 33, 10 vir omni in vita pariter patribus ac plebi carus.
  • L. 2, 23 civitas secum ipsa discors intestino inter patres plebemque flagrabat odio.
  • Fam. 9, 21 ad patres censeo revertare; plebeii quam fuerint importuni, vides.
  1. A plebeian who obtained a curule office, though the founder of his family’s nobility, was himself styled novus homo, a self-made man. The ius imaginum was the distinctive badge of nobility, and such a person could have no images of his ancestors nor of himself, for such images of a man were not made till after his death. The first novus homo was the first plebeian consul L. Sextius, and the most illustrious novi homines were Marius and Cicero.

    • Verr. 5, 71 videmus, quanta sit in invidia apud quosdam nobilis homines novorum hominum virtus et industria.
    • Agr. 2, 1 pauci nobiles in hac civitate consules facti sunt, novus ante me nemo.
    • Fam. 5, 18 adeptus es quod non multi homines novi, amisisti quae plurimi homines nobilissimi.
    • Sall. I. 85, 13 conparate nunc, Quirites, cum illorum superbia me hominem novom.
  2. Nobilis, noble by birth, also = well known [nō-bilis = nō-tus], glorious, illustrious, e.g., nobilis gladiator (Quinct. 21); medicus nobilissimus (Clu. 21); Rhodum nobilem (Catull. 4, 8). It is not used for noble, in a moral sense = generosus, liberalis, ingenuus. Maxime ingenua delectatio, the noblest pleasure (Tus. 5, 25).

  3. After the political distinctions between the patricians and plebeians were obliterated, the nobiles formed a new political aristocracy. They and their adherents were called optimates = the conservative party, their opponents populares = the popular or radical party.

    • Sest. 45 alteri se populares, alteri optumates et haberi et esse voluerunt.
    • Harusp. 20, 42 homo popularis.


Nec or neque = et non, and not; neve or neu = et (aut) ne, and that not.

  • Fam. 7, 13, 1 mihi perturbatio animi tui … molestiam attulit; neque alia ulla fuit causa intermissionis epistularum.
  • L. 29, 2, 13 orant milites, ut perculsos invadant neu restitui aciem patiantur.
  • L. 8, 30 magistro equitum denuntiavit, ut sese loco teneret neu absente se cum hoste manum consereret.
  • L. 8, 32 orabant ut parceret magistro equitum neu cum eo exercitum damnaret.
  1. Nec is sometimes used instead of neve after a foregoing ut or an imperative subjunctive; very seldom (never in Cicero, Caesar, and Sallust) after a foregoing ne; never after ne quis, ne quid, ne quando, etc. Et ne is rare, and ac ne first appears in the silver age (Draeger, Hist. Synt., 2, 666).

    • Verr. 3, 48 ut ea praetermittam, neque eos appellem.
    • L. 2, 32 conspirasse inde, ne manus ad os cibum ferrent, nec os acciperet datum, nec dentes, quae conficerent.
    • L. 4, 4 cur non sancitis, ne vicinus patricio sit plebeius, nec eodem itinere eat?
    • N. Paus. 4, 6 orare coepit, ne enuntiaret, nec (so Halm, neu Fleck.) se, meritum de illo optime, proderet.
    • L. 36, 3, 3 ne quis eorum longius ab urbe Roma abiret, quam …, neve uno tempore quinque senatores ab urbe Roma abessent.
    • N. Thras. 3 legem tulit, ne quis ante actarum rerum accusaretur, neve multaretur.
    • Or. 1, 29 illud assequi possunt, ut eis quae habent modice utantur et ut ne dedeceat.
    • L. 43, 2 ne frumenti aestimationem magistratus Romanus haberet, et ne praefecti in oppida sua ad pecunias cogendas imponerentur.
  2. That neither—nor = ne aut—aut; sometimes ut neque—neque; or ut neve—neve.

    • Or. 2, 59 vitandum est oratori utrumque, ne aut scurrilis iocus sit aut mimicus (farcical).
    • L. 29, 27, 11 ancoras, ne aut inter se concurrerent naves aut terrae inferrentur, iecere.

    Cf. Sen. 6, 17 non viribus aut velocitate aut celeritate corporum res magnae geruntur, sed consilio, auctoritate, sententia.

    • Fam. 1, 9, 19 peto a te, ut id a me neve in hoc reo neve in aliis requiras.
    • Off. 1, 39 ut neve maior neve minor cura suscipiatur.
    • Att. 15, 11 atque ut omnino neque nunc neque ex praetura in provinciam ires.
    • Att. 15, 13 adsentior tibi, ut nec duces simus nec agmen cogamus.
    • Am. 12 haec igitur lex in amicitia sanciatur, ut neque rogemus res turpes nec faciamus rogati.


“And not” is usually expressed by nec or neque. A sure and not a long way, via certa neque longa.

  • Caes. 6, 14 Druides a bello abesse consuerunt neque tributa pendunt.
  • Tac. A. 2, 18 magna ea victoria neque cruenta nobis fuit.
  • N. D. 3, 35, 86 minora di neglegunt neque agellos singulorum nec viticulas persequuntur.
  1. But et non is used when the negative qualifies a special word, e.g., constanter et non timide pugnatum est (non timide = fortiter). Et non (rarely neque) is also used after a foregoing et = both.

    • Verr. 4, 60 longum est et non necessarium commemorare.
    • Verr. 1, 1 patior, iudices, et non moleste fero.
    • Brut. 91 Demetrius Syrus, vetus et non ignobilis magister.
    • L. 1, 23 iniuriae et non redditae res.
    • Brut. 67 litterarum et studiosus et non imperitus fuit.
    • Off. 1, 41 permulta nobis et facienda et non facienda sunt.
    • Att. 2, 18 illa legatio et munitior est et non impedit, quo minus adsim, cum velim.
    • Att. 1, 16, 13 pronuntiare enim solitum esse et non dare.
    • Hor. S. 1, 9, 19 nil habeo quod agam et non sum piger.
    • Ac. 2, 29, 94 si habes, quod liqueat, neque respondes, superbe.
    • Phil. 11, 2 in Syriam patebat via et certa neque longa.
  2. Ac or et (not atque) non is also used to introduce a more probable hypothesis, which may be either true or fictitious = and not rather (und nicht vielmehr), instead of.

    • Verr. 1, 31 nam si quam Rubrius iniuriam suo nomine ac non impulsu tuo fecisset, de tui comitis iniuria questum venirent (and not rather at your instigation = true hypothesis).
    • N. D. 3, 3, 8 si me roges, cur te duobus contuear oculis, et non altero coniveam.
    • Agr. 2, 37, 101 si hoc dissuadere est ac non disturbare atque pervertere.
    • L. 2, 38, 5 si hoc profectio ac non fuga est.
    • L. 26, 2 magis mirari se aliquos stantis cecidisse, et non omnes comites Cn. Fulvi fuisse fugae (and had not all rather joined Fulvius in his flight = false hypothesis).
    • L. 25, 36 duces vociferabantur, quid starent, et non (instead of) ludibrium illud distraherent?
    • Caes. 7, 38 quasi vero consilii sit res ac non necesse sit Gergoviam contendere (as if, forsooth, it was a matter for deliberation and not imperative urgency to proceed to Gergovia).
    • Rosc. A. 33 quasi nunc id agatur ac non hoc quaeratur.
    • But L. 26, 11, 1 nec Flaccus consulesque certamen detrectavere [Lucan frequently carries on the negative thus; 2, 354 ff. is an especially good example].
  3. When an erroneous hypothesis is sharply contrasted with the true one, the copulative is usually omitted = asyndeton adversativum. It is action and not deliberation that is wanted, facto non consulto opus est.

    • L. 30, 30 est quidem eius, qui dat, non qui petit, condiciones dicere pacis.
    • L. 21, 24, 4 hospitem se Galliae, non hostem advenisse.
    • Sen. 18 haec morum vitia sunt, non senectutis.
    • N. Eu. 1 magnos homines virtute metimur, non fortuna.
    • Verr. 5, 11 Verres pretio, non aequitate iura discripserat.
    • Sall. I. 85 exercitum supplicio cogere, id est dominum, non imperatorem esse.
    • Phil. 11, 5 sed haec iudicum culpa, non mea est.
  4. Et non sometimes = and yet not, und trotzdem nicht.

    • N. D. 1, 33 habebit igitur linguam deus, et non loquetur?
    • Att. 16, 3 ecquid amas Deiotarum et non amas Hieram?


* This article has been entirely re-written by the editor.

Negative commands in the second person are expressed most frequently in the best Latin (e.g., Cicero’s speeches), by noli, nolite with the infinitive. Less common is the use of cave, cavete with the subjunctive (ut being very often omitted). The uses of ne with the present subjunctive, referring to continuing conduct, and with the perfect subjunctive, referring to a particular or momentary act, are comparatively rare in the classical period, and belong to conversational Latin. With the perfect subjunctive the command is more earnest or peremptory. Both the present and perfect subjunctive may express either a command addressed to people in general or to a distinct individual. (See Hale in Amer. Journ. Phil., IX., 162; Elmer, A Discussion of the Latin Prohibitive (Ithaca, N. Y., 1894), Amer. Journ. Phil., XXI., 80-91, etc.; Bennett, Cornell Studies, IX., 48-65; Delbrück, Vergleich. Synt. der. indogerm. Spr., II., p. 376 ff.; Geddes in Classical Review, XII. (1898), 355 ff., 395 ff., XIII. (1899), 22 ff.; Clement in Amer. Journ. Phil., XXI. (1900), 154 ff.).

  • Serv. ap. Fam. 4, 5, 5 noli te oblivisci Ciceronem esse.
  • Phil. 7, 8, 25 nolite igitur id velle, quod fieri non potest.
  • L. 10, 8, 5 noli erubescere, Appi, collegam in sacerdotio habere.
  • Fam. 16, 12, 6 cave festines aut committas ut aut aeger aut hieme naviges.
  • Fam. 16, 22, 1 cui quidem rei omni ratione cura ut inservias et cave suspiceris contra meam voluntatem te facere.

Ne with pres. subj. is found, e.g., Ter. Phorm. 2, 3, 72 (419); Att. 9, 18, 3; Sen. 10, 33. Ne with perf. subj., e.g., Ter. Phorm. 5, 1, 15 (742); Fam. 7, 18, 3; Fam. 7, 25, 2; Tus. 1, 41, 98; Div. 2, 61, 127; R. P. 1, 19, 32; L. 9, 34, 15; L. 30, 30, 19. Other negative words, in which the ne lurks, are similarly used. Nec with perf. subj. occurs, e.g., L. 5, 53, 3; 22, 39, 21; 23, 3, 3; nihil with perf. subj., e.g., Pl. Most. 2, 2, 93 (526); Att. 4, 17, 4 (16, 7); Att. 7, 8, 2; Mur. 31, 65; nullus with perf. subj., e.g., Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 4 (79); L. 2, 12, 11.

Ne with the imperative mood is a poetical construction (ne saevi, Verg. 6, 544), found only once in prose (L. 3, 2, 9).


Ne … quidem corresponds to οὐδέ, and often implies no gradation = neither, or not-either, like German “auch nicht”. Cui rei non interfuisti, ne ego quidem, you had no hand in that business; no more had I.

  • N. D. 1, 40 deus vester nihil agens; expers virtutis igitur; ita ne beatus quidem (nor happy either).
  • Off. 1, 45 haec igitur non suscipiet rei publicae causa; ne res publica quidem pro se suscipi volet (no more will the state).
  • N. D. 3, 37 non animadvertunt omnia di, ne reges quidem (nor kings either).
  • N. D. 1, 26 intellegere non possum; ne tu quidem (nor you either).
  • N. D. 1, 26 nihil olet ex Academia, nihil ex Lyceo, nihil ne ex puerilibus quidem disciplinis (he has not the slightest flavour of the Academy, nor of the Lyceum, nor even of elementary school training).
  • Sall. I. 51, 4-5 simul (Metellus) orare et hortari milites … sed ne Iugurtha quidem interea quietus erat.
  • Phil. 2, 5, 10 non tractabo ut consulem; ne ille quidem me ut consularem.
  • N. D. 1, 40, 113 doceo deos vestros esse voluptatis expertes, ita vestro iudicio ne beatos quidem.
  1. The particles “ne—quidem” are separated by the word or words on which the emphasis rests. The preposition and its case or case-attribute always go together, but the insertion of more than two words is rare.

    • Phil. 2, 7 hoc ne P. quidem Clodius dixit umquam (= numquam hoc ne P. quidem Clodius dixit).
    • Caes. 7, 62 ne eo quidem tempore quisquam loco cessit.
    • Phil. 3, 4 id maiores nostri ne in rege quidem ferre potuerunt.
    • Dom. 18 ne in praedae quidem societate quemquam reperire potuisti.
    • Ac. 2, 38 ne ut dubitem quidem relinquatur.
    • Tus. 3, 9 quod quoniam non cadit in sapientem, ne ut irascatur quidem cadit.
    • Mur. 17 ne cum esset factum quidem.
    • Att. 2, 19, 1 ego autem irasci ne possum quidem iis, quos valde amo.
  2. And not even = ac (et) ne—quidem, or ne—quidem alone; “nec—quidem” is never used by the best writers.

    • Pomp. 7 ac ne illud quidem vobis neglegendum est.
    • Am. 9 Africanus indigens mei? minime hercle, ac ne ego quidem illius (and no more was I in need of him).
    • Att. 14, 11 non sine invidia, ne sine periculo quidem.
  3. Affirmative expressions usually become negative when they precede “ne—quidem”. I will not pass over even that, ne illud quidem praetermittam, or, non praetermittam ne illud quidem.

    • Verr. 3, 90 non fugio ne hos quidem mores (= ne hos quidem mores fugio, I do not shun even these morals).
    • Rosc. A. 28 nihil horum ne confingi quidem potest.
    • Verr. 5, 8 non dicam ne illud quidem; nullam in te invidiam ne ex illis quidem rebus concitabo.
    • Or. 30 nemo orator tam multa ne in Graeco quidem otio scripsit.
    • Tus. 1, 23 principium, si numquam oritur, ne occidit quidem umquam (numquam ne occidit quidem).
    • Tus. 1, 23 solum igitur, quod se ipsum movet, numquam ne moveri quidem desinit.
    • Q. F. 2, 16 Caesar negat se ne Graeca quidem meliora legisse (Caesar says he has not read anything better even in Greek).
    • Rosc. A. 14 de luxurie purgavit Erucius, cum dixit hunc ne in convivio quidem ullo fere interfuisse (when he said that he had hardly ever been present at any convivial meeting).
    • Att. 5, 14, 2 adventus noster nemini ne minimo quidem fuit sumptui.
    • Fin. 2, 27, 87 negat Epicurus ne diuturnitatem quidem temporis ad beate vivendum aliquid afferre.

He did not spare the son either, non pepercit ne filio quidem, or, ne filio quidem pepercit. He not only did not spare the son, but not even the father, non modo non filio pepercit, sed ne patri quidem, or non modo filio sed ne patri quidem pepercit.


Non unus, not one, i.e., more than one; ne unus quidem, not one, i.e., not so much as one.

  • Mil. 25 non unius viri vires atque opes in Milone iudicantur (not one man’s might and power are attributed to Milo).
  • Tac. A. 1, 11 in civitate tot inlustribus viris subnixa non ad unum omnia deferrent.
  • Div. 1, 2 nec unum genus est divinationis.
  • Verr. 4, 21 ego idem confirmo, nunc ne unum quidem esse.
  • Caes. 3, 19 factum est virtute militum, ut ne unum quidem nostrorum impetum ferrent.


Non ita or haud ita is used with adjectives and adverbs, in the sense of not very or not so very, Scoticé, nae verra, nae that. Non ita veri simile est, it is not very likely, i.e., it is not at all likely; non ita sapiens est, he is not so very wise, i.e., he is not at all wise; non sapientissimus est = he is wise, but not very wise, or the wisest man. Haud ita is rarely, if at all, found in Cicero.

  • N. Pel. 2 magnae saepe res non ita magnis copiis sunt gestae.
  • Quinct. 4 nec ita multo post in Galliam proficiscitur Quinctius.
  • Off. 3, 20 cum id, in quo violatur aequitas, non ita magnum (not so very great), illud autem, quod ex eo paritur, permagnum videtur.
  • Or. 18 rarus incessus nec ita longus.
  • Hor. S. 2, 6, 1 modus agri non ita magnus.
  • L. 21, 20, 9 legati Romam redeunt haud ita multo post.
  • Verr. 4, 49, 109 sunt ea perampla atque praeclara, sed non ita antiqua.
  • L. 5, 19, 8 haud ita multum militi datum.
  • L. 1, 31 haud ita multo post pestilentia laboratum est.

In connexion with verbs, not so very (much) = non ita valde, or simply non ita.

  • Att. 3, 15, 3 Axius … non ita laudat Curionem.
  • Att. 12, 52, 2 de Silio non ita sane laboro.
  • N. D. 1, 31 quibus mediocres homines non ita valde moventur.
  • Fam. 11, 21 de eis non ita valde laboro.


Ne dicam, not to say so much, is used of a stronger expression which, though perhaps justifiable, might appear to be going too far = prope dixeram; ut non dicam, so as not to say, without saying, the “ut” denoting a result, not a purpose, perhaps = although.

  • L. 39, 28 pro hoc studio meo erga vos, ne dicam merito.
  • Phil. 12, 10 ipsi, ne dicam mihi, rei publicae poenas dederunt (they have paid the penalty, I will not say to me, but to the state).
  • Phil. 13, 5, 12 satis inconsiderati fuit, ne dicam audacis, rem ullam ex illis attingere.

Cf. Att. 4, 15, 6 ne diutius pendeas, palmam tulit.

  • Att. 8, 6 nunc, ut ego non scribam, tua sponte te intellegere scio.
  • Verr. 5, 70 mihi porro, ut ego non dicam (even supposing I say nothing), quis omnium mortalium non intellegit, quam longe progredi sit necesse?
  • L. 5, 53 hanc autem iactari magis causam quam veram esse, ut ego non dicam, apparere vobis puto (but that this cause is thrown out rather as a pretext than the true motive, though I were not to speak, I think is plain to you, without my saying anything).
  • Pomp. 15 itaque, ut plura non dicam (to say no more), ab eodem Pompeio omnium rerum egregiarum exempla sumantur.
  • Verr. 3, 48 ut hoc tempore ea praetermittam neque (= et non) eos appellem.

Cf. Verr. 4, 20 ut non conferam vitam neque existimationem tuam cum illius.


Nihil, nothing, is used only in nominative and accusative, nullius rei, nulli rei, nulla re, being substituted for the defective cases. Of the form nihilum are used nihili as genitive of price; nihilo as ablative of price, and after comparatives = in no degree; and nihilum and nihilo after certain prepositions (ad, in, de, ex, pro), but only in a general and abstract sense, e.g., ad nihilum redigere, pro nihilo esse, ducere, habere, putare. I have been by nothing more delighted, nihilo sum magis delectatus (= in no degree); nulla re sum magis delectatus (= by no cause); useful for nothing, ad nullam rem (not nihilum) utilis; I derive pleasure from nothing but your letters, nulla ex re (not ex nihilo) nisi ex litteris tuis voluptatem capio; in no degree better, nihilo melior;, in no respect better, nulla re melior.

  • Par. 6, 3 nulla re (not nihilo) egent; nihil sibi deesse sentiunt; nihil requirunt.
  • Att. 1, 16 Pisonem nulla in re consistere umquam sum passus (I gave no rest to Piso in anything).
  • Or. 1, 8 sermo facetus ac nulla in re rudis.
  • Fam. 3, 12 benevolentior tibi, quam fui, nilo sum factus (not a whit more affectionate).
  • Att. 1, 15, 4 ille alter nihili ita est, ut plane, quid emerit, nesciat.
  • Fam. 16, 14 tuis litteris nihilo sum factus certior, quo modo te haberes.
  • Q. Cic. Pet. Con. 3 eorum alterum Coelius, cum multo inferior esset genere, superior nulla re paene, superavit.
  • Att. 6, 1 nam nulla re sum delectatus magis.
  • Ac. 2, 14 nihilo magis vera illa esse quam falsa.
  • Lig. 12 homines ad deos nulla re (not nihilo) propius accedunt quam salutem hominibus dando.
  • Off. 1, 16 neque ulla re longius absumus a natura ferarum.
  • Tus. 3, 8 ex quo idem nihili (worthless) dicitur.
  • L. 5, 25 eum praedam Veientanam ad nihilum redegisse.
  • Phil. 7, 9 te ipsum moneo, hunc tantum tuum apparatum ne ad nihilum recidere patiare.
  • Div. 2, 16 erit aliquid, quod aut ex nihilo oriatur aut in nihilum subito occidat.
  • Marc. 9 omnis voluptas praeterita pro nihilo est.
  • Verr. 2, 16 tu ausus es pro nihilo prae tua praeda tot sanctissimas res ducere?
  • Fin. 2, 28 consequatur summas voluptates non modo parvo, sed per me nihilo (not merely at small cost, but, as far as I care, at no cost at all).
  1. “Nihil” with a partitive genitive and “nullus” are often used in default of a negative abstract word.—(See Nägelsbach, Lat. Stil., § 20).

    • L. 21, 4 nihil veri, nihil sancti, nullus deum metus, nullum ius iurandum, nulla religio (untruthful, irreverent, irreligious, he had no regard for an oath, and no scruples).

    Cf. Att. 1, 13, 4 nihil come, nihil simplex, nihil … illustre, nihil honestum, nihil forte, nihil liberum.

  2. Nihil est ad Bibulum (he is nothing compared with Bibulus).

    • Or. 2, 6 quem cognovimus virum bonum et non inlitteratum, sed nihil ad Persium (but nothing to Persius).
    • Leg. 1, 2 successere huic Clodius, Asellio, nihil ad Coelium (ὄντες).

It costs nothing, gratis stat (not nihilo constat). Sit argumento tibi gratis stare navem (Verr. 5, 19).


Nothing but = nihil aliud nisi. Virtue is nothing but the perfection of reason, virtus est nihil aliud nisi perfecta ratio. Nihil aliud quam, though common in Livy, is never used in Cicero.

  • Or. 2, 12 erat historia nihil aliud nisi annalium confectio.
  • Leg. 1, 8 est virtus nihil aliud nisi in se perfecta et ad summum perducta natura (nisi, not quam, is now the accepted reading).
  • Tus. 1, 24 nihil est aliud discere nisi recordari.
  • Off. 1, 23 bellum ita suscipiatur, ut nihil aliud nisi pax quaesita videatur.

The Latin verb (facere, agere) is usually omitted in the phrase, “to do nothing but”. He did nothing but laugh, nihil aliud nisi risit.

  • Phil. 4, 2 ita se recipiebat ut nihil nisi de pernicie populi Romani cogitaret.
  • Planc. 26 sic tum existimabam, nihil homines aliud nisi de quaestura mea loqui (did nothing else but talk of my quaestorship).
  • Rosc. A. 37 si nihil aliud fecerunt nisi rem detulerunt, nonne satis fuit eis gratias agi? (here the condition possibly requires the insertion of the verb).
  • L. 34, 46 Galli per biduum nihil aliud quam steterunt parati ad pugnandum.
  • L. 2, 32 venter in medio quietus nihil aliud quam datis voluptatibus fruitur.
  • L. 45, 22 Rhodii nihil aliud quam quieverunt hoc bello.

Cf. L. 34, 7, 10 quid aliud in luctu quam purpuram atque aurum deponunt?

He did nothing but consult his own interest, nihil aliud nisi utilitati suae consuluit; he consulted nothing but his own interest, nulli rei nisi utilitati suae consuluit.


Nunc, at this time; iam, by this time; modo, a little before this time; mox, a little after this time. Nunc strictly refers to the actually present time of the speaker, but is sometimes used for vivid effect in the description of a past event. Iam marks the time immediately succeeding a previous statement, and is used of the past, the present, or the future. Mox = by and by, always with reference to the present moment.

  • Or. 49 de numero mox, nunc de sono quaerimus.
  • L. 3, 2 deos nunc testes esse, mox fore ultores.
  • Att. 1, 4 signa in Formiano sunt, quo ego nunc proficisci cogitabam (“cogitabam” is an epistolary past tense = “cogito”).
  • L. 31, 7, 5 quod tunc fecimus, cum … haberemus, id nunc … cunctamur facere?
  • L. 22, 39, 6 hic, priusquam peteret consulatum, deinde in petendo consulatu, nunc quoque consul, … insanit.
  • L. 2, 12, 14 nunc (as matters are) iure belli liberum te intactum inviolatumque hinc dimitto.

Cf. L. 4, 51, 6 tunc (as it was) haec ipsa indignitas angebat animos.

  • Ter. Eun. 4, 4, 46 (714) modo ait modo negat.
  • Pl. Rud. 2, 3, 12 (342) sed quam mox coctumst prandium?
  • Tus. 1, 6 tu autem modo negabas eos esse, qui mortui essent (but you said just now that the dead had no existence).
  • Verr. 4, 35 tum imperator populi Romani deos patrios reportabat Segestanis, ex urbe hostium recuperatos, nunc ex urbe sociorum praetor eiusdem populi eosdem illos deos nefario scelere auferebat.
  • L. 39, 50 iam (not nunc) invesperascebat (it was now approaching evening).
  • Rosc. C. 3 sunt duo menses iam (it is now two months; nunc inadmissible, because the reference is to a past event).
  • L. 22, 1 iam ver adpetebat; itaque Hannibal ex hibernis movit.
  • N. D. 2, 36, 91 nomen est aër, Graecum illud quidem, sed perceptum iam tamen usu a nostris.
  • L. 29, 27, 7 iam terram cernebant (of passengers by sea).
  • Fin. 5, 28, 83 utinam quidem dicerent alium alio beatiorem! iam ruinas videres.
  • Att. 6, 3, 2 decedes, cum voles, nisi forte iam decessisti.
  • Att. 6, 9, 1 confido te iam, ut volumus, valere.
  • Att. 7, 15, 2 Cato ipse iam servire quam pugnare mavult.
  • Brut. 46 id tu, Brute, iam intelleges, cum in Galliam veneris.
  • L. 1, 23 memor esto, iam cum signum pugnae dabis, has duas acies spectaculo fore.
  • Fam. 2, 12 cum tu haec leges, ego iam annuum munus confecero.
  • L. 2, 1 liberi iam hinc (immediately from this point) populi Romani res pace belloque peragam.
  1. Si iam, if for the sake of argument, even supposing such and such, that which is affirmed or denied none the less holds good (Madvig, Fin. 4, 24, Munro, Lucr. 11, 968).

    • Caes. C. 2, 31 quod si iam haec explorata habeamus, quae quidem ego aut omnino falsa aut certe minora opinione esse confido, quanto haec dissimulare et occultare, quam per nos confirmari praestet?
    • Tus. 1, 22 si iam possent in homine vivo cerni omnia, quae nunc tecta sunt.
    • Att. 5, 4 nunc si iam res placeat, agendi tamen viam non habeo.
    • L. 34, 32, 13 at enim, ut iam ita sint haec, quid ad vos Romani?
    • L. 22, 59, 13 illud … animadvertendum vobis censeam, patres conscripti, si iam duriores esse velitis.
  2. Venio nunc and venio iam are common formulae of transition from one topic to another; the former is appropriately used of a new departure, the latter of a new development.

    • Pomp. 8 quoniam de genere belli dixi, nunc de magnitudine pauca dicam.
    • Pomp. 2 causa quae sit videtis; nunc quid agendum sit considerate.
    • Planc. 5 venio iam ad ipsius populi partes (I now pass to the rôle the people has played).
  3. “Now,” transferred from time to circumstances, is made by autem, which is used of an explanation, and of the minor premise in a syllogism. Now Barabbas was a robber, erat autem Barabbas latro. The minor premise is correctly introduced by “now,” not “but,” which implies exception or surprise. “It is a common mistake to use but in the sense of now, as signifying the completing of a case in order to draw an inference. Men are mortal; but (for ‘now’) we are men; therefore we are mortal.”—Bain.

    • Div. 1, 46, 103 “Persa periit” … “accipio,” inquit, “mea filia, omen”. Erat autem mortuus catellus eo nomine.


Ius iurandum, a civil, political, or military oath, in which the swearer appeals to some superior being in confirmation of what he says or promises; est enim ius iurandum adfirmatio religiosa (Off. 3, 29). Sacramentum strictly = the preliminary engagement entered into by newly-enlisted soldiers. During and after the second Punic war it was compulsorily followed by the more comprehensive ius iurandum, and hence in name came to be substituted for it.

  • Caes. C. 1, 76 idem ius iurandum adigit Afranium (he makes Afranius take the same oath).
  • Caes. C. 2, 18 provinciam omnem in sua et Pompei verba ius iurandum adigebat.
  • L. 22, 38 tum, quod numquam antea factum erat, iure iurando ab tribunis militum adacti milites; nam ad eam diem nihil praeter sacramentum fuerat iussu consulum conventuros [216 B.C.].
  • Off. 1, 11 Cato ad Popilium scripsit, ut secundo (filium suum) obliget, militiae sacramento.
  • Caes. C. 1, 23 milites Domitianos sacramentum apud se dicere iubet (to take the oath of allegiance = ius iurandum).
  • L. 2, 32 primo agitatum dicitur de consulum caede, ut solverentur sacramento (it is said that at first there was a proposal to assassinate the consuls, and thereby release themselves from their military oath).

To administer an oath, iure iurando or ius iurandum aliquem adigere; to take the military oath, sacramentum dicere alicui or apud aliquem.


Parere is the general word, and is especially used of habitual obedience, as of children or subjects, correlative to imperare; oboedire, to obey a single command, correlative to iubere; obtemperare, to obey as an act of free will, to obey from a sense of reason and right, correlative to praecipere; servire implies abject obedience, as of slaves or subjugated nations; dicto audientem esse, to yield prompt and implicit obedience, as of soldiers.

  • Tus. 2, 20 alter imperat, alter paret.
  • Tac. Ag. 13 iam domiti ut pareant, nondum ut serviant.
  • Leg. 3, 2 qui bene imperat, paruerit aliquando necesse est.
  • Leg, 3, 2, omnes antiquae gentes regibus quondam paruerunt.
  • L. 4, 26 utrimque enixe oboeditum dictatori est.
  • Fam. 9, 25 optemperare cogito praeceptis tuis.
  • Fam. 2, 7 tecum loquere, te adhibe in consilium, te audi, tibi obtempera.
  • Leg. 3, 1 hic mundus deo paret et huic oboediunt maria terraeque et hominum vita iussis supremae legis obtemperat.
  • Phil. 6, 7 populum Romanum servire fas non est.
  • Att. 7, 7 depugna potius quam servias.
  • N. Iph. 2 dicto audientes fuerunt duci.
  • Verr. 4, 12 respondit se dicto audientem fuisse praetori.
  • L. 5, 3 ne plebs nobis dicto audiens atque oboediens sit.

The dative “dicto,” which is part and parcel of the phrase, immediately precedes “audiens,” and the person whose word is obeyed appears as a second dative. I obey Jupiter, ego sum Iovi dicto audiens.


Intercessor, the parliamentary obstructionist who employs the legal forms of the House to block or defeat a measure, often used of the tribunes; dissuasor, any person who publicly speaks against a measure, opposed to suasor.

  • L. 2, 41 popularis iam esse dissuasor et intercessor legis agrariae coeperat (to be an opponent and an obstructionist of the agrarian bill now began to be the way to win popularity).
  • Brut. 27 multarum legum aut auctor aut dissuasor fuit.


Adipisci, through effort; impetrare, through petition; nancisci, through luck = to light upon. Obtinere, to maintain, hold, never strictly = to obtain.

  1. Acquirere differs from adipisci (adsequi, consequi) in that it means to obtain in addition = to gain more.
  2. Obtinere often = to make good, defend successfully, carry a point, gain (a suit).
  • Clu. 42 summos honores a populo Romano adeptus est (he obtained the highest offices from the Roman people).
  • Fam. 10, 3 omnia summa consecutus es, virtute duce, comite fortuna; eaque es adeptus adulescens.
  • Rosc. A. 45, 131 nisi hoc mirum est, quod vis divina adsequi non possit, si id mens humana adepta non sit.
  • Caes. 5, 41 sperare se pro eius iustitia, quae petierint, impetraturos.
  • Caes. C. 1, 74, 1 nacti conloquiorum facultatem (opportunity).
  • Caes. C. 2, 4 nacti idoneum ventum ex portu exeunt (obtaining a favourable breeze, they put out from the harbour).
  • Caes. 6, 35 quam nacti erant praedam, in occulto relinquunt.
  • Cat. 3, 12 mihi quid est quod iam ad vitae fructum possit adquiri? (what is there which for me can now possibly enhance the results of life?).
  • Cat. 2, 8 tu dubites de possessione detrahere, adquirere ad fidem? (you to hesitate, by sacrificing a part of your property, to gain as regards credit?).
  • L. 1, 16 maestum aliquamdiu silentium obtinuit.
  • Caes. C. 1, 30 Sardiniam obtinebat M. Cotta, Siciliam M. Cato.
  • Balb. 27 volumus quaedam, contendimus, experti sumus: optenta non sunt (“we failed to hold them”.—Tyrrell).
  • Verr. 3, 71 possumus hoc teste quod dicimus optinere (succeed in proving).
  • Fam. 1, 8 eo tu consule omnia, quae voles, optinebis.
  • Rosc. C. 4 ad iudicium hoc modo venimus, ut totam litem aut obtineamus aut amittamus.
  • Or. 21 id unum ad optinendas causas potest plurimum.
  • Att. 7, 25 malas causas semper obtinuit, in optima concidit.
  • Quinct. 23, 75 ut omnes intellegant non ad obtinendum mendacium, sed …
  • Ac. 2, 6, 18 quam (definitionem) nisi obtinemus, percipi nihil posse concedimus.

To obtain favour with one = ab aliquo gratiam inire, alicuius gratiam sibi conciliare.


Oh that (would that) you were wise, utinam sapias = now and henceforth; utinam saperes = you are not wise and have not been wise. Would that not = utinam ne. Utinam non is rare, the non in such cases being in close connexion with the verb.

  • Verr. 4, 9 utinam negent (oh that they would but den!).
  • Verr. 3, 45 nam illud quidem non dices, quod utinam dicas!
  • Phil. 2, 39 utinam conere, ut aliquando illud “paene” tollatur!
  • Curt. 8, 8 utinam Indi quoque deum esse me credant.
  • Sen. 6 quam palmam utinam di inmortales tibi reservent!
  • L. 21, 10, 10 falsus utinam vates sim.
  • Att. 3, 15, 3 utinam ipse Varro incumbat in causam.
  • Att. 3, 3 utinam illum diem videam!
  • ap. Tus. 5, 22 utinam ego tertius vobis amicus adscriberer.
  • Mil. 38 utinam P. Clodius non modo viveret (still alive), sed etiam praetor, consul, dictator esset!
  • Ter. Phorm. 1, 3, 5 (157) quod utinam ne Phormioni id suadere in mentem incidisset [with Hauler’s note].
  • Cat. 2, 2 utinam ille omnis secum suas copias eduxisset!
  • Fam. 5, 17 illud utinam ne vere scriberem!
  • Att. 11, 9 haec ad te die natali meo scripsi. Quo utinam susceptus non essem! (susceptus = sublatus, lifted from the ground, as the sign of paternal acknowledgment).

A responsive “then” is made by profecto or altogether omitted. Oh that we could have taken counsel together, then we should have given the state some help, utinam colloqui inter nos potuissemus, profecto aliquid opis rei publicae tulissemus.


Senectus, old age as a definite period of life; senium, old age as bringing infirmity with it, helpless old age; loquax senectus, talking age; otiosa senectus, leisured age.

  • Sen. 20 ex quo fit ut animosior etiam senectus sit quam adulescentia et fortior.
  • Tac. A. 1, 34 alii curvata senio membra ostendebant.
  • Mil. 8 tota civitas confecta senio est.
  • L. 6, 8, 2 Camillus iam ad munera corporis senecta invalidus (weak through age for bodily service).


Omitto, I leave out what I am free to reject or include according as it suits my purpose; praetermitto, I pass over designedly or from oversight what I might be expected to include.

  • Am. 2 quo modo, ut alia omittam, mortem filii tulit!
  • Div. 1, 43 omitto nostros, qui nihil in bello sine extis agunt.
  • L. 8, 30 in quibusdam annalibus tota res praetermissa est.
  • Att. 7, 3 hoc te praetermisisse miror.
  • Verr. 3, 20 quod erat imprudentia praetermissum, id quaestu ac tempore admonitus reprehendisti.
  • Off. 3, 2 minime vero assentior eis, qui negant eum locum a Panaetio praetermissum, sed consulto relictum (was not left untouched from oversight, but was deliberately disregarded).
  • Cat. 3, 8 hoc certe, quod sum dicturus, neque praetermittendum neque relinquendum est.
  • N. D. 3, 37 reges enim si scientes praetermittunt, magna culpa est.
  • Top. 8, 33 inscienter facias, si ullam (tutelam) praetermittas.

Omittere, to leave off altogether, to stop; intermittere, to leave off for an interval, to pause.

  • Sen. Ep. 72, 3 non multum refert, utrum omittas philosophiam, an intermittas.
  • Div. 1, 34 galli gallinacei sic assidue canere coeperunt, ut nihil intermitterent.
  • Div. 2, 1 ne quando intermitterem consulere rei publicae.
  • Phil. 7, 6 si bellum omittimus, pace numquam fruemur.
  • Div. 1, 7 omittat urguere Carneades.


The indefinite “one” or gnomic “you” is variously expressed in Latin.

  1. By an impersonal expression: One may enter, licet intrare; one cannot live without hope, sine spe vivi non potest. Esse oportet ut vivas; non vivere, ut edas (one should eat to live, not live to eat).

    • Off. 3, 1 ex malis eligere minima oportet.
    • R. P. 1, 40 licet enim lascivire, dum nihil metuas.
    • Tus. 3, 20 negat Epicurus iucunde posse vivi, nisi cum virtute vivatur.
    • Am. 24 aliter cum tyranno, aliter cum amico vivitur.
    • Verg. A. 9, 641 macte nova virtute, puer: sic itur ad astra (thus we go to the stars).

    By a passive construction.

    • Fam. 16, 8, 2 vix in ipsis tectis frigus infirma valetudine vitatur (in weak health one scarcely avoids cold even within doors).
  2. By the present participle: the statue was erected on the left as you leave the house, statua ad laevam domo exeunti posita est.

    • L. 26, 26 sita Anticyra est in Locride laeva parte sinum Corinthiacum intranti (on the left as one sails up the Gulf of Corinth).
    • Caes. C. 3, 80 oppidum primum Thessaliae venientibus ab Epiro (the first town in Thessaly as one comes from Epirus).
    • Fin. 2, 3, 9 estne, quaeso, inquam, sitienti in bibendo voluptas?
    • L. 32, 4 Thaumaci a Pylis eunti loco alto siti sunt.
    • N. Mil. 1 hic ventus adversum tenet Athenis proficiscentibus (blows against one leaving Athens).
    • Fam. 11, 3 nulla minantis auctoritas apud liberos est.
  3. By homines: one who has nothing to do learns to do evil, homines nihil agendo discunt male agere.

    • Caes. 3, 18 libenter homines id, quod volunt, credunt (what one wishes one readily believes).
    • Q. F. 1, 1, 1, 2 ea molestissime ferre homines debent, quae ipsorum culpa contracta sunt.
  4. By the first person plural: one does not wish riches for one’s self alone, non nobis solum divites esse volumus.

    • Caes. C. 2, 27 nam quae volumus, et credimus libenter.
    • N. D. 1, 44 quod ni ita sit, quid precamur deos?
    • Div. 2, 71, 146 nihil tam praepostere … cogitari potest, quod non possimus somniare.
    • Am. 9, 29 tanta vis probitatis est, ut eam … in hoste etiam diligamus (so great is the power of honesty, that one loves it even in an enemy).
    • Par. 3, 2 quidquid non licet, nefas putare debemus.
    • Fin. 5, 2 quacumque ingredimur, in aliqua historia vestigium ponimus (tread where you may, you set foot on some historic scene).
  5. By (is) qui, quis, aliquis, quispiam, quisque, si quis, etc. One might say, dicat quis or aliquis; one who says this is wrong, qui hoc dicit, errat.

    • Tus. 5, 40 qui secum loqui poterit, sermonem alterius non requiret.
    • L. 30, 30 non temere incerta casuum reputat, quem fortuna numquam decepit.
    • L. 30, 30 est quidem eius qui dat, non qui petit, condiciones dicere pacis.
    • Off. 1, 10 illis promissis standum non est, quae coactus quis metu promisit.
    • Agr. 2, 13 dixerit fortasse quispiam.
    • Verr. 5, 70 quaeret aliquis fortasse.
    • L. 6, 11 si quis vere aestimare velit (if one cared to form a right estimate).
    • Rosc. C. 11 quo quisque est sollertior, hoc docet laboriosius.
    • Off. 2, 9 quo quis versutior et callidior, hoc invisior et suspectior est.
  6. By the second person singular subjunctive: “Tu” is rarely expressed, but te, tui, tibi, tuus are inserted, if required by the syntax. The memory decays unless one exercises it, memoria minuitur, nisi eam exerceas, or nisi eam exercemus, or nisi exercetur; one would believe, credas; one would have believed, crederes (not credidisses).

    • Sall. I. 31 bonus segnior fit, ubi neglegas (a good man becomes slower when you neglect him = ubi neglegitur or neglegimus).
    • Sall. C. 58 quem neque gloria neque pericula excitant nequiquam hortere (= hortamur).
    • Fin. 2, 27 quid ergo attinet gloriose loqui, nisi constanter loquare (= loquimur)?
    • Pl. Most. 1, 3, 40 (197) insperata accidunt magis saepe quam quae speres.
    • Sen. 9, 27 (decet), quicquid agas, agere pro viribus.
    • Tus. 3, 27, 66 in potestate est abicere dolorem, cum velis (observe absence of “tuā”).
    • Off. 3, 13, 57 neque enim id est celare, quicquid reticeas, sed cum, quod tu scias, id ignorare emolumenti tui causa velis eos, quorum intersit id scire.
    • Verr. 1, 15, 39 eum, qui palam est adversarius, facile cavendo vitare possis.
    • L. 25, 38, 18 si in occasionis momento, cuius praetervolat opportunitas, cunctatus paulum fueris, nequiquam mox omissam quaeras.
    • Off. 1, 31, 110 nec quicquam sequi, quod assequi non queas.
    • L. 28, 8, 4 nec pro difficili id bellum habendum, in quo si modo congressus cum hostibus sis, viceris.
    • Sen. 19 tantum remanet, quod virtute et recte factis consecutus sis (= consecuti sumus).
    • Or. 67 cum aut arguas aut refellas (= cum aut arguimus aut refellimus).
    • Lucret. 2, 850 quoad licet ac possis (so far as one may and can).
    • Par. 5, 1 quid est libertas? potestas vivendi ut velis; quis igitur vivit ut vult, nisi qui recta sequitur?
    • Or. 2, 67 urbana etiam dissimulatio est, cum alia dicuntur ac sentias.
    • L. 2, 43 crederes victos (one would have believed them conquered).
    • L. 3, 35 nescires utrum Claudium inter decem viros an inter candidatos numerares.
    • Sall. C. 55 est in carcere locus, quod Tullianum appellatur, ubi paululum ascenderis ad laevam.
    • Sall. I. 10 amici quos neque armis cogere neque auro parare queas; officio et fide pariuntur.
    • Or. 34 nescire quid ante quam natus sis acciderit, id est semper esse puerum.
    • Fam. 7, 3 vetus est enim, ubi non sis qui fueris, non esse cur velis vivere (it is an old saying that, when we are not what we were, we have no reason for wishing to live).
    • L. 25, 38 ad id, quod ne timeatur fortuna facit, minime tuti sunt homines, quia quod neglexeris incautum atque apertum habeas (we are least safe from danger when our circumstances render us free from fear, because whatever we neglect we leave unguarded and exposed).
    • Sall. C. 52 ubi socordiae te atque ignaviae tradideris, nequiquam deos implores (when you give up yourself to laziness and cowardice, you will in vain call upon the gods).
    • Off. 1, 2 nulla vitae pars, neque si tecum agas quid neque si cum altero contrahas, vacare officio potest.
    • R. P. 1, 6 non potestas est ex tempore, aut cum velis, opitulandi rei publicae, nisi eo loco sis, ut tibi id facere liceat.
    • Tus. 1, 38 virtutem necessario gloria, etiam si tu id non agas, consequitur.
    • Verr. 5, 26 nullum est testimonium victoriae certius quam, quos saepe metueris, eos te vinctos ad supplicium duci videre.
  7. But if one or one’s is not referred to the subject of a finite verb, se, suus, and ipse are employed. Nonne miliens perire est melius quam in sua civitate sine armatorum praesidio non posse vivere? Is it not a thousand times better to perish than to live among one’s fellow-citizens with no other protection than that of an armed bodyguard? (Phil. 2, 44).

    • Par. 6, 3 contentum suis rebus esse, maximae sunt divitiae.
    • Off. 1, 38 deforme etiam est de se ipsum praedicare = it is bad form to talk about one’s self.
    • Off. 1, 28 neglegere quid de se quisque sentiat (what people think of you) non solum adrogantis est sed omnino dissoluti.
    • Verr. 3, 72 honestius est alienis iniuriis quam re sua commoveri (it is more honourable to be moved by other men’s wrongs than by one’s own).
    • L. 3, 21 levius est sua decreta tollere quam aliorum.
    • Balb. 1 nihil umquam audivi de ipso modestius (I never heard any one speak more temperately about himself).
    • Leg. 1, 21 nihil, quantum in ipso sit, praetermittere (to omit nothing, as far as lies in one’s power).
    • N. D. 3, 36 iudicium hoc omnium mortalium est, fortunam a deo petendam, a se ipso sumendam esse sapientiam.
    • Q. F. 1, 1, 13, 38 moderari orationi, cum sis iratus, aut etiam tenere in sua potestate motum animi, est non mediocris ingenii.
    • Brut. 57 cum autem difficile sit in longa oratione non aliquando aliquid ita dicere ut sibi ipsi non conveniat, quanto difficilius cavere ne quid dicas, quod non conveniat eius orationi, qui ante te dixerit?
    • Or. 2, 12, 51 satis est non esse mendacem.
    • N. D. 1, 30, 84 confiteri potius nescire, quod nescires, quam ista effutientem nauseare atque ipsum sibi displicere?
    • Inv. 1, 51, 97 orationem … quae aut sui laudem aut adversarii vituperationem contineat.


Alter, one of two; unus, one of many; one of the eyes, alter ex oculis; one of the fingers, unus e digitis. Alter uter, one or other of two, either. Alter is often used instead of alter uter. Alter, however, does not necessarily exclude the other, alter uter does; one or both, alter (not alter uter) ambove. In the best prose unus rarely takes the partitive genitive, unless in the case in which it is opposed to alter or alius, or where the total number is indicated in what precedes. One of his sons succeeded him, ei successit unus e filiis (suis). He left three sons, one of whom succeeded him, tres filios reliquit, quorum (or ex quibus) unus ei successit. In Livy and later prose writers the genitive is less restricted.

  • Tus. 1, 41, 97 necesse est enim sit alterum de duobus.
  • Am. 16 Bias sapiens habitus est unus e septem.
  • Brut. 79 Callidius non fuit orator unus e multis, potius inter multos prope singularis fuit.
  • L. 40, 59 alter consulum Q. Fulvius ex Liguribus triumphavit.
  • L. 1, 13, 3 melius peribimus quam sine alteris vestrum viduae aut orbae vivemus.
  • N. Dion 4 ostendens, se id utriusque facere causa, ne alter uter alterum praeoccuparet (lest either of them should despatch the other by surprise).
  • Phil. 3, 8 necesse erat alterutrum esse hostem.
  • Caes. 1, 1, 1 Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam … .
  • L. 24, 28, 1 Apollonides principum unus orationem salutarem ut in tali tempore habuit.

Capito in decem legatis erat, Capito was one of the ten deputies (Rosc. A. 9).


Uno plus (or plures), more by one; plus uno or plus quam unus, more than one.

  • Pl. Most. 632 velim quidem hercle ut uno nummo plus petas.
  • L. 2, 7 uno plus Etruscorum cecidit (more by one fell on the side of the Etruscans).
  • L. 5, 30 legem una plures tribus antiquarunt quam iusserunt (more tribes by one rejected the law than voted for it).
  • N. D. 1, 35 quam molestum est uno digito plus habere! (a single finger too much).
  • Ac. 2, 25 in columba sentio plures videri colores, nec esse plus uno (I observe in the dove an apparent variety of colours, but not more than one actually).
  • L. 39, 32 quia plus quam unum ex patriciis creari non licebat.


Solum, tantum, modo, dumtaxat = only. Solum is not used with numerals. Only two men, tantum duo homines, or soli duo homines, not solum duo homines. The subjective modo (not tantum or solum) is the proper word in sentences implying a wish, command, or proviso, hence often used with the imperative. Do only come to us, tu modo ad nos venias (Att. 4, 2). Dumtaxat = dum (quis) taxat, while one estimates, restricts a special word or phrase. Tantum = so much only, naturally opposes the smaller part to the whole.

  • Par. 2 nomen tantum usurpas.
  • Flacc. 15 dixit tantum; nihil ostendit.
  • L. 23, 30 urbe facile potiti sunt; arx tantum retenta est.
  • L. 27, 13 non equidem mihi cum Romanis militibus loqui videor; corpora tantum atque arma sunt eadem.
  • L. 22, 43, 11 terga tantum adflante vento.
  • Fin. 3, 19 immanes quaedam bestiae sibi solum natae sunt.
  • Sest. 12 si dixisset haec solum, omni supplicio dignus esset.
  • Att. 1, 17, 11 duo enim soli dicuntur petituri.
  • Rosc. A. 35 veniat modo, explicet suum illud volumen.
  • Brut. 5 relaxa modo paulum animum, aut sane, si potes, libera.
  • Caes. 5, 31 facilem esse rem, si modo unum omnes sentiant.
  • Am. 15 coluntur tamen simulatione dumtaxat ad tempus (and even that only for a time).
  • Att. 4, 3, 6 nos animo dumtaxat vigemus.
  • Att. 5, 10, 5 valde me Athenae delectarunt, urbe dumtaxat et urbis ornamento cet.
  • Quir. 4, 10 cum is inimicus … spiritu dumtaxat viveret.
  • N. D. 2, 18, 47 sint ista pulchriora dumtaxat aspectu, quod mihi tamen ipsum non videtur.
  • Caes. C. 2, 41, 2 peditatu dumtaxat procul ad speciem utitur (he employs his cavalry, but only at a distance for show).

Non nisi, only, always involves the fulfilment of a condition, and is thereby distinguished from solum and tantum = not if not, not otherwise. In good prose the words are almost always separated, “non” being placed before the verb and “nisi” before the word or words to which it belongs. Only ten soldiers returned, tantum (or soli) decem milites redierunt (not non redierunt nisi decem milites). The town was to be taken only by blockade, oppidum nisi obsidione expugnari non potuit.

  • Caes. 4, 24 naves propter magnitudinem nisi in alto constitui non poterant (could be moored only in deep water).
  • Am. 5 hoc sentio, nisi in bonis amicitiam esse non posse.
  • Am. 5 negant quemquam esse virum bonum nisi sapientem.
  • Or. 2, 75, 303 hoc Crassus non putat nisi perfidia accidere posse.
  • Rosc. 39, 112 nam neque mandat quisquam fere nisi amico neque credit nisi ei quem fidelem putat.
  • Am. 5, 18 negabunt id nisi sapienti posse concedi.
  • L. 26, 25, 11 coniurant nisi victores se non redituros.


The second non may be omitted in the non modo (non solum) clause, where the common predicate stands with a negative (usually ne—quidem) in the other member. In this case the negation contained in ne—quidem extends its force to the other clause. Flattery is not only unworthy of a friend, but even of a free man, assentatio non modo amico, sed ne libero quidem digna est, or, assentatio ne libero quidem digna est, non modo amico, or, assentatio non modo non amico digna est, sed ne libero quidem. When the second non is expressed it is more emphatic than the borrowed negation. That is not only not the greatest evil, but not even an evil at all, id non modo non summum malum, sed ne malum quidem est.

  • Cat. 2, 10 ita corruunt, ut non modo civitas sed ne vicini quidem sentiant.
  • Pis. 10 senatui non solum iuvare rem publicam sed ne lugere quidem licuit (the senate were forbidden not merely to assist, but even to mourn over their country).
  • Cael. 17 haec genera virtutum non solum in moribus sed vix iam in libris reperiuntur (such virtues are not only not found in life, but scarcely ever in books).
  • L. 3, 6 non modo ad expeditiones, sed vix ad quietas stationes viribus sufficiebant.
  • Tus. 1, 38 ne sui quidem id velint, non modo ipse (not even his own friends would desire that, much less himself).
  • Verr. 3, 97 non solum aestimandi frumenti modus non fuit, sed ne imperandi quidem.
  • Att. 10, 4 horum ego non modo res gestas non antepono meis, sed ne fortunam quidem ipsam.
  • Mur. 3 hoc non modo non laudari sed ne concedi quidem potest (potest incomplete predicate).
  • Or. 2, 72 ut non modo non abiecto sed ne reiecto quidem scuto fugere videar (here non is inserted to give greater force to the antithesis; reiecto = slung behind to protect the back).
  • L. 1, 40, 2 regnare Romae advenam non modo vicinae sed ne Italicae quidem stirpis.
  • Div. 2, 55, 113 numquam ne mediocri quidem cuiquam, non modo prudenti probata sunt.
  • Phil. 2, 11, 26 (familia) quae non modo dominatum, sed ne potentiam quidem cuiusquam ferre potuit.
  • L. 4, 3, 10 Numam Pompilium non modo non patricium sed ne civem quidem Romanum.
  • Att. 11, 24, 1 mihi non modo irasci gravissima iniuria accepta, sed ne dolere quidem impune licet.
  • Att. 4, 2, 1 peto a te, ut id non modo neglegentiae meae, sed ne occupationi quidem tribuas.
  • Fam. 10, 1, 1 non modo ut vocem, sed ne vultum quidem liberum possit ferre cuiusquam.
  1. If each clause has its predicate, the second negative is indispensable (cf. Reisig—Haase’s Vorlesungen, 243).

    • Sull. 18 ego non modo tibi non irascor, sed ne reprehendo quidem factum tuum.
    • Verr. 5, 18 nunc non modo te hoc crimine non arguo, sed ne illa quidem communi vituperatione reprehendo.
  2. Nemo, nihil, nullus, numquam become quisquam, quicquid, ullus, umquam, when they stand after, instead of before ne—quidem.—(See Not Even.)

    • Verr. 2, 46 quod non modo Siculus nemo, sed ne Sicilia quidem tota potuisset.
    • Verr. 5, 10 hic ita vivebat, ut eum non modo extra tectum, sed ne extra lectum quidem quisquam videret.
    • Verr. 1, 38 non modo proditori, sed ne perfugae quidem locus in meis castris cuiquam fuit (not only no traitor, but not even a deserter has ever found a foothold in my camp).
    • Verr. 3, 48 quibus nihil non modo de fructu sed ne de bonis quidem suis reliqui fecit (I do not say of their produce, but even of their property).
    • Off. 3, 19 talis vir non modo facere, sed ne cogitare quidem quicquam audebit, quod non audeat praedicare (such a man will not venture, I will not say to do, but even to conceive anything which he would not dare to tell forth).
    • Clu. 25 sibi nihil non modo ad cupiditates suas, sed ne ad necessitatem quidem reliquit.
    • Clu. 33 non modo causae, sed ne legi quidem quicquam laxamenti datum est.
    • Verr. 3, 48 cum multis non modo granum nullum, sed ne paleae quidem relinquerentur.
    • Verr. 4, 22 non modo oppidum nullum, sed ne domus quidem ulla paulo locupletior expers huius iniuriae reperietur.
    • Verr. 3, 19 non modo rem, sed ne spem quidem ullam reliquam cuiquam fecisti.


Patefacere is stronger than aperire = quite or wide open. Viam aperire, to break open a way; patefacere, to make it serviceable.

  • Tus. 5, 23 immissi cum falcibus multi purgarunt et aperuerunt locum; quo cum patefactus esset aditus, ad adversam basim accessimus.
  • L. 6, 2 Camillus aperuit incendio viam.
  • Div. 2, 31 valvae clausae subito se aperuerunt.
  • L. 29, 27, 12 ventus idem coortus nebula disiecta aperuit omnia Africae litora.
  • L. 23, 16 patefacta repente porta Marcellus signa canere iubet.
  1. Aperire litteras, to open a letter. Litterae aut interire aut aperiri aut intercipi possunt (Att. 1, 13).

  2. Aperire ludum, tabernam, to open a school, a shop. Dionysius tyrannus, cum Syracusis pulsus esset, Corinthi dicitur ludum aperuisse (Fam. 9, 18).

The earth, the heavens, opened, terra, caelum discessit.


Palam, not shunning observation, opposed to clam; aperte, undisguisedly, frankly, clearly, intelligibly, opposed to occulte or obscure.

  • Cael. 9 palam in eum tela iaciuntur, clam subministrantur.
  • Rosc. A. 8 multa palam domum suam auferebat, plura clam de medio removebat.
  • Mil. 9 palam agere coepit et aperte (frankly) dicere occidendum Milonem.
  • Cat. 1, 1 nos, nos, dico aperte (frankly), consules desumus.
  • Att. 1, 13 aperte laudat; occulte, sed ita ut perspicuum sit, invidet.
  • Or. 19 apertius (more obtrusively) id faciunt quam nos, et crebrius.


Sententia, an opinion formed after mature deliberation = γνώμη; opinio, an impression, or belief = δόξα. The senate approved of Cicero’s opinion (or motion), senatus sententiam Ciceronis comprobavit; he disappointed universal opinion, opinionem omnium (not omnem) fefellit. He had a high opinion of himself, magnam sui opinionem habuit (subjective); he had a great reputation for bravery, magnam opinionem virtutis habuit, i.e., he impressed others with a high opinion of his bravery (objective = existimatio).

  • Q. F. 2, 1 tribunus me primum sententiam rogavit.
  • Att. 4, 1 factum est senatus consultum in meam sententiam.
  • Cat. 3, 5 repente praeter opinionem omnium confessus est.
  • Caecil. 22 de quo nulla umquam opinio (good opinion) fuit.
  • Fam. 1, 7, 9 magna est hominum opinio de te.
  • Caes. 7, 59 quae civitas maximam habet opinionem virtutis (the highest reputation for valour).

Sentio, I hold it as my opinion; censeo, I give it as my opinion. Cato gave it as his opinion that Carthage should be destroyed, Cato censebat Carthaginem (esse) delendam. But if the gerundive construction is inadmissible, the subjunctive is used, sometimes without “ut”. He gave it as his opinion that the captives should be spared, censebat ut captivis parceretur. “Censere,” expressing belief, takes the infinitive.

  • L. 36, 7 de ratione universi belli quid sentirem, iam ab initio non ignorasti.
  • L. 5, 36 erant, qui extemplo Romam eundum censerent.
  • L. 9, 26 eo ira processit ut multi delendam urbem censerent.
  • Phil. 1, 7 acta Caesaris servanda censeo.
  • L. 30, 9 legatos tamen ad Hannibalem mittendos censent.
  • Caes. C. 1, 2 Calidius censebat, ut Pompeius in provincias proficisceretur.
  • Caes. C. 1, 67 plerique censebant, ut noctu iter facerent.
  • Verr. 5, 68 magno opere censeo desistas.
  • Att. 8, 1 tu, censeo, Luceriam venias (observe that tu precedes censeo).
  • Tus. 1, 16 sub terra censebant reliquam vitam agi mortuorum.
  • Leg. 2, 10 delubra esse in urbibus censeo.
  • Top. 20, 78 eos censent esse talis.
  • L. 2, 5, 1 de bonis regis, quae reddi ante censuerant, res integra refertur ad patres.


Aut is used where the difference is real or important, e.g., dives aut pauper, Caesar aut nihil.

Vel (often vel potius, vel dicam, vel etiam) is used where the difference is unimportant, or concerns only the choice of an expression, e.g., aether vel caelum, plerique vel dicam omnes. Ve is a weakened vel, used only of single words, e.g., alter ambove, ioco seriove.

Sive (seu) = vel si, strictly suggests a possible correction, and is commonly doubled, but it is occasionally used, mostly with potius, instead of the commoner vel potius; it is also the appropriate connective of equivalent or identical expressions, e.g., Pallas sive Minerva, Bacchus sive Liber, Laelius sive de Amicitia.

  • L. 21, 43 hic vincendum aut moriendum, milites, est (here, soldiers, you must conquer or die).
  • L. 7, 24 hauriendus aut dandus est sanguis (blood must be drained or given).
  • Att. 10, 12a, 2 (12, 5) qua re vi aut clam agendum est (therefore we must act by force or by stealth).
  • Att. 14, 20, 3 aut nulla erit aut ab isto istisve servabitur.
  • Sall. I. 67, 3 pactione aut casu.
  • Par. 3 in quo peccatur, id potest aliud alio maius esse aut minus.
  • Cat. 2, 1 Catilinam ex urbe vel eiecimus vel emisimus vel ipsum egredientem verbis prosecuti sumus (we have (shall I say?) expelled Catiline, or let him go, or escorted him with words on his voluntary departure. Cicero fears eiecimus is too strong, and in the succeeding clauses substitutes milder expressions).
  • R. P. 2, 30 post obitum vel potius excessum Romuli (after the death or rather the departure of Romulus).
  • Tus. 2, 19 homo minime malus vel potius vir optimus.
  • Brut. 57 mihi placebat Pomponius maxime, vel dicam, minime displicebat.
  • Or. 2, 19 quattuor quinque sexve partes vel etiam (or perhaps) septem.
  • Phil. 14, 6 duabus tribusve horis optatissimi nuntii venerunt.
  • Flacc. 5 timet, ne quid plus minusve, quam sit necesse, dicat.
  • L. 5, 33 equidem haud abnuerim Clusium Gallos ab Arrunte seu quo alio Clusino adductos.
  • Att. 8, 3, 3 quid perturbatius hoc ab urbe discessu sive potius turpissima fuga? (or rather most disgraceful flight).
  • Quinct. 25 o hominem fortunatum, qui eius modi nuntios, seu potius Pegasos habeat!
  • L. 1, 3 opulentam urbem matri seu novercae relinquit.
  • Hor. Sat. 2, 6, 20 matutine pater, seu Iane libentius audis (father of the morning, or Janus, if thou would rather hear thyself called so).
  1. Aut (rarely vel) often adds an alternative, which follows, if a former proposition is rejected or denied = or else, otherwise, in the contrary case. Begone, or I will beat you, abi, aut te verberabo.

    • Pl. Aul. 3, 3, 11 cenam coque aut abi in malum cruciatum.
    • Ter. Hec. 698 redduc uxorem, aut quam ob rem non opus sit cedo.
    • Or. 2, 2 omnia bene sunt oratori dicenda, aut (or else) eloquentiae nomen relinquendum est.
    • L. 6, 18 audendum est aliquid universis, aut omnia singulis patienda (you must dare something as a body, or else individually suffer the worst).
    • L. 42, 42 nihil certe insanabile commisi: aut frustra clementiae vestrae fama vulgata per gentes est.
    • Div. 2, 7 aut, si negas esse fortunam, muta definitionem divinationis.
    • Tus. 1, 23 quod ipsum a se movetur; id nec nasci potest nec mori, vel (or else) concidat omne caelum omnisque natura et consistat necesse est.
  2. Aut (often aut etiam, aut certe, aut vero) is also used by way of correction = or perhaps, or at least, but it always implies that the difference is real or appreciable, e.g., non multum aut nihil, not much, or perhaps nothing; nihil aut non multum, nothing, or at least not much.

    • Fin. 4, 13 vix aut ne vix quidem (scarcely, or perhaps scarcely even).
    • Tus. 1, 3 ut non multum aut nihil omnino Graecis cederetur (not much, or perhaps nothing at all).
    • Quinct. 25 biduo post aut non toto triduo (two, or at any rate not quite three days after).
    • Off. 2, 14 semel igitur aut non saepe certe.
    • Sall. I. 56 cuncti aut magna pars fidem mutavissent (all, or at least a great part would have changed their faith).
    • Tus. 3, 17 aut in omni aut (or at least) in magna parte vitae.
    • Sen. 11, 35 tenui aut nulla potius valetudine.
    • Tus. 4, 3, 6 nulla fere sunt aut pauca admodum Latina monumenta.
  3. Aut and ve serve to continue the negation in negative and quasi-negative sentences, the copulative conjunctions being used only where the ideas are closely allied and blended into one. Numquam peccasti aut contra leges fecisti, you have never sinned and offended against the laws. Quid est maius aut difficilius quam inimicis ignoscere? What is greater and harder than forgiving enemies? Num leges nostras moresve novit? is he even conversant with our laws and customs? (if leges and mores were united into one idea = our public life, the Latin would be leges moresque.)

    Neque—neque—aut, neither—nor—nor, is common, but neque—aut, neither—nor, is unclassical. Neque moribus neque lege aut imperio cuiusquam regebantur, they were not controlled either by custom, or law, or the authority of a chief.

    Aut is often used in affirmative questions, where et might be expected, e.g., Tus. 1, 11 quo modo aut cur? how and why? (See Reid, Ac. 2, 10); Caes. C. 2, 35, 2 quis esset aut quid vellet, quaesivit; L. 1, 1, 7 unde aut quo casu profecti domo; Am. 26, 97 ne amare quidem aut amari.

    • L. 3, 42 natura loci ac vallo, non virtute aut armis tutabantur.
    • L. 27, 50 numquam ab orto sole ad occidentem aut senator quisquam a curia atque ab magistratibus abscessit aut populus e foro.
    • Caes. 5, 17 equites neque sui conligendi neque consistendi aut ex essedis desiliendi facultatem dederunt.
    • Fam. 2, 19 sed, neque unde nec quo die datae essent, aut quo tempore te exspectarem, significabant.
    • L. 1, 3 plus tamen vis potuit quam voluntas patris aut verecundia aetatis.
    • Fam. 5, 13, 3 nullum (membrum rei publicae) reperies, quod non fractum debilitatumve sit.
    • L. 25, 1 neu quis in publico sacrove loco novo aut externo ritu sacrificaret.
    • Sest. 30 quae regio orave terrarum erat latior, in qua non regnum aliquod statueretur?

    Cf. Pomp. 20 nulla res tanta est ac tam difficilis, quam (Catulus) non consilio regere possit.

    • L. 27, 16 non animo, non armis, non arte belli, non vigore ac viribus corporis par Romano Tarentinus erat.
    • Quinct. 1 nihil est iam sanctum atque sincerum in civitate.
    • L. 40, 49 quaesivit sub eone sibi liceret ac suis vivere.
    • Serv. ap. Fam. 4, 5, 6 nullus dolor est, quem non longinquitas temporis minuat ac molliat.
  4. The intensive vel, especially used with superlatives, sometimes introduces an instance chosen out of several which might be cited in support of a general assertion = to mention no more than, why even, for instance.

    • Fam. 2, 13 raras tuas quidem sed suavis accipio litteras; vel quas proxime acceperam, quam prudentis! (I receive but few letters from you, but they are delightful; why even the last one was full of wisdom).
    • Fam. 7, 24, 1 amoris quidem tui, quoquo me verti, vestigia, vel proxime de Tigellio.
    • R. P. 2, 40 est tibi ex eis ipsis, qui adsunt, bella copia, vel ut a te ipso ordiare (beginning, for instance, with yourself).
    • Ter. Hec. 60 vel hic Pamphilus iurabat quotiens Bacchidi! (this fellow Pamphilus, for instance, how often did he swear devotion to Bacchis!).
    • Att. 4, 16, 1 occupationum mearum vel hoc signum erit, quod epistula librarii manu est.
    • Ter. Heaut. 806 vel me haec deambulatio, quam non laboriosa, ad languorem dedit (why even this walk, although far from toilsome, has quite fatigued me).


The second of two alternatives, if the negation of the first, is expressed by an non or necne, and as a rule the verb is not repeated. Necne, though the more common in indirect, is rare in direct interrogation. Did you say this or not? utrum hoc dixisti an non? it is asked whether you said this or not, utrum hoc dixeris necne quaeritur.

  • P. C. 15 sortietur an non? (shall he cast lots or not?).
  • Inv. 1, 12 Corinthiis bellum indicamus an non?
  • Mur. 32 factum sit necne vehementer quaeritur.
  • Off. 1, 15 demus necne in nostra potestate est.
  • L. 22, 61 dubitatum in senatu est, admitterentur in urbem necne.
  • Tus. 3, 18 sunt haec tua verba necne?
  • N. D. 3, 7 di utrum sint necne sint quaeritur.
  • Div. 1, 39 fiat necne fiat id quaeritur.
  • Cat. 2, 6, 13 quaesivi a Catilina, in nocturno conventu apud M. Laecam fuisset necne.
  • Flacc. 25 utrum vultis necne?
  • Q. F. 3, 8, 4 velit, nolit, scire difficile est.


Orator, an orator, a public speaker; rhetor, strictly a teacher of rhetoric (dicendi magister), sometimes used of an orator who has been trained in a rhetorical school. The rules of rhetoric, rhetorum praecepta.

  • Tus. 1, 3 oratorem celeriter complexi sumus (= eloquence).
  • Plin. Ep. 4, 11 eo decidit ut rhetor ex oratore fieret.
  • Or. 1, 18 qui rhetores nominarentur et qui dicendi praecepta traderent.
  • Tus. 1, 4 Aristoteles, cum motus esset Isocratis rhetoris gloria, dicere etiam coepit adulescentes docere.
  • N. D. 2, 1 ne ego, inquit, incautus, qui cum Academico et eodem rhetore (trained orator) congredi conatus sim!

A born orator, natus or factus ad dicendum.


Aliter, in another manner, differently; also, under other conditions, or else, if not = aut. Secus, differently, oppositely, wrongly. We say “recte an secus,” but not “male an secus”. Alioqui (not in Cicero or Caesar), or else, if not, in other respects.

  • Fam. 3, 7 tu si aliter existimas, nihil errabis.
  • Sall. C. 29 aliter sine populi iussu nullius earum rerum consuli ius est.
  • Att. 16, 11 publice scripsi, si uti vellet eis Valerius, aut mihi nomina mitteret (I have written official letters which Valerius can use if he likes, or else he can send me the names).
  • Or. 2, 2 bene sunt ei dicenda, qui hoc se posse profitetur, aut (or else) eloquentiae nomen relinquendum est.
  • Caes. 4, 17 id sibi contendendum aut aliter non traducendum exercitum existimabat.
  • Am. 20 aliter (otherwise) amicitiae stabiles permanere non possunt.
  • Fin. 2, 6 aperiendum est igitur quid sit voluptas, aliter enim (for otherwise) explicari quod quaeritur non potest.
  • L. 42, 42 nihil certe insanabile commisi, aut frustra clementiae vestrae fama vulgata per gentes est.
  • Tac. A. 2, 38 languescet alioqui industria, si nullus ex se metus aut spes.
  • L. 40, 22 adeo omnia contecta nebula ut haud secus quam nocturno itinere impedirentur.
  • Or. 3, 30 eadem sunt membra sed paulo secus a me atque illo distributa.
  • L. 37, 46 milites tantum qui sequerentur currum defuerunt; alioqui (with this exception) magnificus triumphus fuit.
  • L. 7, 19 triumphatum de Tiburtibus; alioqui mitis victoria fuit (in other respects the victory was not much to boast of).


Noster = belonging to us. Ennius noster, our Ennius; Cicero noster, our (fellow-countryman) Cicero, as opposed to Demosthenes; Demosthenes noster, our (ideal orator) Demosthenes; Plato noster, our (master) Plato, i.e., the head of our school of philosophy. Noster est, he is one of us, or he is in our power.

In the comic poets, noster esto is a formula of commendation or welcome = you are the man for us, commend us to you.

  • Verg. A. 2, 149 noster eris (you shall be one of us).
  • Pl. Mil. 350 nam illic noster est (he belongs to our household).
  • Sen. 7 ut ait Statius noster (as our fellow-countryman Statius says).
  • Fam. 14, 2 Piso noster (Piso my son-in-law).

Noster is not used like “our” in English in reference to a passing subject of discourse. Our poet, i.e., the poet under review = hic (not noster) poeta; our passage, i.e., the passage or text presently engaging our attention = hic (ille, idem) locus.


Suus primarily refers to the grammatical or logical subject, but in the emphatic sense of his, her, its, or their own, it may refer to subject or object, or, speaking generally, to any word, or word understood, in the sentence.

  1. The logical subject, i.e., a word which, though not in the nominative, represents from a logical point of view the author or subject of an action, is generally capable of easy conversion into the grammatical subject, as by changing an active verb into a passive or vice versâ, or substituting for a word or phrase a different word and different turn of expression. Socratem cives sui interfecerunt = Socrates was put to death by his fellow-citizens. Eum oportuit (= is debuit) cognatum suum defendere, he ought to have defended his kinsman. Faustulo spes fuerat (= Faustulus speraverat) regiam stirpem apud se educari, Faustulus had entertained the hope that the foundlings he was bringing up were of royal blood.
  2. Unless the sense is emphatic, the reference to a word other than the grammatical or logical subject is expressed by eius rather than suus (see Riemann (Tite Live), § 28); e.g., Fam. 9, 14, 5 semper amavi Brutum propter eius summum ingenium; Caes. 5, 52 Ciceronem pro eius merito conlaudat; Tus. 1, 28 deum adgnoscis ex operibus eius.
  3. The nature of the case, however, sometimes necessitates the choice of suus. Q. F. 2, 10 iocum illius de sua egestate ne sis aspernatus, don’t put an unfavourable construction on the joke about his poverty = the reference he makes to his poverty.
  4. So always, when an object is attached by means of cum to a person or thing to which it belongs. They took the king and his son captive, regem filiumque eius ceperunt; or, regem cum filio suo ceperunt. Caes. 5, 53 Caesar Fabium cum sua legione remittit (Caesar sends back Fabius and his legion); L. 23, 32 Magonem cum classe sua copiisque in Hispaniam mittunt; Caes. C. 3, 24 quadriremem cum remigibus defensoribusque suis ceperunt.
  • Leg. 2, 7, 16 qualis quisque sit, quid agat, quid in se admittat.
  • Rosc. 34, 95 Landgraf cum ceteri, socii tui fugerent ac se occultarent ut hoc indicium non de illorum praeda … videretur …
  • Fam. 13, 21, 2 commendo tibi … C. Avianium Hammonium, libertum eius, quem quidem tibi etiam suo nomine commendo.
  • L. 2, 31, 11 apparuit causa plebi, suam (= plebis) vicem indignantem magistratu abisse.
  • L. 22, 16, 5 nec Hannibalem fefellit suis se artibus peti.
  • Iuv. 1, 7 nota magis nulli domus est sua quam mihi lucus Martis.
  • Phil. 3, 7, 18 a sui similibus invidiam aliquam in me commoveri putat.
  • L. 40, 11 quem enim suo loco moveo …?
  • Fam. 7, 24, 2 is ad me venit dixitque iudicem sibi operam dare constituisse.
  • Att. 14, 20, 3 meum (edictum) mihi placebat, illi suum.
  • Tac. A. 4, 35 suum cuique decus posteritas rependit.
  • Ter. And. 969 Glycerium mea suos parentes repperit (my Glycerium has found her parents).
  • Inv. 2, 17 hunc pater suus de templo deduxit (= deductus est a patre suo).
  • Sest. 68 hunc sui cives e civitate eiecerunt (= ab suis civibus eiectus est).
  • Verr. 2, 14 huic hereditas venit (= hic heres scriptus est) testamento propinqui sui Heraclii.
  • Cat. 1, 13 desinant insidiari domi suae (at his own house) consuli.
  • L. 8, 14 Lanuvinis civitas data sacraque sua reddita.
  • L. 29, 1 Scipio suas res Syracusanis restituit.
  • L. 3, 68 uni cuique ex agris sua damna nuntiabuntur.
  • L. 7, 37 altera corona a praesidio suo (ei) inposita est.
  1. The genitive of ipse (rarely suus) is used for his (her, its, their) own, if the word referred to stands in a different proposition. I prefer his own work to his son’s, ipsius opus operi filii antepono.

    So usually in an objective clause in reference to a word in the principal sentence. People ought to feel those annoyances most which are brought about by their own fault, ea molestissime ferre homines debent, quae ipsorum culpa contracta sunt.

    The substantival sui is an idiomatic expression for one’s own friends, party, followers, soldiers, etc.; e.g., Or. 3, 2 fuit hoc luctuosum suis, this was afflicting to his friends = eius amicis.

    • Att. 12, 32 apparebat illas litteras non esse ipsius.
    • Verr. 3, 44 id, quaeso, ex ipsorum testimonio cognoscite.
    • Att. 9, 6, 6 quid autem me roget … cognosce ex ipsius epistula.
    • Tus. 1, 37, 90 tanta caritas patriae est, ut eam non sensu nostro sed salute ipsius metiamur (but by its own welfare).
    • Or. 2, 3, 13 cum inter se, ut ipsorum usus ferebat, amicissime consalutassent.
    • Quinct. 7 quem, ut ipsius dignitas poscit, honoris gratia nomino.
    • Cat. 4, 5 habemus a Caesare, sicut ipsius dignitas et maiorum eius amplitudo postulat, sententiam.
    • Brut. 83 earum rerum historiam, quae erant ipsius aetate gestae, perscripsit.
    • L. 24, 4 funus fit regium, magis amore civium et caritate quam cura suorum (of his own family) celebre.
    • L. 7, 40 ultima rabies secessio ab suis habebatur.
    • L. 35, 11, 4 praefectus consuli pollicetur se … cum suis erupturum.
  2. But suus is naturally used in reference to the main subject in oratio obliqua, and in dependent clauses generally which are referred to the mind of the principal subject.

    It is a traditional but erroneous notion, that in subordinate clauses where suus might lead to ambiguity we should use ipse, if the reference is to the principal subject, and reserve suus for the subject of the clause (see Draeger, Hist. Synt., § 34, and Riemann, Tite Live, § 36).

    Ipse is antithetic and is used in indirect as in direct speech, not to avoid ambiguity, but to indicate comparison or contrast; e.g., Caes. 1, 1 qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur.

    1. Dominus servo imperavit, ut filium suum verberaret, the master ordered the slave to beat his son (whether it is the master’s or the slave’s son that is meant can be decided only by the context).
    2. Paetus omnes libros, quos frater suus reliquisset, mihi donavit, Paetus made me a present of all the books which (he said) his brother had left (if the subordinate clause had been the statement, not of Paetus, but of the narrator, the Latin would have been “quos frater eius (if emphatic, ipsius) reliquerat”).
    3. Cur de sua virtute aut de ipsius diligentia desperarent? why (he asked) should they despair of their own courage or of his carefulness? (here ipsius is required not merely to avoid the awkward repetition of sua, but mainly for the sake of antithesis = carefulness on his part).
    4. It is important to remember that consecutive clauses are generally objective, while final clauses are subjective, and that in the former the reference to the main subject is normally expressed by eius (illius), in the latter by suus. He urges the soldiers to defend himself and his kingdom, monet milites, ut sese regnumque suum defendant. He had so few soldiers that they failed to defend either himself or his kingdom, tam paucos milites habuit, ut neque ipsum neque regnum eius defenderent. Lig. 1 provinciae sic praefuit, ut et civibus et sociis gratissima esset eius integritas.
    • Caes. 7, 8 eum obsecrant, ut suis fortunis consulat (they implore him to protect their interests).
    • N. D. 2, 28 precabantur, ut sibi sui liberi superstites essent.
    • Div. 1, 27 tum ei dormienti eundem illum visum esse rogare, ut, quoniam sibi vivo non subvenisset, mortem suam ne inultam pateretur (sibi and suam refer to the main subject).
    • Caes. 1, 36 neminem secum sine sua pernicie contendisse (no one had ever fought with him (Ariovistus) without bringing utter destruction on himself (= the imaginary enemy).
    • Verr. 2, 25 postulare non desistebant, ut se ad leges suas reiceret (se and suas refer to the speakers).
    • Or. 2, 67 ut meminisset opera sua se Tarentum recepisse (sua refers to the speaker, se to the person addressed).
    • Verr. 2, 29 Petilius recusabat, quod suos amicos, quos sibi in consilio esse vellet, ipse Verres retineret (suos and sibi refer to Petilius).
    • N. Han. 8 alii naufragio, alii a servulis ipsius interfectum eum scriptum reliquerunt (ipsius strengthens the antithesis, and is preferred to suis to give prominence to the guilt of the slaves).
    • N. Att. 3, 2 quamdiu affuit, ne qua sibi statua poneretur, restitit.
    • N. Han. 12, 2 patres conscripti … legatos in Bithyniam miserunt … qui ab rege peterent, ne inimicissimum suum secum haberet sibique dederet.
    • Fin. 2, 1, 2 Arcesilas … instituit ut ii, qui se audire vellent, non de se quaererent, sed ipsi dicerent, quid sentirent.
    • Verr. 3, 7, 18 consulibus senatus permisit ut vini et olei decumas … Romae venderent legemque his rebus, quam ipsis videretur, dicerent.
    • Off. 3, 19, 75 homo iustus … nihil cuiquam, quod in se transferat, detrahet.
    • Sest. 3, 7 ad eum filiam eius adduxit.
    • Att. 10, 15, 1 ei de suo negotio respondi cumulate.
    • R. P. 2, 21, 37 Tarquinius … sic Servium diligebat, ut is eius vulgo haberetur filius (T. loved S., so that he was commonly considered his son).
    • Caes. C. 3, 3, 2 magnam (classem) societates earum provinciarum, quas ipse obtinebat, sibi numerare coegerat.
  3. Suus is generally (not always) used in reference to the grammatical or logical subject in participial and other abridged constructions.

    Papirius roused the anger of a Gaul who was stroking his beard, Papirius Gallo barbam suam permulcenti (= qui barbam eius permulcebat) iram movit. They were in hopes that, having surrendered their arms, they would be spared, sperabant, armis suis traditis, fore ut sibi parceretur.

    • Caes. 1, 5 persuadent Rauracis et Tulingis, uti oppidis suis vicisque exustis una cum eis proficiscantur (cum eis for secum, as if it were Caesar’s own remark).
    • Sall. I. 14, 11 Iugurtha … fratre meo atque eodem propinquo suo interfecto … fecit.
    • N. Iph. 3 vixit ad senectutem placatis in se suorum civium animis.
    • Mil. 15 Pompeius cunctae Italiae cupienti et eius fidem imploranti signum dedit.
  4. Suus is also used in reference to the implied subject of an abstract infinitive; e.g., contentum suis rebus esse, maximae sunt divitiae, contentment is the greatest riches.

    • Att. 2, 17 bellum est enim sua vitia nosse (it is well of course to know one’s own faults).


Palatium in good prose never means a palatial house = domus ampla. The king’s palace = domus regia (L. 1, 47), aedes regiae (Tus. 5, 21), domicilium regis (Pomp. 8).

  • Off. 1, 39 ampla domus dedecori saepe domino est (a palatial house is often a disgrace to its owner).


Vector, one carried in a ship or a vehicle or on a beast of burden; viator or praeteriens, one passing by, a wayfarer.

  • Verr. 5, 56, 145 quaecumque navis … venerat … vectores omnes in lautumias coniciebantur.

Cf. Pl. Mil. 2, 1, 40 (118) capiunt praedones navem illam, ubi vectus fui.

  • Phil. 7, 9 etiam summi gubernatores in magnis tempestatibus a vectoribus admoneri solent.
  • Mil. 21 non semper viator a latrone, non numquam etiam latro a viatore occiditur.
  • Sen. 16, 56 Reid qui eos arcessebant, viatores nominati sunt.
  • Off. 1, 39, 139 odiosum est enim, cum a praetereuntibus dicitur cet.
  • Rosc. A. 46 ut, qui praetereuntes, quid praeco enuntiaret, audiebant, fundum venire arbitrarentur (that the passers by, who heard what the auctioneer called out as the last bid, thought that an estate was being sold).


Paternus, belonging to a father as an individual, in opposition to mater, frater, and others; patrius, belonging to fathers, fore-fathers, or fatherland, as a class generally. We say patria potestas, patrium ius, patrius sermo (mother tongue), patrius mos, patrius amor, but paternus amicus, paternae inimicitiæ, and paternus, on the father’s side, opposed to maternus, on the mother’s side, e.g., paternus sanguis, paterno genere.

  • L. 30, 26 superavit paternos honores, avitos aequavit.
  • L. 1, 3 comes inde paternae fugae.
  • Verr. 3, 16 Metello paternus honos et avitus neglegebatur.
  • L. 2, 61 plenus suarum, plenus paternarum irarum.
  • L. 2, 58 odisse plebem plus quam paterno odio.
  • Fam. 13, 51 peto a te et pro nostra et pro paterna amicitia, ut eum in tuam fidem recipias.
  • Rosc. A. 24 magnam possidet religionem paternus maternusque sanguis.
  • Sen. 11, 35 ad paternam magnitudinem animi doctrina uberior accesserat.
  • L. 1, 26 ni ita esset, patrio iure in filium animadversurum fuisse.
  • L. 3, 48 ignosce patrio dolori (excuse a father’s grief).
  • Rosc. A. 9 cui (filio) praedo iste nefarius ne iter quidem ad sepulcrum patrium reliquisset (had not left even a road to the ancestral burial-place).
  • Rab. 13 neque tam ut domo sua fruatur quam ne patrio sepulcro privetur laborat.
  • Hor. Sat. 2, 3, 196 per quem tot iuvenes patrio caruere sepulcro.


Populus, the people collectively, the body politic, the nation; plebs, the common people, originally as opposed to the burgesses or patricians, subsequently in a non-political sense, the lower orders in the state. Plebs is rarely used of the illiterate, as opposed to the cultured classes = volgus or multitudo,the masses” as opposed to “the classes”.

  • L. 2, 56 non enim populi sed plebis eum magistratum esse.
  • L. 3, 55 legem tulere, ut, quod tributim plebs iussisset, populum teneret.
  • Caes. 6, 13, 1 plebes paene servorum habetur loco.
  • Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 59 Wilkins plebs eris.
  • Brut. 14 Valerius plebem in patres incitatam mitigavit.
  • Tus. 1, 45 in Hyrcania plebs publicos alit canes, optimates domesticos.
  • Brut. 53 saepe sapientis iudicium a iudicio volgi (not plebis) discrepat.
  • Brut. 51 oratio popularis adsensum volgi debet movere.
  • Brut. 49, 183 semperne … volgi iudicium cum intellegentium iudicio congruit?
  • Par. 1, 8 plus apud me vera ratio valebit quam volgi opinio.
  • Leg. 2, 17, 43 opinionibus volgi rapimur in errorem.
  • Tus. 2, 26, 63 hoc evenit, ut in volgus insipientium opinio valeat honestatis … Itaque fama et multitudinis iudicio moventur cet.
  • Fin. 1, 7 sed multitudinem haec maxime allicit (but the motive which most sways the crowd is this).

The Romans were not the people (persons) to yield to an enemy, Romani ii non fuerunt, qui hosti cederent; the Romans were not the people (the nation) to neglect divination, Romani is populus non fuerunt, qui divinationem neglegerent; what people wish, they readily believe, libenter homines id, quod volunt, credunt; people say that no one is so blind as he who won’t see, ferunt neminem tam caecum esse quam eum qui videre nolit.


Forsitan (= fors sit an) is naturally followed by the subjunctive. It is only in the poets and less correct prose writers (Sallust, Livy, Curtius, etc.) that it is treated as an adverb and constructed, like fortasse, with the indicative or the infinitive.

  • Fam. 1, 8, 2 neque id facio, ut forsitan quibusdam videar, simulatione.
  • L. 39, 10 matrem insimulare forsitan fas non sit.
  • L. 2, 45 diem tempusque forsitan ipsum leniturum iras.
  • Verr. 3, 16, 40 vos fortasse, quod vos lex commonet, id in hoc loco quaeretis.
  • Tus. 1, 42, 101 hodie apud inferos fortasse cenabimus.
  • Phil. 13, 5 sunt alii plures fortasse.
  • Ov. A. A. 3, 339 forsitan et nostrum nomen miscebitur istis.

Forte, by chance, by accident = perhaps, in connexion with “si,” “nisi,” “ne,” and “num”. “Nisi forte” frequently introduces an absurd or ironical alternative.

  • Mur. 6 nemo fere saltat sobrius, nisi forte (not fortasse) insanit (unless perchance he is mad).
  • Par. 4 nisi forte idem esse hostis et civis potest.
  • Att. 6, 3 decedes, cum voles, nisi forte iam decessisti.
  • Att. 5, 18, 1 quam vellem Romae esses, si forte non es!
  • Agr. 2, 18 si forte desit pecunia.
  • Verr. 1, 21, 56 vereor, ne haec forte cuipiam nimis antiqua et iam obsoleta videantur.
  • Q. F. 1, 2, 2, 4 ne forte me in Graecos tam ambitiosum factum esse mirere.
  • Verr. 1, 53 vereor ne quis forte haec fingi a me arbitretur.

Forte fuimus una horas duas, we happened to be together two hours. Fuimus una horas duas fortasse, we were together perhaps two hours (Att. 7, 4).


Suadere, to advise; persuadere, to advise successfully, to persuade.

  • Phil. 2, 11 an Trebonio ego persuasi? cui ne suadere quidem ausus essem (or did I persuade Trebonius? whom I would not have dared even to advise).
  • Sall. I. 46, 4 multa pollicendo persuadet, uti Iugurtham … necatum sibi traderent.
  • Agr. 2, 37, 101 quis enim umquam tam secunda contione legem agrariam suasit, quam ego dissuasi? si hoc dissuadere est ac non disturbare atque pervertere.
  • Att. 13, 38, 2 tu autem, quod ipse tibi suaseris, idem mihi persuasum putato.
  • Fam. 7, 3, 2 primum coepi suadere pacem, cuius fueram semper auctor.
  • Q. F. 1, 2, 1, 3 monui, suasi, deterrui!
  1. The subject-matter of the advice or persuasion is put in the accusative. He counselled peace, pacem suasit; he recommended the law to the people, legem populo suasit: he persuaded the people to the law, legem populo persuasit. Dissuadere aliquid or de aliqua re, never alicui aliquid.

  2. Persuadere followed by ut = to induce, by accusative and infinitive = to convince. He persuaded the soldiers to march against the barbarians, militibus persuasit, ut contra barbaros proficiscerentur; he persuaded the soldiers that he was marching against the barbarians, militibus persuasit se contra barbaros proficisci. Similarly, concedere meaning “to give permission to do something,” takes ut and subjunctive, but when it means “to admit a fact” it is followed by acc. with infin. Rosc. 19, 54 concedo tibi, ut ea praetereas, quae cum taces, nulla esse concedis. See Dräger, Hist. Synt., § 393. Cf. Tus. 1, 31, 77 volt efficere animos esse mortalis.


Loci, places or passages in a book, or topics in a discourse; loca, places or localities in a country. “Loci librorum; loca terrarum.” These passages are to be learned by heart, hi loci sunt ediscendi; this country is rough and mountainous, haec loca sunt aspera et montuosa.

  • Fin. 1, 3 locos quosdam transferam, et maxime ab iis, quos modo nominavi (some passages I shall translate, and particularly from the authors I have just mentioned).
  • Verr. 5, 65 adeunt ad ea loca, quae numquam antea viderunt.
  • Caes. 4, 7 iter in ea loca facere coepit, quibus in locis esse Germanos audiebat.

Hoc in loco, in this place; hoc loco, at this point (of a speech or narrative).

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