Horae Latinae

Studies In Synonyms and Syntax, by Robert Ogelvie

For everybody eager to learn Latin, we proudly present Latinitium’s digital edition of Horae Latinae by Robert Ogelvie, originally published posthumously in 1901.

Here you will find almost 500 English words and expressions with detailed descriptions of how to best render them in Latin, and with copious quotes from classical authors illustrating the usage. It is thus an excellent complement to the English–Latin dictionary by Smith & Hall.

For more resources on Latin synonyms, see our blog post A guide to Dictionaries of Latin synonyms!

Tips, updates, and learning material.


a or an first (adverb) play
abandon first who if you please
about flee poet
abroad flow poetry
access to forget poisoned
accompany former—latter politics
of one’s own accord freedman as—as possible
accurate great friend poverty
accuse on the front power
accuser fruitful prejudice
across garden present
advocate general pretend
affirm grateful prevail on
African gratification prevent
after Greeks pride
afterwards grief priest
again happen prithee
age happiness promise
ago hasten proof
all but health prove
along the river hear province
also hear well publicly
altar heart quarrel
although high rather than
angry hither and thither really
animal hitherto refer
annual hold refuse
any one honour reign
Apennines hope relations
appeal horse remember
appear on horseback remove
apple host report
appoint a dictator hour represent
arm how resign office
arms however rest
army hunger the rest
as if return
as far as if not reward
as to ignorant rightly
as well as immortal river
assemble with impunity robber
assembly in an author Roman
assuredly indeed rose
attain influence royal
audience inhabit rule
author inhabitants rustic
baggage insanity safe
banker instead of same as
bargain international law I say
because invade I will not say
become inveigh against as they say
before is to be scarcely
before (adverb) joy sculpture
before (of place) judge seat
begin justice second
belief kill secretly
believe know seize
besides we know self
beware of know how sell
beyond Lacedaemonian serious
blame land services
blood last ship
bloodless too late shore
bloody lately shortly
in a book Latin show
books laugh sickness
both learn siege
both—and at least sight
bridge legislator silent
bring leisure sing
build lend six hundred
burn much less sloping
but letter smell
by in a letter soldier
canvassing liberty some
carry life some one
cattle light sometimes
cause lightning soul
cease like speak
certain likely speak against
character little staff
children how little statue
cold live stay
command long (adjective) step
commit long (adverb) storm (verb)
common for a long while strength
conceal no longer style
confess lose subjects
conscience love such
conscious lungs suitable
consul Macedonian sustain
consult magnanimity sword
content majesty take away
continue make a speech take up arms
contract man tempest
control how many territory
corn forced march than
country marriage thankfulness
fellow-countryman marry that of
cousin master the
crime mean theory
crown from memory this (that)
cui bono? in memory of three
custom mind throne
daily (adjective) modesty time
daily (adverb) money one time
day more at the same time
two days more than title
the dead more than once too
deal with many more towards
death morning trade
debt the morrow trader
defend mortal travel
deny most tributary
deserve multitude in triumph
despise name troops
despoil namely trust
die nation truth
different natural uncle
diligence necessity undertake
dislodge neck unjustly
divide new of us
doubt by night in vain
dream noble vote
dress nor wall
drink and not wander about
drunk do not want
drunkenness not even wanting
each not one water
each other not so very way
earthly not to say on the way
either—or nothing when (interrogative)
embark nothing but whenever
employed now where
enemy oath whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
enjoy obey whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
enough obstructionist which?
entreat obtain while
envy oh that! for a while
epidemic old age white
especially omit whoever
estate one why not?
even one of wisdom
ever one more with
everywhere only with one
for example not only not within
exception open without
exile openly witness
expect opinion word
expense or work at
express or not workman
extend orator world
face otherwise worse
fail our would be
famous own wound
fault palace wretch
favour passenger a year after
for fear paternal yes and no
feast people yesterday
few perhaps yield
how few persuade you
first (adjective) places younger
a or an how little
abandon live
about long (adjective)
abroad long (adverb)
access to for a long while
accompany no longer
of one’s own accord lose
accurate love
accuse lungs
accuser Macedonian
across magnanimity
advocate majesty
affirm make a speech
African man
after how many
afterwards forced march
again marriage
age marry
ago master
all but mean
along the river from memory
also in memory of
altar mind
although modesty
angry money
animal more
annual more than
any one more than once
Apennines many more
appeal morning
appear the morrow
apple mortal
appoint a dictator most
arm multitude
arms name
army namely
as nation
as far as natural
as to necessity
as well as neck
assemble new
assembly by night
assuredly noble
attain nor
audience and not
author do not
baggage not even
banker not one
bargain not so very
because not to say
become nothing
before nothing but
before (adverb) now
before (of place) oath
begin obey
belief obstructionist
believe obtain
besides oh that!
beware of old age
beyond omit
blame one
blood one of
bloodless one more
bloody only
in a book not only not
books open
both openly
both—and opinion
bridge or
bring or not
build orator
burn otherwise
but our
by own
canvassing palace
carry passenger
cattle paternal
cause people
cease perhaps
certain persuade
character places
children play
cold if you please
command poet
commit poetry
common poisoned
conceal politics
confess as—as possible
conscience poverty
conscious power
consul prejudice
consult present
content pretend
continue prevail on
contract prevent
control pride
corn priest
country prithee
fellow-countryman promise
cousin proof
crime prove
crown province
cui bono? publicly
custom quarrel
daily (adjective) rather than
daily (adverb) really
day refer
two days refuse
the dead reign
deal with relations
death remember
debt remove
defend report
deny represent
deserve resign office
despise rest
despoil the rest
die return
different reward
diligence rightly
dislodge river
divide robber
doubt Roman
dream rose
dress royal
drink rule
drunk rustic
drunkenness safe
each same as
each other I say
earthly I will not say
either—or as they say
embark scarcely
employed sculpture
enemy seat
enjoy second
enough secretly
entreat seize
envy self
epidemic sell
especially serious
estate services
even ship
ever shore
everywhere shortly
for example show
exception sickness
exile siege
expect sight
expense silent
express sing
extend six hundred
face sloping
fail smell
famous soldier
fault some
favour some one
for fear sometimes
feast soul
few speak
how few speak against
first (adjective) staff
first (adverb) statue
first who stay
flee step
flow storm (verb)
forget strength
former—latter style
freedman subjects
great friend such
on the front suitable
fruitful sustain
garden sword
general take away
grateful take up arms
gratification tempest
Greeks territory
grief than
happen thankfulness
happiness that of
hasten the
health theory
hear this (that)
hear well three
heart throne
high time
hither and thither one time
hitherto at the same time
hold title
honour too
hope towards
horse trade
on horseback trader
host travel
hour tributary
how in triumph
however troops
hunger trust
if truth
if not uncle
ignorant undertake
immortal unjustly
with impunity of us
in an author in vain
indeed vote
influence wall
inhabit wander about
inhabitants want
insanity wanting
instead of water
international law way
invade on the way
inveigh against when (interrogative)
is to be whenever
joy where
judge whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
justice whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
kill which?
know while
we know for a while
know how white
Lacedaemonian whoever
land why not?
last wisdom
too late with
lately with one
Latin within
laugh without
learn witness
at least word
legislator work at
leisure workman
lend world
much less worse
letter would be
in a letter wound
liberty wretch
life a year after
light yes and no
lightning yesterday
like yield
likely you
little younger


Interficere, to kill in any way and from any motive = to put out of the world; interimere (inter + emere, to take away in the midst or course of), to cut life short, often with implication of privacy; occidere, to strike or cut down, to slay with a sword or poniard, especially in open battle; necare implies the exercise of arbitrary, and generally unjust or cruel power; trucidare, ruthlessly to massacre; percutere, merely as the executioner, to thrust through, decapitate.

  • Cat. 1, 6 quotiens tu me designatum, quotiens consulem interficere conatus es!
  • Fin. 2, 20 Lucretia se ipsa interemit (cut short her life with her own hand).
  • L. 1, 3 Amulius stirpem fratris virilem interemit.
  • Fin. 2, 20 Verginius filiam sua manu occidit.
  • Caes. 5, 37 ipse pro castris fortissime pugnans occiditur.
  • Am. 7 Pylades Orestem se esse dicebat, ut pro illo necaretur.
  • Pomp. 3 Mithridates cives Romanos necandos trucidandosque denotavit.
  • Sall. C. 58 cavete inulti animam amittatis, neu capti potius sicuti pecora trucidemini.
  • L. 25, 16, 9 utrum praebentes corpora pecorum modo inulti trucidentur cet.
  • Rosc. A. 34 quoniam, cuius consilio occisus sit, invenio, cuius manu sit percussus, non laboro.

To kill oneself, sibi mortem consciscere, manus sibi adferre, se interimere. Interficere se is rare, and classical only with the addition of ipse.

  • Caes. 1, 4 neque abest suspicio quin ipse sibi mortem consciverit.
  • Planc. ap. Fam. 10, 23, 4 manus sibi adferre conatus est.
  • Off. 1, 31 ceteris forsitan vitio datum esset, si se interemissent.
  • Caes. 5, 37 ad unum omnes desperata salute se ipsi interficiunt.


Novi, I am acquainted with a person or thing, implies knowledge based on investigation or examination, mediate knowledge; scio, I know something as a fact or reality, I know that so and so is the case, opposed to nescio, implying intuitive apprehension or immediate knowledge; rescisco, I bring back from concealment to light, I get wind of something; cognosco, I examine or investigate for the purpose of knowing, I ascertain; agnosco,* I know what something is or should be, I know what is suitable to the nature or description of a person or thing, I admit the truth of; internosco, I know the difference, I distinguish; ignosco, I do not wish to know, hence, I overlook, pardon; probe (not bene), plane, satis, maxime scio, or, more commonly,—non ignoro, non sum nescius (ignarus), I know very well.

* “Quidquid verum, notum nostrumque esse profitemur, agnoscimus; cognoscimus ea, quae accurate spectata plane intellegimus” (Seyffert-Müller, Lael. 2).

“The notion that agnoscere can mean to recognise again is mistaken” (Reid, Sull. 1).

  • L. 1, 54 quod utriusque vires nosset, sciretque invisam profecto superbiam regiam civibus esse (because he was acquainted with the strength of both parties, and knew as a matter of fact that the royal tyranny was hateful to the citizens).
  • Fam. 16, 9 tuam prudentiam, temperantiam, amorem erga me novi; scio te omnia facturum ut nobiscum quam primum sis.
  • Caecil. 6 te non novimus, nescimus qui sis.
  • Sall. C. 40, 2 plerisque principibus civitatium notus erat atque eos noverat.
  • Off. 1, 41, 146 Holden fit enim nescio quo modo (unfortunately), ut magis in aliis cernamus quam in nobismet ipsis, si quid delinquitur.
  • Rosc. A. 21 ego quid acceperim scio, quid dicam nescio.
  • Caes. 1, 28 quod ubi Caesar resciit (when this came to Caesar’s knowledge).
  • N. Dat. 2, 4 ea quid ageretur resciit filiumque monuit.
  • N. Hann. 8, 2 id ubi Poeni resciverunt, Magonem eadem, qua fratrem, absentem affecerunt poena.
  • [Pl. Men. 679 immo edepol pallam illam, amabo te, quam tibi dudum dedi, mihi eam redde: uxor rescivit rem omnem, ut factumst, ordine.]
  • L. 7, 39 nomine audito extemplo agnovere virum.
  • Ac. 2, 4 Philonis tamen scriptum agnoscebat.
  • Off. 1, 1 orator parum vehemens, dulcis tamen, ut Theophrasti discipulum possis agnoscere.
  • Tus. 1, 8 iam agnosco Graecum (I recognise the light-minded Greek).
  • Tus. 5, 36 veni Athenas, inquit Democritus, neque me quisquam ibi agnovit.
  • Tus. 1, 28 ut deum agnoscis ex operibus eius, sic ex memoria rerum et inventione vim divinam mentis agnoscito.
  • L. 28, 27 corpora ora vestitum habitum civium agnosco, facta dicta consilia animos hostium video.
  • L. 2, 6 iam propius ac certius facie quoque Brutum cognovit.
  • Fam. 11, 3 non agnoscimus quicquam eorum (we do not admit the truth of any of those charges).
  • Ac. 2, 27, 86 a perito carmen agnoscitur.
  • Verg. A. 2, 423 Priami clipeos mentitaque tela adgnoscunt.
  • L. 40, 11m ego vero, si in medio ponitur, non agnosco.
  • Ac. 2, 18 ut mater geminos internoscit consuetudine oculorum, sic tu internosces, si adsueveris.
  • Rosc. A. 1 non modo ignoscendi ratio, verum etiam cognoscendi consuetudo iam de civitate sublata est (cognoscere is the technical word for a criminal inquiry).
  • Cat. 3, 5 introductus Statilius cognovit signum et manum suam.
  • Am. 2 tu mihi tantum tribui dicis, quantum ego nec agnosco nec postulo (I don’t admit the truth of nor claim).


Scimus, we know as a matter of current knowledge; accepimus (not scimus), we know as a matter of tradition.

  • N. Ep. 1 scimus musicen nostris moribus abesse a principis persona, saltare vero etiam in vitiis poni (we know that, according to our customs, music is considered derogatory to a leading citizen, while dancing is reckoned a positive disgrace).
  • Fin. 5, 1 venit mihi Platonis in mentem, quem accepimus primum hic disputare solitum (who, we know, was the first to make a practice of using this place for discussion).


Scio arare, I know how to plough, i.e., I am a good ploughman; nescio arare, I don’t know how to plough, i.e., I can’t plough; scio (or nescio) quomodo or quemadmodum arem, I know (or know not) how to plough, i.e., how to set about the operation; nescio quid sit arare, I don’t know what ploughing is = I don’t know the meaning of ploughing; Romani nesciebant reges excipere, the Romans did not know how to receive kings, i.e., they declined to receive them; Romani nesciebant quomodo or quemadmodum reges exciperent, the Romans did not know how to receive kings, i.e., they did not know how to set about the ceremony.

  • L. 22, 51 vincere scis, Hannibal, victoria uti nescis (Hannibal, you know how to conquer, not how to improve a victory).
  • L. 2, 2, 3 M. Müller nescire Tarquinios privatos vivere.
  • L. 9, 3, 12 ea est Romana gens quae victa quiescere nesciat.
  • Or. 1, 16 qui aliquid fingunt (sculptors), etsi tum pictura non utuntur, tamen utrum sciant pingere an nesciant, non obscurum est.
  • Mil. 22 nescis inimici factum reprehendere (you do not know how to find fault with the act of an adversary).
  • N. Dion. 8 haec ille intuens quemadmodum sedaret nesciebat.
  • Att. 7, 13 quid sit acturus aut quo modo nescio, sine senatu, sine magistratibus.
  • Verr. 4, 41, 88 ea quo pacto distinguere ac separare possim, nescio.
  • Att. 6, 1, 7 ut sciam quomodo haec accipiat.
  • Att. 7, 18, 1 responderem, si quemadmodum parati essemus scirem.


Lacedaemonius, a Lacedaemonian with reference to his country; Spartiates, a Lacedaemonian with reference to his stern discipline. Spartanus is unclassical.

  • Tus. 1, 42 pari animo Lacedaemonii in Thermopylis occiderunt.
  • Tus. 5, 27 pueri Spartiatae non ingemiscunt verberum dolore laniati.
  • Tus. 1, 43 esto, fortes et duri Spartiatae (esto, granted = formula of transition to other examples).


Appellere, to bring to land, to make a coast or haven; exponere, to put on land, to disembark; ex nave (navibus) egredi, to step on land, to go ashore. He brought the ship to land, navem appulit; he landed in a merchant ship, nave oneraria appulit or appulsus est; he landed the fleet, classem appulit; he landed the army, exercitum exposuit; he was not permitted to land, ei non permissum est, ut ex navi egrederetur. The landing-place of appellere is regarded as the terminus ad quem. The ship landed at Syracuse, navis Syracusas appulsa est. Exponere takes in or ad aliquem locum, or in aliquo loco. He landed the soldiers, milites exposuit (= absolute and pregnant construction); he landed the soldiers at that place, milites ad eum locum exposuit (= setting on land); milites in eo loco exposuit (= the point where the landing was effected).

  • Hor. S. 1, 5, 12 huc adpelle.
  • L. 30, 25 ad Leptim appulit classem atque ibi copias exposuit.
  • L. 28, 42 Emporias in urbem sociorum classem appulisti.
  • Verr. 5, 25 appellitur navis Syracusas.
  • L. 30, 10 sub occasum solis in portum classem appulere.
  • Caes. C. 3, 6 ad eum locum qui appellabatur Palaeste, milites exposuit.
  • Caes. C. 3, 23 militibus ac sagittariis in terram expositis.
  • N. Them. 8 inde Ephesum pervenit, ibique Themistoclem exponit.
  • L. 28, 44 dum expono exercitum in Africa.
  • L. 34, 8, 7 ibi copiae omnes praeter socios navales in terram expositae.
  • Caes. C. 3, 106 ibi primum e navi egrediens clamorem militum audit.


Ultimus, the last of all, the last of the series; postremus, the last of a series, in contradistinction to those that precede; proximus, the one immediately before, the series still continuing. Codrus was the last king of Athens, ultimus rex Atheniensis fuit Codrus; the last but one, proximus a postremo; the last or late king, proximus rex; last night, proxima nocte. He returned last month, proximo mense rediit; December is the last month of the year, December est anni mensis ultimus.

  • L. 4, 28 virtute pares, necessitate, quae ultimum et maximum telum est, superiores estis.
  • L. 25, 41, 7 haec ultima in Sicilia Marcelli pugna fuit.
  • Ag. 2, 11, 28 sin is ferre non possit, qui postremus sit.
  • L. 40, 32 postremi Celtiberorum, qui in acie erant, primi flammam conspexere.
  • Verr. 5, 34 ut quisque in fuga postremus, ita in periculo princeps erat; postremam enim quamque navem piratae primam adoriebantur.
  • Att. 6, 2 quoniam respondi postremae tuae paginae prima mea, nunc ad primam revertar tuam (having in my first page answered your last, I will now turn back to your first).
  • L. 1, 22 Hostilius non solum proximo regi dissimilis sed ferocior etiam quam Romulus fuit.

Novissimus like Greek νεατός = last (not newest). He was the last to come, novissimus venit. Qui ex eis novissimus convenit, necatur (Caes. 5, 56).

Proximus = nearest to, either before or after, hence proxima nocte = last night or next night. Hannibal nocte proxima (next night) castra movit (L. 27, 14).

Animam efflavit, he breathed his last; novissimus dies, the last day, the end of the world = Ger. der jüngste Tag; his annis viginti, within the last twenty years.


Sero, too late; nimis or admodum sero = far too late; serius, too late for, later than, followed by quam, also, according to a common use of the comparative = somewhat or rather late. Too late; you cannot enter now, sero (not serum) est; non iam intrare licet.

  • Ribbeck inc. trag. 7 (p. 271, ed. 3) ap Att. 7, 16, 1 In “Equo Troiano” scis esse in extremo: “sero sapiunt”. Tu tamen, mi vetule, non sero.
  • Att. 3, 15, 3 sed haec sero agimus.
  • Verr. 5, 9, 24 haec omnia sero redemit Apollonius iam maerore ac miseriis perditus.
  • Lig. 9, 28 pacis equidem semper auctor fui, sed tum sero.
  • Att. 7, 5 sero enim resistimus ei, quem per annos decem aluimus contra nos.
  • L. 31, 29 sero ac nequiquam, cum dominum Romanum habebitis, socium Philippum quaeretis.
  • Phil. 2, 19 incidamus oportet media, ne nimis sero ad extrema veniamus (far too late).
  • Fam. 14, 10 scripsi ad Pomponium serius quam oportuit.
  • Phil. 10, 9 serius populo Romano arma dedimus quam ab eo flagitati sumus.
  • R. P. 1, 13 possumus audire aliquid, an serius venimus?
  • L. 23, 44, 1 sibi sero iam esse (fidem) mutare (that it was now too late for them to change their allegiance).
  • L. 4, 2, 11 potius sero quam numquam (better late than never).
  • Q. F. 1, 2, 3 hoc de genere nihil te nunc quidem moneo; sero est enim.
  • Fam. 13, 17 puto me hoc, quod facio, facere serius (somewhat late).
  1. Serius is always used with a contrasted comparative.

    • Cat. 1, 2 erit verendum mihi ne non hoc potius omnes boni serius a me quam quisquam crudelius factum esse dicat.
  2. “How much” too late is expressed by “serius” with the ablative.

    • Or. 3, 20 ad quae mysteria biduo serius veneram.


Modo, a few minutes, hours, or days ago; nuper, a few days, months, years, or ages ago. Modo in idea all but links the past to the present; nuper marks a distinct, if not a distant, interval.

  • Off. 2, 7 Phalaris non ex insidiis interiit, ut is, quem modo (a minute ago) dixi, Alexander.
  • Mil. 14 nuper quidem, ut scitis, me ad regiam paene confecit.
  • N. D. 2, 50 haec nuper, id est, paucis ante saeculis medicorum ingeniis reperta sunt.
  • Verr. 4, 3 nuper homines—et quid dico nuper? immo vero modo ac plane paulo ante vidimus.


Lingua Latina, sermo Latinus, or Latinitas, not Latinum, except in the phrase in Latinum convertere (vertere), but we say Latine (not in Latinum) reddere.

  • Off. 1, 37 Catuli optime uti lingua Latina putabantur.
  • Or. 1, 34 cum ea, quae legeram Graece, Latine redderem.
  • Tus. 3, 14 licet enim, ut saepe facimus, in Latinum illa convertere.
  1. “Lingua Latina” is the invariable order, unless the Latin language is contrasted with some other language.

    • Fin. 1, 3 sentio Latinam linguam non modo non inopem, sed locupletiorem esse quam Graecam.
  2. Latinitas, pure Latin style, which avoids solecisms and barbarisms.

    • Att. 7, 3 secutus sum non dico Caecilium; malus enim auctor Latinitatis est; sed Terentium.
  3. To speak Latin, Latine or lingua Latina loqui; to understand Latin, Latine scire.

    • Div. 2, 56 Latine Apollo numquam locutus est (Apollo never spoke in Latin).
    • Brut. 37 non enim tam praeclarum est scire Latine quam turpe nescire.
    • Phil. 5, 5 num Latine scit? (does he even know Latin?)
  4. Latine loqui, often to speak in good Latin; sometimes also like our “plain English,” to speak frankly, to call a spade a spade.

    • Or. 1, 32 ut pure et Latine loquamur.
    • Op. Gen. Or. 2 pure et emendate loquentes, quod est, Latine.
    • Brut. 34 Latine loquendo cuivis erat par et omnes sale facetiisque superabat.
    • Phil. 7, 6 ut appellant ii, qui plane et Latine (plain Latin) loquuntur.
    • Verr. 4, 1 Latine me scitote, non accusatorie loqui.
  5. Good Latin, sermo Latinus, not bene Latinus, but bene Latine dicere.

    • Brut. 35 fuit in Catulo sermo Latinus (Catulus spoke good Latin).
    • Brut. 66, 233 in huius oratione sermo Latinus erat, verba non abiecta, res compositae diligenter cet.
    • Fin. 2, 3 tu istuc dixti bene Latine, parum plane (you expressed yourself in good Latin, but not very lucidly).


Ridere alicui, to laugh to one; ridere aliquem, to laugh at one; but arridere is most common in the former sense (ridere, poetic), and irridere in the latter, ridere itself being generally intransitive.

  • Fin. 5, 30 M. Crassum semel ait in vita risisse Lucilius.
  • Fam. 2, 9 dum illum rideo, paene sum factus ille.
  • Har. Resp. 5, 8 etiam sua contio risit hominem.
  • Quinct. 17 ridet scilicet nostram amentiam.
  • L. 41, 20 non alloqui amicos, vix notis familiariter arridere.
  • Leg. Agr. 2, 35 Romam irridebunt atque contemnent.


Discere, to learn; ediscere, to learn by heart = memoriae mandare; perdiscere, to learn thoroughly, to master; addiscere, to learn in addition to, to learn more; praediscere (rare), to learn beforehand; dediscere, to unlearn.

  • Mur. 11 scriba quidam Flavius ediscendos fastos populo proposuit (a notary, Flavius by name, published the calendar for the people to learn by heart).
  • Or. 1, 34 exercenda est etiam memoria ediscendis ad verbum quam plurimis et nostris scriptis et alienis.
  • N. D. 3, 4 mandavi memoriae non numerum solum, sed etiam ordinem argumentorum tuorum.
  • Or. 3, 36 unum me maxime commovit, quod eum negasti, qui non cito quid didicisset, umquam omnino posse perdiscere.
  • Sen. 8 Solon se cotidie aliquid addiscentem dicit senem fleri.
  • Or. 1, 32 ea, quae agenda sunt in foro, possunt etiam nunc exercitatione praediscere ac meditari.
  • Quinct. 17 multa oportet discat atque dediscat.

Discere = to learn by study, or in the capacity of a student. Ego semper me didicisse prae me tuli, I have always avowed that I have been a student (Or. 42); ius civile didicit, he studied civil law (Mur. 9); ab eo enim Stoico dialecticam didicerat, for he had learned dialectics from that Stoic philosopher (Ac. 2, 30). Platonem ferunt, ut Pythagoreos cognosceret, in Italiam venisse et didicisse Pythagorea omnia (Tus. 1, 17, 39); haec nos a Scaevola didicimus (Leg. 2, 20, 49).

He was taught to speak Greek, Graece loqui didicit (rarely doctus est).


Saltem, at least, in default of something else (faute de mieux); certe, at least, as a moderated affirmation, i.e., one foregoes a stronger statement, and contents himself with only asserting so much; quidem, at least, singles out for the sake of contrast the words after which it stands. Cf. Key, Lat. Gr., 1454.

  • Pl. Men. 4, 2, 60 (624) num mihi ’s irata saltem? (at least you are not angry with me?)
  • Att. 9, 6 eripe mihi hunc dolorem aut minue saltem.
  • L. 24, 26 tum omissis pro se precibus, puellis ut saltem parcerent, orare institit.
  • Tus. 2, 5, 14 ne sit sane summum malum dolor, malum certe est (granting that pain is not the greatest evil, an evil at least it is).
  • Caes. C. 2, 32, 5 quae quidem ego aut omnino falsa aut certe minora opinione esse confido.
  • Phil. 2, 16 quem numquam viderat aut certe numquam salutaverat.
  • Fam. 4, 7 victi sumus, aut si vinci dignitas non potest, fracti certe et abiecti.
  • Fin. 2, 24 mihi quidem eae verae videntur opiniones.
  • Quinct. 17 haec ille, si verbis non audet, re quidem vera palam loquitur.


Qui leges ponit (scribit), or legum conditor, scriptor, not lator. Solon the Attic legislator, Solon legum Atticarum conditor. Legis lator = the proposer of some (specified) law.

  • Hor. S. 1, 3, 105 oppida coeperunt munire et ponere leges.
  • L. 3, 58 legum lator conditorque Romani iuris, the framer of their laws (the Twelve Tables) and the founder of Roman jurisprudence.
  • Att. 1, 14 Piso autem consul, lator rogationis, idem erat dissuasor.
  • Phil. 13, 16 cuius (legis) non minus arbitror latorem ipsum quam eos, de quibus lata est, paenitere.
  • L. 4, 53, 2 M. Menenius tribunus plebis, legis agrariae lator.


Vacare signifies with the dative “to have leisure for,” with the ablative governed by a or ab “to have leisure from”. Vacat studiis, he has leisure for his studies, i.e., he applies himself to study. Vacat a studiis, he has leisure from his studies, i.e., he is disengaged. Vacare followed by the ablative without a preposition signifies “to be without”. Vacat culpa, he is without fault. Vacat studiis, he abandons study.

  • Div. 1, 6 philosophiae semper vaco (I have always leisure for philosophy, i.e., if philosophy is the subject of debate).
  • Caes. C. 3, 76 milites, quod ab opere vacabant, longius progrediebantur.
  • Or. 3, 11 domicilium tantum Athenis remanet studiorum, quibus vacant cives, peregrini fruuntur.
  • Lig. 2 Ligarius omni culpa vacat.
  • Fam. 7, 3, 4 vacare culpa magnum est solacium.

Leisure hours, tempus otiosum (subsicivum), not horae otiosae, because “horae” is only used of definite hours. We were two hours together, duas horas una fuimus. Hence horae subsicivae, horae Latinae, horae Hellenicae, horae Paulinae are modern coinages.

  • Leg. 1, 3 subsiciva quaedam tempora (leisure hours) incurrunt, quae ego perire non patior.


Commodare, when the identical thing is to be returned; mutuum (-am, -um, -os, -as, -a) dare, when an equivalent is to be returned. He lent me a book, mihi librum commodavit (or utendum dedit); he lent me money, mihi pecuniam mutuam dedit (or pecuniam credidit).

  • Off. 1, 16 quicquid sine detrimento commodari possit, id tribuatur vel ignoto.
  • Cael. 13 Clodia se aurum Caelio commodasse non dicit (here aurum = a gold vessel).
  • L. 22, 60 si quibus argentum in praesentia deesset, dandam ex aerario pecuniam mutuam (such as had no immediate supply of money should have it lent them from the Treasury).
  • Att. 11, 3 is quoque in angustiis est, cui magnam dedimus pecuniam mutuam.
  • Rab. 2 huic ipsi Alexandrino grandem iam antea pecuniam credidit.


Multo minus, much less generally; nedum, much less, of what is absurd or out of the question.

  • Att. 8, 9 Lepido quidem numquam placuit ex Italia exire, Tullo multo minus.
  • Phil. 12, 12 in nostra castra ille numquam veniet; multo minus nos in illius.
  • Att. 14, 8, 1 hoc nec mihi placebat et multo illi minus.
  • Tac. H. 5, 5 nulla simulacra urbibus suis, nedum templis, sinunt (they do not allow any images to their cities, much less to their temples).
  • L. 6, 7 aegre inermem tantam multitudinem, nedum armatam sustineri posse.
  • Inv. 1, 39, 70 nec tamen Epaminondae permitteremus … ut … interpretaretur, nedum nunc istum patiamur.
  • L. 9, 18, 4 etiam victis Macedonibus graves, nedum victoribus.
  • L. 24, 4, 1 puerum vixdum libertatem, nedum dominationem modice laturum.
  • L. 24, 40, 13 militi quoque, nedum regi, vix decoro habitu.
  • L. 38, 50, 9 quid autem tuto cuiquam, nedum (to say nothing of) summam rem publicam, permitti?
  • L. 40, 15 vix quid obiceretur intellegere potui; nedum satis sciam, quo modo me tuear.


Litterae and epistula are often synonymous, but the former rather refers to the contents, the latter to the outward form = written and sealed matter for despatch. Hence epistulam complicare, to fold a letter; epistulam signare or obsignare, to seal a letter; vincula epistulae laxare, to open a letter; (servus) ab epistulis, a clerk or secretary. Epistula is not used of official letters except in reference to litterae. Cognoscite Metelli litteras; EPISTVLA L. METELLI (as filed and docketed)—Verr. 3, 17, 45. Cf. Verr. 5, 22, 56 cedo mihi eiusdem praetoris litteras et rerum decretarum et frumenti imperati. LITTERAE RERVM DECRETARVM.

  • Fam. 5, 7 ex litteris tuis, quas publice misisti, cepi una cum omnibus incredibilem voluptatem.
  • Att. 5, 21, 2 Cassius, frater Q. Cassi … pudentiores illas litteras miserat, de quibus tu ex me requiris, quid sibi voluerint cet.
  • Q. F. 3, 1 venio nunc ad tuas litteras, quas pluribus epistulis (packets) accepi.
  • Fam. 2, 5, 1 haec negotia quo modo se habeant, ne epistula quidem narrare audeo.
  • Fam. 5, 8 has litteras velim existimes foederis habituras esse vim, non epistulae (please regard this communication in the light of a covenant, not a mere letter).
  • Att. 12, 1 cum complicarem hanc epistulam noctabundus ad me venit cum epistula tua tabellarius.
  • Att. 16, 15, 4 obsignata iam epistula litteras a te et a Sexto accepi.
  • Ad. Brut. 1, 2, 1 scripta et obsignata iam epistula litterae mihi redditae sunt a te plenae rerum novarum.

Codicilli (dimin. of codices) were thin pieces of wood covered with wax. They were specially used for writing short or hurried notes to persons within easy reach.

  • Att. 12, 1 hoc litterularum exaravi egrediens e villa ante lucem (I am scratching this little note before daybreak, just as I am leaving my country house).
  • Fam. 6, 18 simul accepi a Seleuco tuo litteras; statim quaesivi e Balbo per codicillos quid esset in lege.
  • Catull. 42, 11 Ellis moecha putida, redde codicillos.
  1. A Roman writing a letter used the tense appropriate to the time when the letter would be received. But the writer was not always consistent; he often relapsed, especially in the body of the letter, into primary tenses. “Pompeius erat apud me cum hoc scribebam” in English idiom = Pompey is with me while I am writing this.

    • Q. F. 2, 3 pridie Idus Febr. haec scripsi ante lucem. Eo die apud Pomponium in eius nuptiis eram cenaturus (I am writing this before daybreak on the day before the Ides of February. I am going to dine to-day with Pomponius at his marriage).
    • Att. 16, 3 Brutus erat in Neside etiam nunc, Neapoli Cassius.
    • Fam. 12, 6 res, cum haec scribebam, erat in extremum adducta discrimen.
    • Cael. ap. Fam. 8, 13 Hortensius, cum has litteras scripsi, animam agebat.
    • Att. 5, 16 nos in castra properabamus, quae aberant bidui (I am hurrying on to the camp which is two days distant).
    • Att. 3, 21 triginta dies erant ipsi, cum has dabam litteras, per quos nullas a vobis acceperam; mihi autem erat in animo iam … ire.
    • Fam. 5, 12, 2 neque tamen, haec cum scribebam, eram nescius.
    • Q. F. 2, 5, 1 dederam ad te litteras antea, quibus erat scriptum … .

    But in matters which are unaffected by the time of delivery no change of course takes place.

    • Att. 6, 9, 4 ego tabellarios postero die (to-morrow) ad vos eram missurus; quos puto ante venturos quam nostrum Saufeium.
  2. Dare litteras = to despatch or post a letter. The Romans, having no kind of postal system, had to intrust their letters to some messenger’s care. The person to whom the letter was given was put in the dative, and the person to whom the letter was addressed in the accusative with ad. The messenger or letter-carrier was called “tabellarius,” who was said “reddere litteras,” to deliver the letter, or “afferre litteras,” to bring the letter.

    • Q. F. 2, 14 ego nullum praetermittam Caesaris tabellarium, cui litteras ad te non dem (I will let no courier of Caesar’s go without giving him a letter to you).
    • Att. 11, 12 eo autem die mane tabellarios miseram quibus ad te dederam litteras.
    • Att. 11, 25 scribas ad me quicquid veniet tibi in mentem cum habebis cui des et dum erit ad quem des.
    • Att. 1, 16, 16 ad te ideo antea rarius scripsi, quod non habebam idoneum, cui darem, nec satis sciebam, quo darem.
    • Fam. 3, 7, 1 itaque nullas iis (i.e., pueris, slaves) praeterquam ad te et ad Brutum dedi litteras.
    • Fam. 3, 1, 2 Cilix, libertus tuus, antea mihi minus fuit notus; sed, ut mihi reddidit a te litteras plenas et amoris et officii, …
    • Att. 8, 1 cum ad te litteras dedissem, redditae mihi litterae sunt a Pompeio.
    • Att. 9, 8 Statius a te epistulam brevem attulit.
    • Fam. 4, 14 binas a te accepi litteras, Corcyrae datas (hence English “date”; Fr. la date; It. la data).

Litterae missae, a letter despatched; litterae allatae, a letter received; hence liber litterarum missarum et allatarum, a letterbook.

One letter, unae litterae, or una epistula; two letters, binae litterae, or duae epistulae; three letters, trinae (not ternae) litterae, or tres epistulae. But ternae litterae is correct if the meaning = three letters each. He gave them three letters, trinas litteras eis dedit; he gave them three letters each, ternas litteras eis dedit.

  • Fam. 15, 16 ego, si semper haberem, cui darem, vel ternas in hora darem (three letters per hour = singulis horis).


He informed me in a letter (or by letter), me in litteris certiorem fecit, implying that the letter contained this in addition to other information; me litteris certiorem fecit, implying that the main purpose of the letter was to convey this information; me per litteras certiorem fecit, in contra-distinction to other modes of communication, i.e., not by a verbal message, or by word of mouth (cf. Reisig, Vorl., p. 673).

  • Att. 4, 8a, 1 multa me in epistula tua delectarunt.
  • Q. F. 1, 4 sed de hoc scripsi ad te in ea epistula, quam Phaethonti dedi.
  • L. 40, 25 senatum litteris certiorem fecit, obsideri a Liguribus Aemilium.
  • Att. 11, 24 Philotimus non modo nullus venit, sed ne per litteras quidem aut per nuntium certiorem facit me quid egerit.
  • N. Con. 3 sed tu delibera, utrum colloqui malis, an per litteras agere quae cogitas.
  • Att. 14, 13b quod mecum per litteras agis, mallem coram egisses.
  • Att. 5, 21 Lucceius queritur apud me per litteras.
  • Phil. 12, 12 reliquum est, ut et accipiantur et remittantur postulata per litteras.
  • Fam. 1, 10 Lentulo nostro egi per litteras tuo nomine gratias diligenter.
  • Att. 6, 2, 7 omni igitur modo egi cum rege et ago cottidie, per litteras scilicet.


Libertas, liberty, or liberties. The plural libertates, occurs only in Plautus and in Tacitus (A. 15, 55).

  • Sall. C. 58 nos pro vita, pro libertate certamus.
  • N. Timol. 3 civitatibus leges libertatemque reddidit.
  1. Libertas = freedom from subjection or control; subjectively, a sense of freedom, love of liberty.

    • Par. 5, 1 quid est libertas? potestas vivendi, ut velis.
    • Sest. 41 innata libertas (love of liberty), prompta excellensque virtus.
    • Off. 2, 7 quamvis timefacta libertas (let the spirit of freedom be ever so much subdued).
    • Pis. 7, 15 huic enim populo ita fuerat ante vos consules libertas insita, ut ei mori potius quam servire praestaret.
  2. Libertas rarely = freedom or exemption from burdens = immunitas, or from service = vacatio.

    • Caes. 6, 14 militiae vacationem omniumque rerum habent immunitatem. [Paul and Kübler bracket this sentence.]
    • Leg. 1, 3 ego vero aetatis potius vacationi confidebam.
  3. British liberty = Britannorum (not Britannica) libertas. Flacc. 29 Graecorum libertate gaudes.

No one is at liberty to sin, peccare licet nemini.


When vita and victus are united, often for alliterative effect, the former is used of the higher aspect of life, the conduct of life in its varied relations; the latter applies to the necessaries of life = style of living in respect of food, clothing, and dwelling.

  • N. Alc. 1 splendidus non minus in vita quam victu (Leben und Wesen).
  • Brut. 25 Tuditanus omni vita atque victu excultus.
  • Leg. 3, 14 nobilium vita victuque mutato mores mutari civitatum puto.
  • Or. 1, 54 Socrates respondit sese meruisse ut ei victus cotidianus in Prytaneo publice praeberetur.
  • Sall. C. 2, 8 eorum ego vitam mortemque iuxta aestumo, quoniam de utraque siletur.
  • Caes. 6, 21, 3 vita omnis in venationibus atque in studiis rei militaris consistit.
  • L. 38, 25, 16 maior multo pars per fidem violati colloquii poenas morte (= life) luerunt.
  1. The plural vitae occurs now and then, mostly of ways or modes of life, but the singular is generally preferred, and is always used of risking, saving, or sparing life. He sparred their lives, eorum vitae (not vitis) pepercit; they rescued me from the flames at the risk of their own lives, me ex flammis cum vitae suae periculo eripuerunt.

    • Caes. 7, 19 edocet summae se iniquitatis condemnari debere, nisi eorum vitam sua salute habeat cariorem.
    • Fin. 4, 9 neque inter eorum vitam et improbissimorum quicquam omnino interesse.
    • Ter. Ad. 3, 3, 61 inspicere tamquam in speculum in vitas omnium.
    • Am. 23 serpit per omnium vitas amicitia.
    • Inv. 1, 2 ingenio freta malitia vitas hominum labefactare adsuevit.

    This cost them their lives, hoc eis morte stetit.

  2. Vita, used of a biography, must be conjoined with a word or phrase of narrative reference (Krebs). The lives of the Chancellors, Cancellariorum vitae expositio (descriptio); a short biography of Schiller, brevis Schilleri vitae expositio (brevis vita = a short-lived life); Plutarch, the biographer of Cicero, was a native of Chaeronea, Plutarchus, qui vitam (de vita) Ciceronis exposuit (scripsit), Chaeroneae natus est.

    • N. Praef. in hoc exponemus libro de vita excellentium imperatorum.
  3. Vitae (or vivendi) curriculum = life’s course, merely in respect of length or duration.

    • Rab. 10 exiguum nobis vitae curriculum natura circumscripsit.
  4. Vita is rarely used of age or period of life = aetas. In the bloom of life, aetatis flore (Phil. 2, 2); the last stage of life, ultimum tempus aetatis (Fin. 2, 27).


Lumen, light generally, the light of the sun, or the light of a flickering taper; lux, an effulgent light, sunlight, or daylight, especially as compared with lesser lights.

  • Fin. 3, 14 obscuratur et offunditur luce solis lumen lucernae.
  • L. 3, 15 lux deinde aperuit bellum ducemque belli.
  • Phil. 2, 30 luce redii, non tenebris.
  • Div. 2, 43 luna solis lumine collustrari putatur.


Fulgur, lightning generally; fulmen, lightning that strikes and sets on fire, a thunderbolt. Struck by lightning, fulmine ictus (percussus), more usually de caelo tactus (e caelo ictus).

  • Div. 1, 10 quid? de fulgurum vi dubitare num possumus?
  • N. D. 3, 22 is fulmine percussus dicitur humatus esse Cynosuris.
  • Off. 3, 25 Phaethon ictu fulminis deflagravit.
  • L. 39, 22 aedes Opis in Capitolio de caelo tacta erat.
  • L. 32, 29 Fregellis murus et porta de caelo tacta erant.


Similis, like in kind; par, equal in degree.

  • Sall. C. 14 par similisque ceteris efficiebatur (was brought to the same level, and became like the rest).
  • Leg. 1, 10 nihil est enim unum uni tam simile tam par quam omnes inter nosmet ipsos sumus.
  • L. 45, 43, 2 similia omnia magis visa hominibus quam paria.
  • N. D. 1, 35 canis nonne similis lupo?
  • L. 30, 32 par periculum praemio.
  • Caes. 4, 7 Suebis ne di quidem immortales pares esse possunt.
  1. Similis usually takes the genitive of living beings, especially men and gods, and the genitive or dative indifferently of inanimate things, but Cicero always says “veri similis”. The genitive, though the more usual in earlier writers, almost disappears in later Latin. The notion that the genitive expressed mental or moral, and the dative outward likeness is abandoned.

  2. Like each other = similes inter se; unlike each other, dissimiles inter se.

    • Brut. 83 dissimiles inter se, sed Attici tamen.
  3. Instar (only in nominative and accusative singular) like in measure, magnitude, appearance, or importance = the equivalent of. A horse like a mountain, equus instar montis; a river like a sea, flumen instar maris.

    • Caes. 2, 17 instar muri hae saepes munimenta praebebant.
    • Verg. A. 2, 15 instar montis equus (a horse as huge as a mountain).
  4. Like = after the manner of, modo, ritu, ut, etc.

    • Sen. 2 gigantum modo bellare cum dis.
    • Am. 9 qui pecudum ritu ad voluptatem omnia referunt.
    • Phil. 11, 2 tota Asia vagatur, volitat ut rex.
    • N. Paus. 3, 2 (Pausanias) epulabatur more Persarum (was wont to banquet in the Persian style).

    Ritu = after the manner of living or acting, and is not used of inanimate objects. Like a wild beast, ferarum ritu; like a torrent, torrentis modo (not ritu). Erat ei vivendum latronum ritu (Phil. 2, 25). Haud secus quam torrentis modo fundunt perculsos (L. 39, 31).


Veri simile est, it is likely, is regularly followed by the accusative and infinitive, rarely, and only in negative or quasi-negative sentences, by ut and subjunctive.

  • ap. Phil. 13, 17 vix veri simile est eosdem nobis parcere posse.
  • Rosc. 41 non est veri simile, ut Chrysogonus horum litteras adamarit.

Likely is sometimes rendered by the future infinitive, especially in connection with videor.

  • Caes. ap. Att. 9, 6a hoc et feci saepe et saepius mihi facturus videor.
  • [L. 41, 21] honorem, quem a populo impetraturus Scipio non videbatur, ope Cicerei consecutus est. [Cf. Val. Max. 3, 5, 1.]


Parum, too little = non satis, opposed to satis or nimium. Paulum, a little, some. Parum pecuniae, too little money. Paulum pecuniae, a little money, not very much. Parum is a modified negative, paulum is positive.

  1. Parum = non satis. Non parum = satis, often by litotes (with adjectives and adverbs) = the reverse of little (see § 4). (See Enough.)

    • Sall. C. 5, 4 satis eloquentiae, sapientiae parum (he was not deficient in eloquence, but he wanted wisdom).
    • Off. 2, 13, 45 altera pars sceleris nimium habuit, altera felicitatis parum.
    • Off. 1, 25, 89 mediocritatem illam tenebit, quae est inter nimium et parum.
    • Att. 8, 2, 3 in Labieno parum est dignitatis.
    • Att. 6, 2, 9 nimis, nimis, inquam, in isto Brutum amasti, dulcissime Attice, nos vereor ne parum.
    • Verr. 3, 31, 73 nummi praeterea imperantur, Dantur. Parum est.
    • L. 39, 37 parum est victis quod victoribus satis est.
    • Or. 22, 73 etsi enim suus cuique modus est, tamen magis offendit nimium quam parum.

    Cf. Att. 9, 6, 5 (epistulae) me paullum (a little) recreant.

    • Sall. I. 65, 1 morbis confectus, et ob eam causam mente paulum inminuta (exhausted with disease, and with mental powers in consequence somewhat impaired).
  2. Parum est is followed by quod (not ut) or acc. and infin., sometimes by si or nisi. Nisi (ni) with subjunctive adds a supposition which goes too far.

    • N. Att. 9, 7 quod parum odisse malos cives videretur.
    • Lig. 12 parum est me hoc meminisse.
    • Ter. Phor. 546 parumne est, quod omnibus nunc nobis suscenset senex, ni instigemus etiam?
    • Rosc. 17 ut parum miseriae sit, quod aliis coluit, non sibi, nisi etiam, quod omnino coluit, crimini fuerit.
    • L. 38, 54 parum fuisse non laudari Africanum, nisi etiam accusaretur.
    • L. 6, 40 parum est, si, cuius pars tua nulla adhuc fuit, in partem eius venis, nisi partem petendo totum traxeris?
  3. Parum abest quin is late Latin for non multum (non longe, paulum) abest quin.

    • Caes. C. 2, 35 neque multum afuit, quin etiam castris expellerentur.
    • Caes. C. 2, 35 paulum afuit, quin Varum interficeret.
  4. Parum = too little, hence non parum = enough.

    • Verr. 4, 12 non enim parum res erat clara (for the matter was notorious enough).
    • Tus. 1, 45 nemo parum diu vixit (there is no one who has not lived long enough).

Little less, non multo (not parum) minus. A little before, paulo (not paulum) ante. He has but little strength, parum validus est. I care but little whether I am praised or blamed, parum curo utrum lauder an reprehendar. He is little stronger, non multo (not parum) validior est. He is a little stronger, paulo validior est. He is considerably stronger, aliquanto validior est. Little was said, pauca dicta sunt.

So little.

  • Fin. 2, 20, 63 ita non (so little) timidus ad mortem, ut in acie sit ob rem publicam interfectus.
  • Att. 6, 9, 3 adeone (so little) ego non perspexeram prudentiam litterarum tuarum?
  • L. 3, 2, 6 haec dicta adeo nihil (so little) moverunt quemquam, ut legati prope violati sint.


Quam parvus, how little (positively). Quam nihil or quam non, how little (negatively), how far from anything at all. Vides quam parvo contentus sim = I have a little and I am contented with it. Vides quam non contentus sim = I am the reverse of contented.

  • Tus. 5, 32 hic vero ipse quam parvo est contentus!
  • Ac. 2, 26 ut minuam controversiam, videte quam in parvo lis sit.
  • N. Dat. 5 Artaxerxes reminiscens ad quam parvam rem principem ducum misisset se ipse reprehendit.
  • Tus. 2, 7 quam hoc non curo! (how little I regard this!).
  • Att. 7, 1 quam non est facilis virtus! (how far from easy is virtue!).
  • Verr. 5, 4 videte quam non inimico animo sim acturus.
  • Phil. 2, 8, 20 quam id te, di boni, non decebat! (how ill it became you!).
  • Att. 13, 23, 3 incredibile est, quam ego ista non curem.
  • Ac. 2, 42, 129 vides quantum ab eo dissenserit et quam non multum a Platone.
  • Fin. 5, 27, 80 quam suave est! quam nihil curo!
  • L. 2, 54 moniti quam nihil auxilii sacratae leges haberent.


Vivere is allied to vesci (Cf. Fr. vécu, originally vescu) and primarily = to live on, hence to be in life, and in reference to the manner and conduct of life = to turn life to some account, make the most of it. To live at a certain epoch = esse. Homer lived before the founding of Rome, Homerus fuit ante Romam conditam.

  • Caes. 4, 1 lacte atque pecore vivunt.
  • L. 23, 30 coriis herbisque et radicibus vixere.
  • Caes. 4, 10 piscibus atque ovis avium vivere existimantur.
  • Sen. 19 sperat adulescens diu se victurum.
  • Cat. 1, 4 dixisti paulum tibi esse etiam nunc (still) morae, quod ego viverem.
  • Sen. 23 ita vixi, ut non frustra me natum existumem.
  • Am. 27 mihi quidem Scipio, quamquam est subito ereptus, vivit tamen semperque vivet.
  • Phil. 2, 46, 118 quibus ortus sis, non quibuscum vivas, considera.
  • Off. 1, 15, 46 vivitur non cum perfectis hominibus planeque sapientibus, sed cum iis, in quibus cet.
  • Catull. 5, 1 vivamus, mea Lesbia, atque amemus.
  • Hor. 3, 29, 43 ille potens sui laetusque deget, cui licet in diem dixisse “vixi” [with Kiessling’s note].
  • Mart. 1, 15, 11-12 non est, crede mihi, sapientis dicere “Vivam”: sera nimis vita est crastina: vive hodie.
  • Q. F. 3, 1, 4 quod me cohortaris ad laborem, faciam equidem, sed quando vivemus? (but when shall I be let live?).
  • Tus. 5, 38 (erudito homini) vivere est cogitare (for an educated man to live is to think).
  • Brut. 20 erat eisdem temporibus Ti. Gracchus.
  • Sen. 15 Homerus, qui multis ante saeculis fuit.
  • Or. 3, 33 an tu existumas, cum esset (lived) Hippocrates ille Cous, fuisse tum alios medicos, qui morbis, alios qui vulneribus mederentur?
  • Or. 3, 32, 130 ii, quos nominavi, multique praeterea summique dicendi doctores uno tempore fuerunt.
  • Or. 1, 2, 6 cum esset Demosthenes, multi oratores magni et clari fuerunt et antea fuerant.
  • Tus. 1, 1, 3 siquidem Homerus fuit et Hesiodus ante Romam conditam.
  • Leg. 3, 13 hi homines qui nunc sunt (men living at the present time).

To live well, bene vivere, i.e., wisely; laute vivere, i.e., generously (N. Chab. 3).

He is still alive, vivit. Oh that Sulpicius were still alive! utinam Ser. Sulpicius viveret (Phil. 8, 7).

As sure as I live, ita vivam. I wish I may not live, if I know, ne vivam, si scio.

LONG (adjective).

Diuturnus, long in a general sense, lasting, of long standing; diutinus, long in a bad sense, wearisome, irksome. Bellum diuturnum, a war of long duration as compared with other wars; bellum diutinum, a protracted and tedious war.

  • Sen. 19 nihil mihi diuturnum videtur, in quo est aliquid extremum.
  • Fam. 11, 8, 2 odio diutinae servitutis.
  • L. 39, 56 Sempronius proconsul diutino morbo est implicitus.

Longum est (not esset), it would take too long, it would be a lengthy task. Quam improbe fecerit longum est dicere (Verr. 1, 60).

LONG (adverb).

Diu, long, of time; longe, long, of distance. Diu aberat, he was a long time absent. Longe aberat, he was a long way off.

  • Att. 13, 2 Dionysius noster queritur a discipulis abesse tam diu; mihi videtur etiam diutius afuturus.
  • Fam. 2, 7 longe absum, audio sero.
  • Att. 4, 16 abis totiens et tam longe abis.

Long before = multo (not diu) ante. Long after = multo post.


Iam diu, for a long time absolutely; iam dudum, for some time, or for what appears a long time, with accessory idea of impatience, a short time seeming an age. Iam pridem = for a long time back, or long ago, with especial reference to the beginning of the time that has passed.

  • Rosc. C. 14 is iam pridem est mortuus.
  • Cat. 2, 5, 10 res eos iam pridem deseruit.
  • Q. F. 3, 8 Scaurum autem iam pridem Pompeius abiecit.
  • Brut. 5 iam pridem conticuerunt tuae litterae (i.e., since the libri de re publica were written).
  • Ac. 1, 1 habeo opus magnum in manibus (on hand), idque iam pridem.
  • Cat. 1, 2 verum ego hoc, quod iam pridem factum esse oportuit, nondum adducor ut faciam.
  • Cat. 1, 1 ad mortem te duci iam pridem oportebat.
  • Or. 1, 35 tantum habemus otii quantum iam diu nobis non contigit.
  • Verr. 5, 7 nam pater iam diu lecto tenebatur.
  • Sen. 6 Karthagini male iam diu cogitanti bellum multo ante denuntio.
  • Verr. 3, 36 non intellegis haec, quae iam dudum (just now) loquor?
  • Cat. 1, 5, 12 quod te iam dudum hortor (which I have been long counselling you).
  • Am. 18 quae pertinent omnia ad eam, quam iam dudum tracto, constantiam.
  • Ter. Eu. 743 ego iam dudum hic adsum (I have been here for a long while).
  1. The Latin present in construction with iam, iam pridem, and other words expressing duration of time, corresponds to the progressive form of the English perfect. We have now been three hours in school, tres horas iam in schola sumus; Gk., ἤδη τρεῖς ὥρας ἐν τῇ σχολῇ διάγομεν; Fr., il y a trois heures que nous sommes dans l’école; Ger., wir sind jetzt schon drei Stunden in der Schule.

    • Off. 1, 1 annum iam audis Cratippum (you have now been attending Cratippus’ lectures for a year).
    • Fin. 2, 29 at iam decimum annum in spelunca iacet.
    • Verr. 4, 18 is Lilybaei multos iam annos habitat.
    • Att. 2, 5 cupio equidem et iam pridem cupio Alexandream visere (I for my part am anxious and have long been anxious to visit Alexandria).
    • L. 39, 28 a quibus nihil aequi me impetrare iam diu animadverto.
  2. Similarly the Latin imperfect corresponds to our progressive pluperfect.

    • L. 40, 8 iam pridem quidem hanc procellam imminentem timebam.

You have been expecting me for now six years = iam sex annos (sextum annum) me exspectas, or iam sunt sex anni (sextus est annus), cum me exspectas.


Non iam, no longer absolutely, no longer as a fact; non diutius, no longer comparatively, no longer as a limit. Non iam = I have ceased; non diutius = I am on the point of ceasing. I am no longer lame, non iam claudus sum; why are oracles no longer delivered at Delphi; cur Delphis oracula iam non eduntur? I can support myself no longer, diutius me sustinere non possum = I am still supporting myself, but my endurance can go no farther; iam me sustinere non possum = I have ceased to be able to support myself.

  • L. 25, 14 caedes inde non iam pugna erat (it was then a massacre, no longer a fight).
  • L. 8, 2 fateri pigebat in potestate sua Latinos iam non esse.
  • Cat. 2, 4 non est iam lenitati locus (there is no longer room for mercy).
  • Caecil. 3, 7 miseri iam non salutis spem, sed solacium exitii quaerunt.
  • Ter. Phorm. 1, 4, 4 (182) nam non potest celari nostra diutius iam audacia.
  • Brut. 67, 236 is laborem forensem diutius non tulit.
  • Q. F. 1, 3, 5 diutius in hac vita esse non possum.
  • Clu. 10, 30 nec diutius vixit quam locuta est.
  • Caes. 2, 6, 4 sese diutius sustinere non posse.
  • L. 3, 6, 7 non diutius se in Hernico hostis continuit.
  • Verr. 2, 29 ferre atque audire diutius Timarchidem non potuit.
  • N. Chab. 3 non ibi diutius est moratus quam fuit necesse.
  • Caes. C. 1, 19 res diutius tegi non potuit (disguise could be carried no farther).


Amittere, with reference to the result = to let go, let slip, cease to possess; perdere, with reference to the agent = to throw away wilfully, ruin or destroy by one’s own act. Amittere tempus, to lose time, not to take advantage of it; perdere tempus, to waste time, to employ it badly.

  • Att. 7, 13 condicionum autem amissum tempus est.
  • Or. 3, 36 aut, si non potuerim, tempus non perdere (or not to waste time, if I do not succeed).
  • Ad Herenn. 4, 44 Decius Mus amisit vitam, at non perdidit.
  • Fin. 2, 27 nam si amitti vita beata potest, beata esse non potest.
  • Planc. 35 quorum alter exercitum perdidit, alter vendidit.
  • Div. 1, 16 classis maxumas perdiderunt, cum vitio navigassent.
  • Or. 2, 67 numquam Tarentum recepissem, nisi tu perdidisses.
  • Fam. 7, 1 in quibus (athletis) ipse Pompeius confitetur se et operam et oleum perdidisse (Pompey himself owns that he has spent toil and oil alike in vain on these athletes).

He lost the battle, victus est, or, inferior discessit acie; he lost his eyesight, lumina (aspectum) amisit; he lost his reason, mente captus est. He was in danger of losing his life, capitis periculum adiit.


Amare implies passion and ardour, and is stronger than diligere, which implies preference founded on esteem. To love one’s self, amare se ipsum; to love justice, diligere iustitiam.

  • Am. 22 cum iudicaveris diligere oportet; non cum dilexeris iudicare.
  • Fam. 5, 11, 3 de Dionysio, si me amas, confice.
  • Fam. 16, 7 nemo nos amat, qui te non diligat.
  • Fam. 9, 14 tantum accessit ut mihi nunc denique amare videar, antea dilexisse.
  • Am. 27 amare nihil est aliud, nisi eum ipsum diligere quem ames, nulla utilitate quaesita.
  • Fam. 13, 47 ut scires eum a me non diligi solum, verum etiam amari.

Amabo te, I beseech you, is an epistolary (conversational) phrase = si feceris quod volo, amabo te.

  • Q. F. 2, 10 amabo te, advola.
  • Att. 7, 1 exspecta, amabo te, dum Atticum conveniam.


Pulmones, the lungs, as a part of the body; latera, the lungs, as an organ of the body. Bona latera, good lungs, sound in wind; laterum (or lateris) dolor, pulmonary disease, consumption.

  • Sen. 5 legem Voconiam magna voce et bonis lateribus suasi.
  • Verr. 4, 30 quae vox, quae latera, quae vires huius unius criminis querimoniam possunt sustinere?
  • Or. 3, 2 die septimo est lateris dolore consumptus (pleurisy).
  • Vat. 5 omnia mea tela in tuis pulmonibus et visceribus haerebunt.
  • N. D. 2, 55 in pulmonibus inest raritas quaedam et assimilis spongiis mollitudo ad hauriendum spiritum aptissima (the lungs consist of a loose and spongy-like substance admirably adapted for respiration).

So pectus in literal sense = the chest, as an external part of the body. A strong chest = bona latera, not robustum pectus. He tore his robe away from his chest, tunicam eius a pectore abscidit (Verr. 5, 1).


Macedo, a Macedonian by birth. Macedonicus, a person in some way connected with Macedonia. We say Philippus Macedo, but Metellus Macedonicus. So Macedones milites are the native soldiers of Macedonia, whereas Macedonici milites are Roman soldiers serving in Macedonia. [So with Britannus, Britannicus; Hispanus, Hispanicus; Germanus, Germanicus, etc.]

  • N. Eu. 3 Macedones milites ea tunc erant fama, qua nunc Romani feruntur.
  • L. 30, 33 legio Macedonum (a Macedonian (native) legion).
  • N. Eum. 7, 1 cuius sub imperio phalanx erat Macedonum.
  • L. 9, 19, 5 ipse traiecisset mare cum veteranis Macedonibus.
  • L. 33, 8, 7 cornu dextro peditum, robore Macedonici [not necessarily composed of Macedonians] exercitus, quam phalangem vocabant.
  • Fam. 12, 23 legiones Macedonicae (Macedonian (Roman) legions).


Magnitudo animi, not magnanimitas (only once used by Cicero (Off. 1, 43), and apparently coined for the nonce). Also used is magnus animus.

  • Off. 1, 4 ex quo magnitudo animi existit humanarumque rerum contemptio (whence come magnanimity and a contempt of the vicissitudes of life).


Maiestas as a political expression = “amplitudo ac dignitas civitatis,” the greatness and imperial dignity of the Roman State. To misconduct the business of the State, or in any way impair (minuere) this “maiestas,” laid one open to the charge of treason (crimen maiestatis minutae). Maiestas, however, was not used for an offence of this description before the lex Appuleia was passed (about b.c. 100), the earlier term being perduellio.

  • Or. 2, 39 si maiestas est amplitudo ac dignitas civitatis, is eam minuit, qui exercitum hostibus populi Romani tradidit.
  • Sall. I. 14 per maiestatem populi Romani subvenite mihi misero.
  • Sall. I. 31 leges, maiestas vestra, divina et humana omnia hostibus tradita sunt.
  • Clu. 35 legionem sollicitare, res est, quae lege maiestatis tenetur (the law against treason).
  • Inv. 2, 17 maiestatem minuere est de dignitate aut amplitudine aut potestate populi, aut eorum quibus populus potestatem dedit, aliquid derogare.
  • L. 2, 41, 11 invenio apud quosdam … a quaestoribus K. Fabio et L. Valerio diem dictam perduellionis, damnatumque populi iudicio.

His majesty, rex: her majesty, regina. His majesty replied, rex respondit. Your majesty said so, rex, or regina (voc.), ita dixisti. They insulted his majesty, regi insultabant: they insulted his majesty, i.e., his dignity, eius maiestati insultabant.

  • L. 1, 24 iubesne me, rex, cum patre patrato populi Albani foedus ferire? (does your majesty command me to conclude a treaty with the pater patratus (president) of the Alban people?).
  • L. 41, 19 senatus nec liberat eius culpae regem neque arguit.


Orationem facere (conficere, componere), to make a speech, i.e., to compose it; orationem habere, to make a speech, i.e., to deliver it.

  • Or. 1, 14 ignarus faciundae et poliendae orationis.
  • Or. 51 orationis faciendae et ornandae auctores.
  • Sen. 11 nunc cum maxime conficio orationes (now when I compose speeches more than ever).
  • L. 40, 15 si pro alio dicendum esset, tempus ad componendam orationem sumpsissem.
  • Caes. 1, 33 hac oratione habita, concilium dimisit.


Homo (ἄνθρωπος), a man or a woman = Ger. Mensch. Mas (ἄρσην), a male, opposed to “femina,” and, like “femina,” applicable to all living beings, e.g., mares di, mares bestiae. Vir (ἀνήρ), a man, as possessing the qualities most esteemed in the male sex (force, courage, energy, etc.), opposed to “mulier” [cf. mollis], the softer sex; hence “fortis,” rare with “homo,” is a common attribute to “vir”. Plato at the point of death congratulated himself that he was born a man, Plato moriens sibi gratulatus est, quod homo (not vir) natus esset = a human being; quod mas natus esset = a man, not a woman.

  • Fin. 4, 10 sumus igitur homines; ex animo constamus et corpore.
  • Sen. Ep. 59, 12 omnes iurant me esse Iovis filium, sed volnus hoc hominem esse me clamat.
  • Arch. 7, 16 Reid divinum hominem Africanum, ex hoc C. Laelium, L. Furium, moderatissimos homines et continentissimos, ex hoc fortissimum virum … M. Catonem illum senem.
  • Verr. 4, 45, 101 quem tibi aut deum aut hominem auxilio futurum putas?
  • Pl. Am. 4, 1, 14ff (1047ff) ubi quemque hominem aspexero, si ancillam, seu seruom, siue uxorem, siue adulterum, seu patrem, siue auom uidebo, obtruncabo in aedibus.
  • Hor. Ep. 1, 16, 48 non hominem occidi (I have no murder on my conscience).
  • Cat. 3, 5 cura, ut vir sis.
  • Fam. 5, 17 ut et hominem te et virum esse meminisses (to remember that as a human being you are liable to misfortune, and that as a man you should bear it with fortitude).
  • L. 2, 10 pons sublicius iter paene hostibus dedit, ni unus vir fuisset (but for the bravery of one man).
  • Fam. 4, 12 vir clarissimus ab homine taeterrimo acerbissima morte est, affectus.
  • Pl. Rud. 1, 2, 16 (104) utrum tu masne an femina’s?
  • N. D. 1, 34, 95 quod et maris deos et feminas esse dicitis, quid sequatur, videtis.
  • Caes. 6, 26 eadem est feminae marisque natura.
  1. Vir is sometimes used side by side with homo, of a man’s relation to the state and his virtues as a citizen, “homo,” as a private individual, but “Cicero frequently passes from homo to vir and vir to homo for no other apparent reason than the love of variety”—(Reid).

    • Mur. 6 prope inimicorum confessione virum bonum atque integrum hominem defendimus (a loyal citizen and an upright man).
    • Sest. 41 cervices tribunus plebis privato, praestantissimus vir profligatissimo homini daret? (was a tribune of the people, a most deserving public man, to submit tamely to a private citizen and shameless profligate?).
    • Caecil. 17 hoc quaestori Caecilio, viro optimo et homini aequissimo, nuntiatum est (an excellent magistrate and a most honourable man).
    • Quinct. 15 nam quid homini potest turpius, quid viro miserius aut acerbius usu venire?
    • Mil. 29, 80 Graeci homines deorum honores tribuunt iis viris, qui tyrannos necaverunt. [Cf. Reid on Mil. § 69.]
  2. Homo is used of the sense, feelings, virtues or weaknesses of humanity.

    • Ter. Haut. 1, 1, 25 homo (not vir) sum; humani nil a me alienum puto (I am a man; I consider no human interest a matter of indifference to me).
    • Phil. 2, 16 si modo homines sunt (if only they have human feeling).
    • Att. 4, 15 si vis homo esse (a man of honour).
    • Att. 2, 2 Ἡρώδης, si homo esset (a sensible man), eum potius legeret quam unam litteram scriberet.
    • Att. 13, 52 homines visi sumus (men of taste).
    • Or. 2, 10 nox te expolivit hominemque (human) reddidit.
    • Serv. ap. Fam. 4, 5 Tulliae moriendum fuit, quoniam homo nata fuerat (since she was born with the weaknesses of a mortal).
    • Q. F. 2, 11 virum te putabo si Sallusti Empedoclea legeris, hominem non putabo (if you get through Sallust’s Empedoclea, I shall admire your courage, not your common-sense).
    • Tus. 2, 22 Marius tulit dolorem ut vir, et ut homo maiorem ferre sine causa necessaria noluit (Marius bore the pain like a man, and as a mere mortal he had no wish to suffer greater pain without an imperative reason).
    • Tus. 2, 27, 65 Graeci autem homines, non satis animosi, prudentes, ut est captus hominum, satis, hostem aspicere non possunt … .
    • Tus. 1, 21, 49 ut enim rationem Plato nullam adferret (vide, quid homini tribuam), ipsa auctoritate me frangeret.
    • Ter. Ad. 5, 8, 11 (934) si tu sis homo, hic faciat.
  3. Homo and vir are often used for “ille” and “is”.

    • Caes. 5, 7 illi circumsistunt hominem atque interficiunt.
    • L. 21, 4 has tantas viri virtutes ingentia vitia aequabant.
    • L. 3, 13, 4 Verginius arripi iubet hominem et in vincula duci.
    • Verr. 7, 19 appellat hominem et ei voce maxima gratulatur.
  4. A man who or one who = “is qui” or “qui” alone. A man who sins is miserable, qui peccat miser est.

    • Tus. 1, 36 an potest is, qui non est, ulla re carere?
    • Tus. 2, 31, 102 idque testamento cavebit is, qui nobis quasi oraculum ediderit cet.
    • L. 30, 30, 3 ut, qui primus bellum intuli …, is ultro ad pacem petendam venirem.
    • L. 22, 39 gloriam qui spreverit veram habebit.
    • Ac. 2, 7 potest quisquam dicere inter eum qui doleat et inter eum qui in voluptate sit nihil interesse? (can any one say that there is no difference between a man who suffers pain, and one who enjoys pleasure?).
  5. [“Homo” is frequently added to national names, where it seems almost superfluous.]

    • Att. 7, 3, 10 Romanus homo.
    • Att. 10, 8, 2 non modo Romano homini, sed ne Persae quidem cuiquam tolerabile.
    • Tus. 2, 27, 65 Graeci homines.
    • Caes. 2, 30, 4 hominibus Gallis.
    • Caes. 6, 29, 1 homines Germani.

As “homo” is of common gender, “vir” is sometimes opposed to “femina” as well as to “mulier”. Men and women, viri feminaeque, cf. L. 10, 23, 2 supplicatum iere frequentes viri feminaeque; a woman in man’s attire, mulier virorum more vestita (note virorum; viri would mean some particular man).

Mortales is used for homines in Sallust, Livy and Tacitus, in Cicero only when conjoined with multi or omnes or cuncti, cf. L. 7, 35, 11 signo secundae vigiliae convenistis, quod tempus mortales somno altissimo premit, the singular in Am. 5, 18 sed eam sapientiam interpretantur, quam adhuc mortalis nemo est consecutus. Sallust, from his love of alliteration, always writes multi mortales, but omnes mortales or omnes homines indifferently.


Quot, how many, generally; quam multi is an interrogative exclamation, and does not expect an answer = how very many, sometimes in a disparaging sense, how few. How many are there of you? quot (not quam multi) estis? Into how many parts is all Gaul divided? quot in partes divisa est omnis Gallia? How many are unworthy of the light of day! Quam multi luce indigni sunt!

  • Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 16 (555) scire equidem volo, quot mihi sint domini.
  • Part. Or. 1, 3 “quot in partis tribuenda est omnis doctrina dicendi?” “Tris.”
  • N. D. 2, 18 haec Epicurus certe non diceret, si bis bina quot essent, didicisset.
  • Verr. 5, 39 quaerit ex iis singillatim quot quisque nautas habuerit.
  • L. 27, 1 Romanorum sociorumque quot caesa in eo proelio milia sint, quis pro certo adfirmet?
  • Phil. 2, 4 quam multa ioca solent esse in epistulis, quae prolata si sint, inepta videantur!
  • Fin. 2, 18 quam multa iniuste fieri possunt, quae nemo possit reprehendere!
  • Ac. 2, 7 quam multa vident pictores in umbris, quae nos non videmus!
  • Verr. 5, 53 virgis quam multos ceciderit quid ego commemorem?
  • Fam. 13, 67 non te fugit, quam multi grati reperiantur.
  • Tus. 1, 41 quam multi (how few) dies reperiri possunt, qui tali nocti anteponantur!


Iustum iter, a regular day’s march; magnum iter, a regular day’s march and something more, a forced march.

  • Caes. C. 1, 23 eo die castra movet, iustumque iter conficit.
  • Caes. C. 3, 76 confecto iusto itinere eius diei.
  • Caes. 5, 48 venit magnis itineribus in Nerviorum fines.

Iustus is used not only of what is just or right in a moral sense, but of what is complete or proper in its kind. Iustum bellum = a just (righteous) war, or a regular, formal war, opposed to a guerrilla war. Iustum proelium, a regular pitched battle, opposed to tumultuarium.

  • L. 9, 1 iustum est bellum, Samnites, quibus necessarium, et pia arma, quibus nulla nisi in armis relinquitur spes.
  • L. 29, 31 inde nocturnis primo ac furtivis incursionibus, deinde aperto latrocinio infesta omnia circa esse; iamque adeo licenter eludebant, ut plures quam iusto saepe in bello Carthaginiensium caderent caperenturque.
  • L. 35, 4 postquam apertas esse insidias et recto ac iusto proelio dimicandum viderunt.
  • Off. 3, 29 cum iusto enim et legitimo hoste res gerebatur (they were negotiating with a regular and formal enemy).


Coniugium, marriage in the widest sense; used also of animals; matrimonium, marriage as an institution of human society. Nuptiae is properly the commencement of matrimonium, the ceremony or marriage festival, sometimes used of the marriage itself; conubium is merely a term defining the conditions of a legal marriage (iustae nuptiae, or iustum matrimonium); ius conubii, the right of intermarriage.

  • Off. 1, 17 prima societas in ipso coniugio est, proxima in liberis.
  • Att. 6, 8 laetatus sum sermone Piliae de coniugio Tulliae meae (I was delighted with Pilia’s reference to the manrriage of my daughter Tullia).
  • Quinct. 4 Quincti consobrinam habet in matrimonio Naevius.
  • L. 40, 4 Theoxena, multis petentibus, aspernata nuptias est.
  • L. 30, 12 nuptias in eum ipsum diem parari repente iubet.
  • Top. 4 mulier nupta erat cum eo, quicum conubium non erat.


In matrimonium ducere, of a man; nubere (lit. to take the veil for), of a woman. He married his cousin, consobrinam suam in matrimonium duxit; she married her cousin, consobrino suo nupsit. “In matrimonium” is sometimes omitted. He married the king’s daughter, regis filiam duxit. But if the English is absolute, “uxorem” must be inserted. He never married, numquam uxorem duxit. He married the king’s daughter as his second wife, duxit iterum uxorem regis filiam.

  • Ter. Phor. 2, 1, 1 (231) itane tandem uxorem duxit Antipho iniussu meo?
  • Caes. 1, 9 Orgetorigis filiam in matrimonium duxerat.
  • Clu. 44 Oppianicus eius uxorem, quem occiderat, in matrimonium duxit.
  • Sest. 3 duxit honestissimi viri, C. Albini, filiam.
  • Sest. 3 duxit iterum uxorem patre vivo optimi viri filiam, L. Scipionis.
  • Clu. 9 petit Oppianicus, ut sibi Sassia nubat.
  • L. 1, 46 his duobus duae Tulliae regis filiae nupserant.
  • L. 10, 23, 4 Verginiam, Auli filiam, patriciam plebeio nuptam.
  • Div. 1, 46 virgo nupsit, cui Caecilia nupta fuerat (had been married to = a past state, not a past act).
  1. Ducere uxorem is susceptible of a different interpretation. He brought his wife and his married daughter with him, uxorem et nuptam filiam secum duxit.

    • N. Praef. quem enim Romanorum pudet uxorem ducere in convivium? (for what Roman would be ashamed to take his wife to an entertainment?).
  2. Deducere is the proper word for taking a bride to her husband’s home.

    • Caes. 5, 14 qui sunt ex his nati, eorum habentur liberi, quo primum virgo quaeque deducta est.
  3. Enubere (of the woman) is to marry out of the family or community.

    • L. 26, 34, 3 Weissenborn coniuges uendendas extra filias, quae enupsissent, priusquam in populi Romani potestatem venirent.

The priest married them, sacerdos eos matrimonio iunxit. Aruns and Tullia married each other, Aruns et Tullia iunguntur nuptiis (L. 1, 46).


Magister, overseer; dominus, owner. Magister navis = the captain (τριήραρχος); dominus navis = the shipowner (ναύκληρος). Erus = a master, correlative to slaves.

  • N. Them. 8 domino navis quis sit aperit.
  • Caes. C. 2, 43 horum fuga navium onerariarum magistros incitabat.
  • Verg. A. 5, 176 ipse gubernaclo rector subit, ipse magister.
  • L. 5, 16, 7 biduum ad recognoscendas res datum dominis.
  • L. 24, 16, 5 pecus exceptum est, quod intra dies XXX domini cognovissent.
  • Rosc. A. 8 Roscius amplissimae pecuniae fit dominus.
  • Verr. 3, 54 incolumis numerus manebat dominorum atque aratorum (owners and lessees).
  • Verr. 3, 22 dicebat ille se nec dominum esse eius fundi nec locatorem (neither owner nor lessor of the farm).
  • L. 1, 4 magister regii pecoris.
  • Mil. 22 maiores nostri in dominum de servo quaeri noluerunt.
  • Pl. Capt. 2, 1, 44 (241) non ego erus tibi, sed seruos sum.
  • Off. 2, 7 sed eis, qui vi oppressos imperio coercent, sit sane adhibenda saevitia, ut eris in famulos, si aliter teneri non possunt.


Significare, to signify or indicate; sibi velle is used of interrogations of surprise. Quid tibi vis? What do you mean? Quid sibi iste vult? what is the fellow driving at? Quid haec verba significant? what do these words mean? Quid haec verba sibi volunt? what on earth do these words mean?

  • L. 3, 67 pro deum fidem quid vobis vultis?
  • L. 40, 12 quid ergo illa sibi vult pars altera orationis?
  • Or. 2, 67 quid tibi vis, insane? (foolish man, what are you thinking of?).
  • Cat. 2, 10 quid sibi isti miseri volunt? (what is this wretched crew aiming at?).
  • Caes. 1, 44 quid sibi vellet? cur in suas possessiones veniret?
  • L. 3, 35 conicere in eum oculos, mirantes quid sibi vellet.
  • Sen. 18 avaritia senilis quid sibi velit, non intellego.
  • Verr. 2, 61 quid illae sibi statuae inauratae volunt? (what is the meaning of those gilded statues?).
  • Quinct. 26 quid haec amentia, quid haec festinatio, quid haec immaturitas tanta significat?
  • Tus. 1, 14 quid ipsa sepulcrorum monumenta, quid elogia significant, nisi nos futura etiam cogitare?
  • Tus. 1, 36 carere igitur hoc significat, egere eo, quod habere velis.

Zenonem significabat, he meant Zeno (Tus. 2, 25). Caesar hac oratione Dumnorigem designari sentiebat, Caesar perceived that in this speech Dumnorix was meant (Caes. 1, 18).


Ex memoria, from memory, by heart, opposed to de scripto. Memoriter strictly means with good memory, like μνημονικῶς.

  • Cat. 3, 6 ex memoria vobis quid senatus censuerit exponam.
  • Phil. 10, 2 ita enim dixisti et quidem de scripto (from MS.).
  • Pl. Amp. 1, 1, 261 (417) hicquidem certe quae illic sunt res gestae memorat memoriter.
  • Ac. 2, 19, 63 Luculli oratio, quae est habita memoriter, accurate, copiose.
  • Am. 1 Mucius augur multa narrare de Laelio socero suo memoriter et iucunde solebat (with clear memory and in a jocose vein).


“In memoriam” is late Latin [for examples, see Mayor’s note on Plin. ep. 3, 3, 1 and Addendal for ad memoriam. He wrote a poem in memory of his brother, poema ad memoriam fratris scripsit. So, ad honorem, or honoris causa, in honour of = for the purpose of doing honour to.

Livy is the first prose writer who uses in to denote purpose = with a view to; e.g., 26, 24 in fidem, to awaken confidence; 28, 21 in gratiam, to win favour.

  • Hor. epod. 1, 24 in tuae spem gratiae.
  • Brut. 16 oratio ad memoriam laudum domesticarum (a speech in commemoration of his domestic virtues).
  • Phil. 9, 2 quae statua ad tantae familiae memoriam sola restat.
  • Suet. Tib. 7 munus gladiatorium in memoriam patris dedit (he gave a gladiatorial exhibition in memory of his father).

In some constructions, it is enough to put the person to be remembered or honoured in the dative. He erected a statue to the memory of his father, statuam patri posuit.

  • L. 8, 13, 9 additus triumpho honos, ut statuae equestres eis—rara illa aetate res—in foro ponerentur.
  • Contrast L. 4, 17, 6 legatorum, qui Fidenis caesi erant, statuae publice in Rostris positae sunt.
  • Fam. 12, 3 in statua inscripsit PARENTI OPTIME MERITO.


Animus = intellect, will, feeling. Animus is used of all beings, e.g., Tus. 1, 33 bestiarum animi sunt rationis expertes. Mens = intellect, the reasoning faculty, related to animus as a part to the whole.

  • Fin. 5, 13, 36 princeps animi pars mens nominatur.
  • Tus. 3, 5 menti regnum totius animi tributum est.
  • Leg. 1, 22, 59 quoniam principio rerum omnium quasi adumbratas intellegentias animo ac mente conceperit.
  • Caes. 1, 39 tantus subito timor exercitum occupavit, ut omnium mentes animosque perturbaret (mentes = reason, reflection; animos = resolution, action).
  • Tac. G. 29 ita sede finibusque in sua ripa, mente animoque nobiscum agunt.

We say “alicui in animo esse,” “animum adtendere, inducere, etc.” but always “in mentem venire alicuius,” impersonally = to be called to mind, to occur to one’s mind.

  • Fam. 14, 11 nobis erat in animo Ciceronem ad Caesarem mittere (we purposed to send Cicero to Caesar).
  • N. Alc. 5 erat enim ea sagacitate ut decipi non posset, praesertim cum animum adtendisset ad cavendum.
  • Fin. 5, 1 venit mihi Platonis in mentem (I call to mind Plato).
  • Fam. 7, 3 mihi solet in mentem venire illius temporis.


Pudor (αἰδώς), the principle of modesty, a sense of honour, opposed to impudentia; pudicitia, purity of conduct, chastity. The former belongs to the mind; the latter, which is the outcome of the former, belongs to the body.

  • Tus. 4, 8 pudorem rubor, terrorem pallor consequitur.
  • Phil. 2, 7 adeone pudorem cum pudicitia perdidisti?
  • Fin. 2, 34 moderator cupiditatis pudor est.
  • Cat. 2, 11 ex hac parte pudor pugnat, illinc petulantia; hinc pudicitia, illinc stuprum.
  • L. 1, 58 quid salvi est mulieri amissa pudicitia?
  • L. 3, 45 saevite in tergum; pudicitia saltem in tuto sit.

“Pudens” corresponds to “pudor,” “pudicus” to “pudicitia”.


Pecunia, money or money’s worth, any kind of property, personal or real; in a restricted sense, a sum or quantity of money, not a coin or piece of money, which is nummus.

  • Off. 2, 20 malo virum qui pecunia egeat quam pecuniam quae viro.
  • Off. 3, 32 cum id parva pecunia fieri posset (for a small sum of money).
  • Phil. 2, 38 tanti acervi nummorum apud istum construuntur, ut iam expendantur, non numerentur pecuniae.
  • Att. 5, 21, 12 pecuniam numeraverunt.
  • Rosc. A. 2, 6 bona … duobus milibus nummum sese dicit emisse.
  • Phil. 3, 6 nummos populo de rostris spargere solebat.
  • Off. 3, 23 adulterinos nummos accepit imprudens pro bonis.
  • Clu. 64 in quo (armario) sciret esse nummorum aliquantum et auri (a quantity of coined money and bullion).

Much money, magna pecunia, or multum pecuniae, not multa pecunia. Multae pecuniae = many different sums of money, while magnae pecuniae = large sums of money.

  • Att. 5, 21 civitates locupletes, ne in hiberna milites reciperent, magnas pecunias dabant.
  • Pomp. 7 in ea provincia pecunias magnas collocatas habent (large investments).
  • Verr. 5, 19 ostendam multas pecunias isti erogatas in operum locationes falsas atque inanes esse perscriptas (many different sums of money).
  • Phil. 2, 16 in multas pecunias alienissimorum hominum invasit.

Ready money, pecunia praesens or numerata. False coin, nummi adulterini.

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