Horae Latinae

Studies In Synonyms and Syntax, by Robert Ogelvie

For everybody eager to learn Latin, we proudly present Latinitium’s digital edition of Horae Latinae by Robert Ogelvie, originally published posthumously in 1901.

Here you will find almost 500 English words and expressions with detailed descriptions of how to best render them in Latin, and with copious quotes from classical authors illustrating the usage. It is thus an excellent complement to the English–Latin dictionary by Smith & Hall.

For more resources on Latin synonyms, see our blog post A guide to Dictionaries of Latin synonyms!

Tips, updates, and learning material.


a or an first (adverb) play
abandon first who if you please
about flee poet
abroad flow poetry
access to forget poisoned
accompany former—latter politics
of one’s own accord freedman as—as possible
accurate great friend poverty
accuse on the front power
accuser fruitful prejudice
across garden present
advocate general pretend
affirm grateful prevail on
African gratification prevent
after Greeks pride
afterwards grief priest
again happen prithee
age happiness promise
ago hasten proof
all but health prove
along the river hear province
also hear well publicly
altar heart quarrel
although high rather than
angry hither and thither really
animal hitherto refer
annual hold refuse
any one honour reign
Apennines hope relations
appeal horse remember
appear on horseback remove
apple host report
appoint a dictator hour represent
arm how resign office
arms however rest
army hunger the rest
as if return
as far as if not reward
as to ignorant rightly
as well as immortal river
assemble with impunity robber
assembly in an author Roman
assuredly indeed rose
attain influence royal
audience inhabit rule
author inhabitants rustic
baggage insanity safe
banker instead of same as
bargain international law I say
because invade I will not say
become inveigh against as they say
before is to be scarcely
before (adverb) joy sculpture
before (of place) judge seat
begin justice second
belief kill secretly
believe know seize
besides we know self
beware of know how sell
beyond Lacedaemonian serious
blame land services
blood last ship
bloodless too late shore
bloody lately shortly
in a book Latin show
books laugh sickness
both learn siege
both—and at least sight
bridge legislator silent
bring leisure sing
build lend six hundred
burn much less sloping
but letter smell
by in a letter soldier
canvassing liberty some
carry life some one
cattle light sometimes
cause lightning soul
cease like speak
certain likely speak against
character little staff
children how little statue
cold live stay
command long (adjective) step
commit long (adverb) storm (verb)
common for a long while strength
conceal no longer style
confess lose subjects
conscience love such
conscious lungs suitable
consul Macedonian sustain
consult magnanimity sword
content majesty take away
continue make a speech take up arms
contract man tempest
control how many territory
corn forced march than
country marriage thankfulness
fellow-countryman marry that of
cousin master the
crime mean theory
crown from memory this (that)
cui bono? in memory of three
custom mind throne
daily (adjective) modesty time
daily (adverb) money one time
day more at the same time
two days more than title
the dead more than once too
deal with many more towards
death morning trade
debt the morrow trader
defend mortal travel
deny most tributary
deserve multitude in triumph
despise name troops
despoil namely trust
die nation truth
different natural uncle
diligence necessity undertake
dislodge neck unjustly
divide new of us
doubt by night in vain
dream noble vote
dress nor wall
drink and not wander about
drunk do not want
drunkenness not even wanting
each not one water
each other not so very way
earthly not to say on the way
either—or nothing when (interrogative)
embark nothing but whenever
employed now where
enemy oath whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
enjoy obey whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
enough obstructionist which?
entreat obtain while
envy oh that! for a while
epidemic old age white
especially omit whoever
estate one why not?
even one of wisdom
ever one more with
everywhere only with one
for example not only not within
exception open without
exile openly witness
expect opinion word
expense or work at
express or not workman
extend orator world
face otherwise worse
fail our would be
famous own wound
fault palace wretch
favour passenger a year after
for fear paternal yes and no
feast people yesterday
few perhaps yield
how few persuade you
first (adjective) places younger
a or an how little
abandon live
about long (adjective)
abroad long (adverb)
access to for a long while
accompany no longer
of one’s own accord lose
accurate love
accuse lungs
accuser Macedonian
across magnanimity
advocate majesty
affirm make a speech
African man
after how many
afterwards forced march
again marriage
age marry
ago master
all but mean
along the river from memory
also in memory of
altar mind
although modesty
angry money
animal more
annual more than
any one more than once
Apennines many more
appeal morning
appear the morrow
apple mortal
appoint a dictator most
arm multitude
arms name
army namely
as nation
as far as natural
as to necessity
as well as neck
assemble new
assembly by night
assuredly noble
attain nor
audience and not
author do not
baggage not even
banker not one
bargain not so very
because not to say
become nothing
before nothing but
before (adverb) now
before (of place) oath
begin obey
belief obstructionist
believe obtain
besides oh that!
beware of old age
beyond omit
blame one
blood one of
bloodless one more
bloody only
in a book not only not
books open
both openly
both—and opinion
bridge or
bring or not
build orator
burn otherwise
but our
by own
canvassing palace
carry passenger
cattle paternal
cause people
cease perhaps
certain persuade
character places
children play
cold if you please
command poet
commit poetry
common poisoned
conceal politics
confess as—as possible
conscience poverty
conscious power
consul prejudice
consult present
content pretend
continue prevail on
contract prevent
control pride
corn priest
country prithee
fellow-countryman promise
cousin proof
crime prove
crown province
cui bono? publicly
custom quarrel
daily (adjective) rather than
daily (adverb) really
day refer
two days refuse
the dead reign
deal with relations
death remember
debt remove
defend report
deny represent
deserve resign office
despise rest
despoil the rest
die return
different reward
diligence rightly
dislodge river
divide robber
doubt Roman
dream rose
dress royal
drink rule
drunk rustic
drunkenness safe
each same as
each other I say
earthly I will not say
either—or as they say
embark scarcely
employed sculpture
enemy seat
enjoy second
enough secretly
entreat seize
envy self
epidemic sell
especially serious
estate services
even ship
ever shore
everywhere shortly
for example show
exception sickness
exile siege
expect sight
expense silent
express sing
extend six hundred
face sloping
fail smell
famous soldier
fault some
favour some one
for fear sometimes
feast soul
few speak
how few speak against
first (adjective) staff
first (adverb) statue
first who stay
flee step
flow storm (verb)
forget strength
former—latter style
freedman subjects
great friend such
on the front suitable
fruitful sustain
garden sword
general take away
grateful take up arms
gratification tempest
Greeks territory
grief than
happen thankfulness
happiness that of
hasten the
health theory
hear this (that)
hear well three
heart throne
high time
hither and thither one time
hitherto at the same time
hold title
honour too
hope towards
horse trade
on horseback trader
host travel
hour tributary
how in triumph
however troops
hunger trust
if truth
if not uncle
ignorant undertake
immortal unjustly
with impunity of us
in an author in vain
indeed vote
influence wall
inhabit wander about
inhabitants want
insanity wanting
instead of water
international law way
invade on the way
inveigh against when (interrogative)
is to be whenever
joy where
judge whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
justice whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
kill which?
know while
we know for a while
know how white
Lacedaemonian whoever
land why not?
last wisdom
too late with
lately with one
Latin within
laugh without
learn witness
at least word
legislator work at
leisure workman
lend world
much less worse
letter would be
in a letter wound
liberty wretch
life a year after
light yes and no
lightning yesterday
like yield
likely you
little younger

FIRST (adjective).

Primus, first of many; prior, first of two. Osiris was the first who made ploughs, Osiris primus aratra fecit; it is uncertain whether Osiris or Triptolemus first made ploughs, incertum est utrum Osiris an Triptolemus prior aratra fecerit.

  • N. Thras. 2, 6 neque quisquam est vulneratus nisi qui prior impugnare voluit.
  • Rosc. 34, 96 occiso Sex. Roscio quis primus Ameriam nuntiat?
  • L. 28, 14, 1 prior Hasdrubal in aciem copias eduxit, deinde et Romani processere.
  • L. 37, 14, 4, C. Livius—is enim est primus rogatus sententiam … .
  • L. 30, 42, 2 tum de legatis Philippi et Carthaginiensium actum. Priores Macedonas introduci placuit.
  • L. 1, 5, 6 rem immaturam nisi aut per occasionem aut per necessitatem aperire noluerat. Necessitas prior venit.
  • Verg. A. 1, 581 prior Aenean compellat Achates.
  • L. 39, 31 primus hostem percussit.
  • L. 2, 1 Brutus prior concedente collega fasces habuit.
  • Mur. 8 quaesturam una petiit, at sum ego factus prior.

Unus is interchanged with primus, in combination with ordinal numbers giving a date. Plato uno et octogesimo anno est mortuus, Plato died in his eighty-first (one and eightieth) year (Sen. 5).

FIRST (adverb).

Primum enumerates = first in order, or for the first time; primo differentiates = at first, or at the beginning, as opposed to by and by. Primum, as first of a series, implies afterwards oftener; primo gives prominence to the change of action and implies afterwards otherwise. He crossed the Apennines for the first time, Appenninum primum transiit; Hannibal first crossed the Alps, then ravaged Italy, Hannibal primum Alpes transiit, deinde Italiam vastavit; Cæsar first hesitated, then said “the die is cast,” Caesar primo cunctatus est, deinde, “iacta,” inquit, “alea est”.

  • L. 40, 15 non hodie me primum frater accusat, sed hodie primum aperte.
  • Pomp. 2 primum de genere belli, deinde de magnitudine, tum de imperatore deligendo.
  • N. D. 2, 1 primum docent esse deos, deinde quales sint, tum mundum ab eis administrari, postremo consulere eos rebus humanis.
  • Sall. C. 10 primo (not primum) imperi, pecuniae deinde cupido crevit.
  • Tus. 3, 6 primo Stoicorum more agamus, deinde nostro instituto vagabimur.
  • Caes. 7, 15 datur petentibus venia, dissuadente primo Vercingetorige, post concedente.
  • Fin. 1, 16 improborum facta primo suspicio insequitur, dein sermo atque fama, tum accusator, tum iudex.
  • Sall. I. 94 primo mulieres et pueri fugere, deinde uti quisque muro proxumus erat, postremo cuncti, armati inermesque.
  1. When the first of two consecutive actions is expressed as a requisite or customary preliminary to the second, first = prius. He never advanced without first reconnoitring, numquam progressus est, nisi prius speculatus: I will accompany you, but I must go home first, te comitabor, sed domum mihi prius eundum est.

    • Div. 2, 49, 101 dicam igitur, … si prius … videro.
    • Off. 2, 1, 1 de quibus dicere adgrediar, si pauca prius … dixero.
    • R. P. 1, 24, 38 numquam enim, quale sit illud … intellegi poterit, nisi, quid sit, fuerit intellectum prius.
    • Fam. 3, 12, 1 gratulabor tibi prius; ita enim rerum ordo postulat; deinde ad me convertar.
    • L. 44, 19 prius Antiochum, deinde Ptolomaeum adire iussi.
  2. But primum is used in the simple enumeration of two things.

    • Phil. 8, 4 bis laberis, primum quod tuas rationes communibus interponis, deinde quod quicquam stabile in regno putas (you make a double mistake, first in preferring your own to the public interest, next in believing in the possible permanence of kingly power).

Firstly, secondly, thirdly = primum, deinde, tum, not primum, iterum, tertium, unless the same thing is repeated, e.g., primum, iterum, tertium consul, consul for the first, second, third time.


“First who,” where “first” is defined by the relative clause, = qui primus. He promised a reward to the first soldier who scaled the wall, militi praemium promisit, qui primus murum ascendisset.

If “first” is the complement of the verb “to be,” the relative clause is dispensed with in Latin. He was the first who broke the custom, primus morem solvit.

  • L. 1, 24, 7 illis legibus populus Romanus prior non deficiet.
  • L. 39, 31 primus hostem percussit.
  • L. 2, 20 fertur pronuntiasse militi praemia, qui primus, qui secundus castra hostium intrasset.
  • L. 1, 56 imperium summum Romae habebit, qui vestrum primus osculum matri tulerit.
  1. If the relative is explanatory, not restrictive, the sense is different, and the construction is the same as in English. The first (front) legions, who (= and they) had crossed, kept the enemy at bay, primae legiones, quae transierant, hostes arcebant.

    • Caes. 2, 10 primos, qui transierant, equitatu circumventos interfecerunt.
    • L. 39, 31 pudor movit primos centuriones, qui inter tela praetorem conspexerunt.
  2. There is also the case where “first” is predicate and where the relative clause defines the subject or the person or thing that is first. He is first (greatest) who forgives his enemies, is est primus, qui inimicis ignoscit.

    • L. 22, 29 saepe ego audivi eum primum esse virum, qui ipse consulat, quid in rem sit, secundum eum, qui bene monenti oboediat (I have often heard that the man is first who himself decides what the right thing is, and that he is second who follows the good advice of another): cf. with unus.
    • Or. 5, 18 in eo libro quem unum reliquit disertos ait se vidisse multos.
  3. Superlatives follow the analogy of ordinals, and are thrown into the relative clause. Themistocles sent the most faithful slave he had, Themistocles misit servum, quem fidelissimum habebat.

    • Planc. ap. Fam. 10, 23, 6 veniat Caesar cum copiis, quas habet firmissimas (let Caesar come with the strongest forces that he has).
    • Div. 1, 17 vovisse dicitur uvam se deo daturum, quae maxima esset in vinea.
  4. Sometimes omnium (rarely eorum) is attached to the superlative and becomes the antecedent to the relative. I am about to describe the most memorable war that was ever waged, bellum maxime omnium memorabile, quae umquam gesta sunt, scripturus sum.

    • Sall. I. 14 homo omnium quos terra sustinet sceleratissumus (the most consummate villain the earth bears).
  5. Instead of the superlative, nemo, nihil, or other negative may be used with the comparative, the relative being put in the ablative. This is the favourite construction where a clause stands in apposition. Cato, the most learned man who lived at that time, Cato, quo nemo illis temporibus doctior erat.

    • Fin. 5, 13 animi virtutes ex ratione gignuntur, qua nihil est in homine divinius (the most godlike faculty in man).
    • R. P. 2, 14, 27 sequamur enim potissimum Polybium nostrum, quo nemo fuit in exquirendis temporibus diligentior.


Fugere, to flee from danger; effugere, to flee from danger successfully, to escape: “mortem fugimus omnes, effugit nemo”. Confugere, to flee for succour, take refuge with. Ad te confugimus, we flee to you for protection. Profugere, to flee from misfortune. Domo profugit propter aes alienum, he fled from his home on account of debt.

  • Caes. 7, 38 haec ab ipsis cognoscite, qui ex ipsa caede fugerunt.
  • Or. 1, 33, 150 est enim magni laboris, quem plerique fugimus.
  • Att. 3, 7, 1 odi enim celebritatem (society), fugio homines.
  • Att. 7, 24 non dubito quin Gnaeus in fuga sit; modo effugiat. Ego a consilio fugiendi, ut tu censes, absum.
  • N. D. 3, 6 effugere enim nemo id potest, quod futurum est.
  • L. 1, 37 multi mortales, cum hostem effugissent, in flumine ipso periere.
  • N. Eu. 5 in castellum Phrygiae, quod Nora appellatur, confugit.
  • Ver. 3, 22 colonus quod decumanorum iniurias ferre non poterat, ex agro profugerat.
  • Pomp. 9 ex suo regno sic Mithridates profugit, ut ex eodem Ponto Medea illa quondam profugisse dicitur.
  • Verr. 3, 22, 55 colonus, quod decumanorum iniurias ferre non poterat, ex agro profugerat.

Fugit Romam = he fled Rome, or, he fled to Rome. But fugere is commonly used as a neuter verb, unless it means to escape the notice of. This did not escape their notice, hoc eos non fugit. It escaped my notice that this was done, me fugit hoc factum esse. I am aware that you said so, me non fugit te ita dixisse. He is aware how difficult it is, eum non fugit quam difficile sit.


Manare, to flow from a source and spread, opposed to contineri or claudi; fluere, to flow as a running stream, opposed to stare or haerere.

  • Planc. 23 sine capite manabit (shall flow without a source).
  • Div. 1, 34 Herculis simulacrum multo sudore manavit (dripped with much sweat).
  • Ac. 2, 29 cuius generis error ita manat, ut non videam quo non possit accedere.
  • Div. 1, 35 tanti terrae motus facti sunt, ut flumina in contrarias partes fluxerint.
  • Sen. 10 ex Nestoris lingua melle dulcior fluebat oratio.


Obliviscor scribere, I forget to write, as a duty; obliviscor me scribere, I forget that I am writing, as a fact.

  • Att. 6, 1, 20 me obsecras amantissime, ne obliviscar vigilare.
  • Ov. M. 2, 439 paene est oblita pharetram tollere cum telis.
  • Verr. 4, 12, 27 peripetasmata emere oblitus es?
  • Quinct. 17, 54 (bos) consulere oblitus est.
  • Or. 2, 4 me senem esse sum oblitus fecique id, quod ne adulescens quidem feceram.
  1. Oblivisci in classical Latin takes the genitive of a person, and the accusative of a thing, the genitive if metaphorical.

    • Fin. 5, 1 vivorum memini, nec tamen Epicuri licet oblivisci.
    • L. 32, 21, 23 nostrorum ipsi vulnerum, si vultis, obliviscamur.
    • Fam. 1, 7, 7 ut nostrae dignitatis simus obliti.
    • Brut. 60 subito totam causam oblitus est.
  2. Oblitus is sometimes used (never in good prose) in a passive sense.

    • Verg. E. 9, 53 nunc oblita mihi tot carmina (now all my songs are forgotten).

To be forgotten = oblivione obrui, exstingui, oblivioni dari, etc.

  • L. 32, 21, 24 cetera stupra virginum matronarumque oblivioni dentur.


Unless for collateral reasons, hic refers to the last mentioned = the nearer, the latter, ille refers to the first mentioned = the more remote, the former. We admire Horace and Vergil, the former for his elegance, the latter for his simplicity, Horatium et Vergilium, illum ob elegantiam, hunc ob simplicitatem admiramur. Duas a te accepi epistulas: respondeo igitur priori prius (to the former first).

  • Sall. C. 54 Caesar beneficiis ac munificentia magnus habebatur, integritate vitae Cato. Ille mansuetudine et misericordia clarus factus, huic severitas dignitatem addiderat.
  1. But when the first mentioned of two things is nearer to the speaker in idea and the nature of the thing, “hic” and “ille” change places.

    • L. 30, 30 melior tutiorque est certa pax quam sperata victoria; haec (the former) in tua, illa (the latter) in deorum manu est (sure peace is better and safer than anticipated victory: the former is in your own control, the latter in the control of the gods).
    • L. 22, 39 erras, Paule, si tibi minus certaminis cum Terentio quam cum Hannibale futurum censes; nescio an infestior hic adversarius (Terentius) quam ille (Hannibal) hostis maneat.
    • Am. 2 cave Catoni anteponas ne istum quidem quem Apollo sapientissimum iudicavit; huius enim facta, illius (Socratis) dicta laudantur.
    • L. 3, 72 hoc socios audire, hoc hostes, quo cum dolore hos (the former), quo cum gaudio illos (the latter)?
    • Verg. 8, 466 filius huic (the former), illi (the latter) comes ibat Achates.
  2. When priority, whether logical or grammatical, is ignored, “hic” naturally precedes “ille” = the one—the other (ὁ μέν—ὁ δέ).

    • L. 2, 51 inter duas acies Etrusci, cum in vicem his atque illis terga darent, occidione occisi.
  3. Alter repeated = former—latter, is used in either order.

    • Off. 1, 26 Philippum Macedonum regem, rebus gestis et gloria superatum a filio, facilitate et humanitate video superiorem fuisse: itaque alter (Philippus) semper magnus, alter (filius) saepe turpissimus.
    • Fin. 4, 24, 65 valet alter plus cottidie, alter videt.
    • Att. 14, 19, 1 accepi binas a te litteras, alteras sexto die, alteras quarto.
    • Sall. I. 7, 5 quorum alterum ex providentia timorem, alterum ex audacia temeritatem adferre plerumque solet.
  4. Of two things not specifically mentioned the former is made by “prior,” the latter by “posterior”. The former part of the work was finished before the latter was contracted for, prior pars operis prius perfecta est, quam posterior pars locata est.

    • L. 40, 6 caput mediae canis praecisae et prior pars ad dextram, posterior ad laevam viae ponitur.
    • Tus. 1, 47 prior pars orationis tuae faciebat, ut mori cuperem, posterior ut modo non nollem, modo non laborarem.
    • Top. 14, 57 prior quartus posterior quintus a dialecticis modus appellatur.
    • Ac. 2, 14, 44 ita priori posterius, posteriori superius non iungitur.


Libertus, in reference to his master, or manumitter; libertinus, in reference to other classes of individuals, servi et ingenui. Tiro fuit libertinus, not libertus, but Tiro fuit Ciceronis libertus, not libertinus.

  • Verr. 1, 47 Trebonius libertum suum heredem fecit (Trebonius made his own freedman his heir).
  • Or. 1, 9 Gracchus libertinos in urbanas tribus transtulit (Gracchus transferred the freedmen to the city tribes).
  • Quint. 5, 10 qui servus est, si manu mittatur, fit libertinus (a manumitted slave becomes a freedman).


Amicus magnus, a great friend = a friend who is a great man, a patron; amicissimus, a great friend = a devoted friend.

  • Fam. 7, 29 sed, amice magne, noli hanc epistulam Attico ostendere.
  • Mil. 36 non enim inimici mei te mihi eripient, sed amicissimi.
  1. So, a great fool = stultissimus; a great coward, ignavissimus; a great liar, mendacissimus; a great scoundrel, improbissimus; a great profligate, flagitiosissimus; a great scholar, doctissimus; a great chum, familiarissimus.

    • Verr. 3, 94 certe hoc, quod adhuc nemo nisi improbissimus fecit, posthac nemo nisi stultissimus non faciet.
  2. But great qualifying a word which does not admit of comparison must be made by “magnus,” e.g., magnus mathematicus, a great mathematician; magnus poeta, a great poet; magnum opus, a great work.

    • Ac. 2, 33 Polyaenus magnus mathematicus fuisse dicitur.
    • Div. I. 37 negant enim sine furore quemquam poetam magnum esse posse.
    • Fam. 10, 6 haec si et ages et senties, tum eris non modo consul et consularis, sed magnus etiam consul et consularis.
    • L. 26, 41, 19 maximus mihi ad hoc tempus vates.

A great uncle, avunculus magnus; a great aunt, amita magna; a great-great uncle, avunculus maior; a great-great aunt, amita maior.


A fronte, on the front, on the side of the front; in fronte, on the front, forming part of the front. On the front of the book is a picture, in fronte libri est imago.

  • Phil. 3, 13 a tergo, fronte, lateribus tenebitur, si in Galliam venerit.
  • L. 21, 34 undique ex insidiis barbari a fronte ab tergo coorti comminus eminus petunt.
  • L. 31, 24, 9 porta ea velut in ore urbis posita.
  • L. 10, 36, 14 eos a fronte urgere pedites, ab tergo circumvecti equites.
  • L. 27, 48, 8 collis oppositus arcebat, ne aut a fronte aut ab latere adgrederentur.
  • L. 28, 33 quattuor cohortes in fronte statuit.
  • Sall. C. 59 cohortes veteranas in fronte locat.

Adversus, in front, facing one; collis adversus, a hill in front; adversi dentes, the front teeth; adversa vulnera, wounds in front.


Frugifer, fruit-bearing; fructuosus is stronger, teeming with fruit; fertilis, capable of bearing fruit.

  • Tus. 2, 5 ut agri non omnes frugiferi sunt, qui coluntur, sic animi non omnes culti fructum ferunt; atque, ut ager quamvis fertilis sine cultura, fructuosus esse non potest, sic sine doctrina animus.


Hortus, a kitchen garden. Horti, a house with pleasure grounds, a country or suburban seat.

  • L. 23, 9 gladium in publicum trans maceriam horti abiecit.
  • Att. 12, 19 cogito interdum trans Tiberim hortos aliquos (an estate) parare.
  • Off. 3, 14 dictitabat se hortulos aliquos (a small estate) emere velle.
  • Mil. 24 Pompeio in hortos nuntiavit (he sent intelligence to Pompey at his villa).


Dux, the general or commander-in-chief, sometimes used, like legatus, of a lieutenant-general or general of a division; imperator, the commander-in-chief, in respect of his being invested by a lex curiata with the imperium militare, and as conducting the war suis auspiciis, especially used of distinguished generals; legati, staff-officers or aides-de-camp, appointed by the senate, but under the orders of the commander-in-chief, and directly responsible to him.

  • N. Pel. 4 in Leuctrica pugna, imperatore Epaminonda, Pelopidas fuit dux delectae manus.
  • Caes. 6, 8 praestate eandem nobis ducibus virtutem, quam saepenumero imperatori praestitistis.
  • Phil. 11, 8 ita se contulerant ad auctoritatem senatus, ut deposcerent imperatorem et ducem C. Caesarem.
  • L. 28, 28 tot tam praeclaris imperatoribus uno bello absumptis superstes est populus Romanus.
  • Caes. C. 3, 51 aliae enim sunt legati partes atque imperatoris; alter omnia agere ad praescriptum, alter libere ad summam rerum consulere debet.
  1. After a victory, the troops saluted the general by the title imperator.

    • Caes. C. 3, 71 Pompeius eo proelio imperator est appellatus.
  2. From the time of Tiberius imperator ceased to be a military title, and was used only for that of Kaiser. When it was given to a general it was placed after his name, but when applied to the Caesars it was generally (not always) placed before their names, e.g., M. Tullius Cicero imperator, but Imperator Caesar Augustus.

    • Tac. A. 3, 74 erant plures simul imperatores … concessit quibusdam et Augustus id vocabulum, ac tunc Tiberius Blaeso postremum (several generals bore the title “imperator” at the same time; Augustus granted it to a certain number, and now, for the last time, Tiberius granted it to Blaesus).


Iucundus, grateful, delightful; gratus, grateful, thankworthy. “Iucundum est, quod iuvat et voluptatem affert; gratum, ob quod gratiae debentur.” Hence a thing may be gratum without being iucundum.

  • Att. 3, 24 nam ista veritas, etiamsi iucunda non est, mihi tamen grata est.
  • Att. 1, 8 id ego Tadio et gratum esse intellexi et magno opere iucundum.
  • Fam. 4, 6 cuius officia iucundiora scilicet saepe mihi fuerunt, numquam tamen gratiora.
  • Att. 1, 17 fuit mihi saepe et laudis nostrae gratulatio tua iucunda et timoris consolatio grata.
  • Fam. 13, 18 tale iudicium non potest mihi non summe esse iucundum; quod, cum ita sit, esse gratum necesse est.
  • Fam. 5, 15 amor tuus gratus et optatus; dicerem iucundus, nisi id verbum in omne tempus perdidissem.

Gratus mihi, grateful to me, i.e., agreeable to me; gratus in or erga me, grateful to me, i.e., thankful to me. Similarly, ingratus mihi, ungrateful to me, i.e., disagreeable; ingratus in or erga me, ungrateful to me, i.e., unthankful.

  • L. 1, 15 multitudini tamen gratior fuit quam patribus.
  • Fam. 11, 10 gratiorem me esse in te posse, quam isti perversi sint in me, exploratum habes.
  • Fam. 5, 5 tu quam gratus erga me fueris, ipse existimare potes; quantum mihi debeas, ceteri existimant.
  • Planc. 33 quid est pietas nisi voluntas grata in parentes?
  • L. 2, 8 gratae in vulgus leges fuere (because vulgus has no dative: Cf. L. 9, 33 nec in vulgus quam optimo cuique gratior).
  • Fam. 7, 32 quam (rem publicam), quamvis in me ingrata sit, amare non desinam.
  • Caes. 7, 30 fuit haec oratio non ingrata Gallis.
  • N. D. 1, 33 in Democritum ipsum, quem secutus est, fuit ingratus.
  • L. 38, 50, 7 duas maximas orbis terrarum urbes ingratas … in principes inventas, Romam ingratiorem.


Oblectatio, pastime, applies to what is done for pleasure; delectatio, satisfaction, applies to what is done with pleasure. So oblectare, to amuse, dispel ennui, is lower that delectare, to edify as well as amuse.

  • Or. 1, 26 in eis artibus, in quibus non utilitas quaeritur necessaria, sed animi libera quaedam oblectatio.
  • Am. 27 in hac amicitia requies plena oblectationis fuit.
  • Off. 1, 30 hominis autem mens semper aliquid aut anquirit aut agit videndique et audiendi delectatione (not oblectatione) ducitur.
  • Tus. 2, 3 lectionem sine ulla delectatione neglego (I eschew uninteresting reading).
  • Or. 1, 43 mira quaedam in cognoscendo suavitas et delectatio.
  • Sen. 11 quas si exsequi nequirem, tamen me lectulus meus oblectaret (yet my couch would afford me pleasure).
  • Q. F. 2, 14 ego me in Cumano satis commode oblectabam (not delectabam).
  • Or. 2, 14 cum his me oblecto, qui res gestas aut orationes scripserunt suas. (Note the position of suas = their delivered speeches).
  • Fin. 1, 5 existimo te minus ab eo delectari, quod orationis ornamenta neglexerit.
  • Fin. 1, 1 etenim si delectamur, cum scribimus, quis est tam invidus, qui ab eo nos abducat?
  • Fam. 4, 3, 3 quae quidem vel optimis rebus et usui et delectationi esse possent.


Graeci, the Greeks, as a nation and a historical name; Graii, the Greeks, with praise, as a heroic race in days of yore, opposed to barbarians; Graeculi, the Greeks, with dispraise, as a degenerate race in the days of Roman supremacy; Achivi, the Greeks of the Trojan war and the Homeric period; Achaei, the Greeks, as members of the Achaean League; Achaici, persons incidentally connected with Greece or Achaia. Mummius obtained the title of Achaicus for the destruction of Corinth and the complete subjugation of Greece, Achaicus dictus est Mummius ob eversam Corinthum et Achaiam devictam.

  • R. P. 1, 37 Graeci dicunt omnis aut Graios esse aut barbaros.
  • Inv. 2, 23 aeternum inimicitiarum monumentum Graios de Graiis statuere non oportet.
  • Or. 1, 11 verbi enim controversia iam diu torquet Graeculos homines contentionis cupidiores quam veritatis.
  • Mil. 21 comites Graeculi, quocumque ibat (some miserable Greek followers).
  • Iuv. 3, 78 omnia novit Graeculus esuriens; in caelum iusseris, ibit (the starveling Greek knows everything; he’ll go to heaven, if you have bidden him).
  • Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 14 quidquid delirant reges, plectuntur Achivi.
  • L. 35, 37 Philopoemen, evocatis principibus, societati Achaeorum Lacedaemonios adiunxit.
  • Att. 1, 13 Achaici homines (Romans in Achaia).


Dolor, grief felt, grief at heart; luctus and maeror, grief manifested, luctus, by objective signs, as, mourning dress, maeror, by subjective signs, as, tears or sad countenance. Dolere, lugere, and maerere are similarly distinguished.

  • Tus. 4, 8 luctus aegritudo ex eius, qui carus fuerit, interitu acerbo, maeror aegritudo flebilis; dolor aegritudo crucians.
  • Att. 12, 28 maerorem minui; dolorem nec potui, nec si possem vellem.
  • Phil. 12, 8 dolorem iustissimum, si non potuero frangere, occultabo.
  • Balb. 27 dolorem alii, nos luctum maeroremque suscepimus.
  • Phil. 11, 1 magno in dolore, vel maerore potius (amid my poignant, or rather my uncontrollable grief).
  • Clu. 5 ita flagrare coepit amentia, ut eam non pudor, non pietas, non filii dolor, non filiae maeror a cupiditate revocaret (dolor, the stifled indignation of the son = aegritudo crucians; maeror, the demonstrative grief of the daughter = aegritudo flebilis).
  • Sest. 29 luctum nos hausimus maiorem, dolorem ille animi non minorem.
  • Phil. 9, 5 est autem ita affectus, ut nemo umquam unici filii mortem magis doluerit, quam ille maeret patris (that no one has ever felt more grief for the loss of an only son than he shows for the death of his father).
  • Planc. 41 nec loqui prae maerore potuit.
  • Fam. 14, 4, 3 non queo plura iam scribere; inpedit maeror.
  • Att. 12, 14, 3 quod me ab hoc maerore recreari vis, facis ut omnia; … nihil enim de maerore minuendo scriptum ab ullo est, quod ego non domi tuae legerim. Sed omnem consolationem vincit dolor.
  • L. 2, 7 matronae annum ut parentem Brutum luxerunt.


Accidere and evenire, to happen, of favourable and unfavourable occurrences, accidere with reference to the result, evenire with accessory reference to the circumstances which bring about the result. Contingere marks a closer connexion between cause and effect, to happen by a natural process, as might be predicted under the circumstances, especially of issues depending on the merit or demerit of the individual. Usu venire (not evenire), to happen, of what falls within one’s experience.

  • Off. 2, 23 Agim regem, quod numquam antea apud eos acciderat, necaverunt.
  • Fam. 6, 21 timebam ne evenirent ea, quae acciderunt.
  • Sall. C. 51 illis merito accidet, quidquid evenerit.
  • N. Mil. 1, 1 accidit ut Athenienses Chersonesum colonos vellent mittere.
  • Att. 8, 6 moriar, si magis gauderem, si id mihi accidisset.
  • Div. 1, 14 at nonnumquam ea, quae praedicta sunt, minus eveniunt.
  • Att, 7, 26 non venit usu mihi quod tu tibi scribis.
  • Rosc. C. 11 quod item nuper in Erote comoedo usu venit.
  • N. Han. 12 Hannibal uno loco se tenebat in castello, semper verens ne usu veniret, quod accidit.
  • N. D. 1, 5, 11 quod non Academiae vitio, sed tarditate hominum arbitror contigisse.
  • Phil. 2, 7, 17 Mayor tibi idem, quod illis accidit, contigisset.
  • Mil. 28 num quis igitur est tam demens, qui hoc, Clodio vivo, contingere potuisse arbitretur?
  • Par. 5, 1 soli igitur hoc contingit sapienti, ut nihil faciat invitus, nihil dolens, nihil coactus.
  • Phil. 2, 7 qualis (dux) si qui nunc esset, tibi idem, quod illis accidit, contigisset.
  • Brut. 24 quod peringeniosis hominibus neque satis doctis plerumque contingit.
  • Brut. 84 volo id oratori contingat, ut cum auditum sit eum esse dicturum, locus in subselliis occupetur.
  • Am. 20 quod non fere contingit nisi eis, qui etiam contemnendos se arbitrantur.
  • Div. 1, 57 quod maxime contingit aut dormientibus aut mente permotis.
  1. I, thou, he happened to be = accidit ut. I happened to fall, accidit ut caderem; it happened to be full moon, accidit ut esset luna plena; we happened to be at Rome, accidit ut Romae essemus, or (if “happened” is unemphatic) Romae forte fuimus.

  2. Happen = take place is made by fieri. This happened at Rome, hoc Romae factum est. Quod veritus sum, factum est (Att. 8, 12a). As generally happens, ut fit, or ut fieri solet.

His death happened at Athens, Athenis mortuus est.


Beata vita, or beate vivere. Felicitas = good fortune, luckiness, success.

  • Fin. 2, 27, 86 si amitti vita beata potest, beata esse non potest (if happiness can be lost, it cannot be happiness).
  • Fin. 2, 27, 86 beate vivere alii in alio, vos in voluptate ponitis (some place happiness in one thing, some in another, you place it in pleasure).
  • Fin. 5, 28 Theophrasti igitur tibi liber ille placet de beata vita? (the well-known book of Theophrastus about happiness).
  • Tus. 5, 9 vexatur ab omnibus in eo libro quem scripsit de vita beata (he is attacked on all hands in reference to the book which he wrote on happiness; in eo libro = in the case of the book, not, as often, in the compass of the book).
  • Fin. 5, 29 beate enim vivendi cupiditate incensi omnes sumus (we are all stirred by the passion for happiness).
  • Pomp. 16, 47 de felicitate, quam praestare de se ipso nemo potest.
  • N. Lys. 1 Lysander magnam reliquit sui famam, magis felicitate quam virtute partam.
  • L. 30, 30 ne tot annorum felicitatem in unius horae dederis discrimen.


Maturare and festinare are objective = to hasten; properare is subjective = to be eager to hasten, to be in a hurry.

  1. The infinitive is more common with properare than with the other two.

  2. Festinare and properare are never used transitively in Cicero and Caesar, maturare only once or twice; e.g., Clu. 61 huic mortem maturabat inimicus; Caes. C. 1, 63 maturandum iter existimabant.

  • Caes. 1, 7 maturat ab urbe proficisci.
  • Att. 3, 26 tu, quaeso, festina ad nos venire.
  • Sull. 19 properatum vehementer est (there was a great display of zeal).
  • Att. 16, 4 illud est mihi submolestum, quod parum Brutus properare videtur (I feel a little annoyed that Brutus seems to be in no hurry).
  • Sall. I. 77 ni id festinaret, in summo periculo suam salutem fore.
  • Tac. A. 13, 17 Nipperdey quamvis … ante oculos inimici (mors) properata sit in illum supremum Claudiorum sanguinem [cf. 1, 56 with Dräger-Becher’s note].


Valetudo is a neutral word (vox media), being defined, like its English equivalent, by the context, or by a qualifying adjective.

  • Caes. C. 3, 49 Caesaris exercitus optima valetudine utebatur.
  • Fin. 2, 20 Epicurus habebat rationem valetudinis.
  • Fam. 14, 9 ad ceteras meas miserias accessit dolor de Dolabellae valetudine.
  • Att. 7, 2 valetudo tua me valde conturbat.
  • Brut. 48 is processisset honoribus longius, nisi semper infirma atque etiam aegra valetudine fuisset.
  • L. 24, 20, 7 Marcellum ab gerundis rebus valetudo adversa Nolae tenuit.


Audire, to hear (generally); exaudire, to hear in spite of some obstacle or difficulty, such as distance, noise, or weak voice = to catch, (often) to hear what is not meant to be heard, to overhear.

  • L. 1, 27 equitem clara increpans voce, ut hostes exaudirent, redire in proelium iubet.
  • Lig. 3 quantum potero voce contendam, ut populus hoc Romanus exaudiat.
  • Div. 1, 57 homines etiam, cum taciti optant quid, non dubitant quin di illud exaudiant.
  • L. 2, 27 neque decretum exaudiri consulis prae strepitu ac clamore poterat.
  • Ac. 2, 7 quam multa, quae nos fugiunt in cantu, exaudiunt in eo genere exercitati!
  • Att. 4, 8 dic, oro te, clarius: vix enim mihi exaudisse videor (speak, I beseech you, louder; for I hardly seem to have caught the words).
  • N. Dion. 9, 4 fit strepitus, adeo ut exaudiri posset foris.
  • Cat. 4, 7 sed ea quae exaudio dissimulare non possum.
  • Phil. 11, 8 at enim—nam id exaudio—Caesari adulescentulo imperium extraordinarium mea sententia dedi.
  1. Audivi te canentem (or cum caneres), I heard you singing; audivi te canere, I heard that you sing or were singing. But Cicero uses the infinitive in recalling to the jury the deposition of a witness. Minucium dicentem audistis = you heard Minucius say; Minucium dicere audistis = you heard Minucius affirm on oath.

    • Brut. 49 neminem fere praetermittimus eorum, quos aliquando dicentes audivimus.
    • Fat. 2 audiam te disputantem, ut ea lego, quae scripsisti.
    • Verr. 1, 48 ipsum Ligurem pro testimonio dicere audistis.
    • Verr. 4, 40 erat hiems summa, ut Sopatrum dicere audistis.
    • Verr. 2, 5 Heium iuratum dicere audistis.
    • R. P. 6, 15 quoniam haec est vita, ut Africanum audio dicere, quid moror in terris?
  2. Audire is followed by de, ex, a, or ab; hence audire de aliquo = to hear something from one, or concerning one.

    • Brut. 26 audivi equidem ista de (from) maioribus, sed numquam sum adductus ut crederem.
    • R. P. 2, 15 saepe enim hoc de (from) maioribus natu audivimus.
    • Balb. 5 audivi hoc de (from) parente meo puer.
    • Phil. 12, 12 multa enim falsa de me audierunt.
    • Sen. 13 saepe audivi e maioribus natu, qui se porro pueros a senibus audisse dicebant.
    • Or. 3, 33 equidem saepe hoc audivi de patre et de socero meo.
    • Fam. 3, 11, 1 magis videbar tibi gratulari, cum de te ex te ipso audiebam.
    • Par. 6, 1, 45 multi ex te audierunt, cum diceres neminem esse divitem …


Audire bene (male), to be well (ill) spoken of, to have a good (bad) reputation = Greek εὐ, κακῶς ἀκούειν. To hear well or ill must be rendered by a circumlocution, as bene, male auribus uti, auditu valere, surdaster esse. Not to hear = to be deaf, is not non or nihil audire, but sensu audiendi carere, auribus captus esse.

  • Tus. 5, 40 erat surdaster M. Crassus; sed aliud molestius, quod male audiebat.
  • Fin. 3, 17 est hominis ingenui et liberaliter educati velle bene audire a parentibus, a propinquis, a bonis etiam viris.
  • N. Dion. 7 insuetus male audiendi (unused to be badly spoken of).
  • Tus. 5, 40 congregantur in unum omnia, ut idem oculis et auribus captus sit.
  • Rab. 7 mancus et omnibus membris captus.
  • L. 21, 58, 5 capti auribus et oculis metu omnes torpere.
  • Att. 10, 8, 9 tamen nos recte facere et bene audire vult.
  • Att. 6, 1, 2 haec … ridicule interpretantur, qui me idcirco putent bene audire velle, ut ille male audiat.
  • Verr. 4, 25, 57 iste … non laboravit, quid non modo in Sicilia, verum etiam Romae in iudicio audiret.


Cor in good prose = the heart, in a physical sense, except in the phrase cordi esse alicui, to be agreeable to one’s wishes. The arrow touched his heart, sagitta cor eius tetigit. From the heart, animo, ex animo, or ex animi sententia; to love from the heart, ex animo amare (“corde amare” in comic poets).

  • Div. 1, 52 num censes ullum animal, quod sanguinem habeat, sine corde esse posse?
  • L. 1, 58, 11 cultrum, quem sub veste abditum habebat, eum in corde defigit.
  • Fam. 9, 16 ego uno utor argumento, quam ob rem me ex animo vereque arbitrer diligi.
  • L. 1, 39 evenit facile, quod dis cordi esset.
  • L. 28, 18, 5 eodem etiam lecto Scipio atque Hasdrubal, quia ita cordi erat regi, accubuerunt.
  • Att. 5, 3, 3 Dionysius nobis cordi est.

A good heart, animus benignus, benevolus; a bad heart, animus malus, improbus. Be of good heart, bono animo sis. Iubet bono animo esse (L. 1, 41).

To know by heart, memoria tenere; to learn by heart, ediscere. Magnum numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur (Caes. 6, 14).

He retired into the heart of Macedonia, abdidit se in intimam Macedoniam (Fam. 13, 29).


Altus is used of what is above or below the ground. Altus mons, a high mountain; altum flumen, a deep river. So fastigium = the highest point of anything raised above the ground, or, by inversion, the lowest point of anything sunk in the ground.

  • Som. Scip. 5 Nilus praecipitat ex altissimis montibus.
  • Curt. 7, 16 altissima quaeque flumina minimo sono labuntur.
  • Or. 28, 98 alte enim cadere non potest (he cannot fall further).
  1. Summus mons, the topmost part of the mountain; altissimus mons, a very high, or the highest mountain.

    • Caes. C. 3, 95 omnes in altissimos montes confugerunt.
    • Caes. 1, 6 mons altissimus impendebat (a very high mountain overhung).
    • Caes. 1, 22 prima luce summus mons ab Labieno tenebatur (at dawn of day the mountain top was held by Labienus).
  2. (Mare) altum, or mare profundum, the deep sea, the deep, the former simply with reference to depth, the latter with reference to unfathomable depth, or as the lowest region of depth. Hence altitudo (not profundum) maris is used of measurable depth.

    • Pl. Men. 2, 1, 2 quando ex alto procul terram conspiciunt (when from the deep they espy the land afar).
    • Planc. 6 ut mare profundum et immensum (like a deep and boundless sea).
    • Caes. 4, 25 nostris militibus cunctantibus maxime propter altitudinem maris.

A deep sleep, somnus artus (altus post-classical). Me artior quam solebat somnus complexus est (R. P. 6, 10). Signo secundae vigiliae convenistis, quod tempus mortales somno altissimo premit (L. 7, 35, 11).


* Balanced opposites do not always stand in the same order in different languages. The Romans said ultro et citro, thither and hither = German hin und her. Cf. (Hor. C. 2, 3, 26) serius ocius, sooner or later; so Anglicè ins and outs, Scoticè outs and ins.

Ultro citroque (ultro et citro) implies reciprocity or alternation = backwards and forwards; huc et illuc implies dispersion = this way and that way.

  • Caes. C. 1, 20 internuntiis ultro citroque missis.
  • R. P. 6, 9 multis verbis ultro citroque habitis, ille nobis consumptus est dies.
  • Off. 1, 28 una pars in appetitu posita est, quae hominem huc et illuc rapit.
  • N. D. 2, 39, 101 aër … effluens huc et illuc ventos efficit (the air by flowing out hither and thither cause winds).


Hactenus, up to this point or limit; adhuc, up to this time or moment, as yet, still. In good prose hactenus is never used of time. The winter still prevents me from sailing, hiems adhuc (not hactenus) me navigare prohibet. Thus far for to-day, in hunc diem hactenus.

  • Fam. 14, 15 Tulliam adhuc mecum teneo.
  • Att. 5, 13 ergo haec hactenus. Redeo ad urbana.
  • Planc. ap. Fam. 10, 23, 4 et adhuc vivit et dicitur victurus.
  1. “Hactenus” commonly marks the breaking off from something and transition to something else, but sometimes = so far, followed by an explanatory clause.

    • Att. 16, 7, 6 sed haec hactenus; reliqua coram.
    • R. P. 2, 44, 70 sed, si placet, in hunc diem hactenus; reliqua … differamus in crastinum.
    • Att. 11, 4 hactenus fuit quod caute a me scribi posset (thus far only can I go in a letter with prudence).
    • Or. 2, 27 artem quidem et praecepta dumtaxat hactenus (so far) requirunt, ut certis dicendi luminibus ornentur.
  2. In Livy and in later writers “hactenus” is sometimes used as a particle of time.

    • L. 7, 26 hactenus quietae utrimque stationes fuere.
    • L. 41, 28 hactenus feminas non minus quam viros ad hereditates admitti ius fuerat.
  3. In good Latin “adhuc” is used only of present time. In speaking of the past still is made by “etiam,” or “etiam tum,” or “ad id tempus”. Etiam is also used of the present or the future.

    • Fam. 14, 1 Plancius me cupit esse secum et adhuc retinet.
    • Fam. 6, 14 Caesari, sicut adhuc feci (present-perfect) libentissime supplicabo.
    • N. Mil. 5 qua pugna nihil adhuc exstitit nobilius.
    • Tus. 2, 17, 40 sed adhuc de consuetudine exercitationis loquor, nondum de ratione et sapientia.
    • Top. 6, 29 ut haec: hereditas est pecunia. Commune adhuc; multa enim genera pecuniae.
    • Verr. 3, 23 cum iste etiam cubaret.
    • Sall. C. 61 Catilina inter hostium cadavera repertus est, paululum etiam spirans.
    • Caes. C. 3, 13 perterrito etiam tum exercitu princeps Labienus procedit.
    • Caes. C. 3, 93 pugnantibus etiam tum ac resistentibus Pompeianis.
    • Sall. I. 21 obscuro etiam tum lumine milites Iugurthini signo dato castra hostium invadunt.
    • Or. 2, 22 omnes etiam tum retinebant illum Pericli sucum.
    • Or. 2, 3, 12 cum etiam tum in lecto Crassus esset.
    • Att. 6, 2, 10 cupiebam etiam nunc plura garrire, sed lucet.
    • Att. 3, 12, 3 ego etiam nunc eodem in loco iaceo.
    • Att. 13, 25, 3 etiam nunc si dubitas, fac, ut sciamus.
    • L. 23, 12, 6 “quid est, Hanno?” inquit “etiam nunc paenitet belli suscepti adversus Romanos?”
    • Ter. Andr. 116 egomet quoque eius causa in funus prodeo, nil etiam suspicans mali.
    • Cat. 1, 1 quamdiu etiam furor iste tuus nos eludet?
    • Caes. C. 3, 79 haec ad id tempus Caesar ignorabat.
    • Att. 7, 12 unam adhuc a te epistulam acceperam (“acceperam” is the epistolary tense for “accepi” = as yet I have received but one letter from you).
    • Fam. 6, 1, 2 qui in te adhuc iniustior, quam tua dignitas postulabat, fuit.
    • Fam. 12, 5, 2 hiemps adhuc rem geri prohibuerat.
    • Att. 9, 2a, 3 nos adhuc, quid Brundisi actum esset, plane nesciebamus.
  4. “Adhuc,” however, is sometimes used by Cicero in the sense of “etiam tum,” in indirect speech. (See Riemann, Études sur la Langue de T. Live., index.)

    • Verr. 4, 12 negavit adhuc revertisse.
    • Or. 1, 21 scripsi etiam illud quodam in libello disertos cognosse me nonnullos, eloquentem adhuc neminem (but Cicero would not have said “adhuc neminem cognoverat”).
  5. In Livy and later writers “adhuc” is frequently used of past time = Fr. encore.

    • L. 10, 31 nec in Samnitibus adhuc nec in Etruria pax erat.
    • L. 33, 49 Ephesi regem est consecutus, fluctuantem adhuc animo.
    • L. 21, 48, 4 gravis adhuc vulnere erat.
    • L. 28, 40, 10 cum vigerem adhuc viribus.
    • L. 27, 40, 8 plenum adhuc irae in civis M. Livium … Q. Fabio … respondisse.
    • Tac. H. 1, 16 neque erat adhuc damnati principis exemplum.
  6. Still = even to this day or at this hour is “(etiam) hodie,” or “etiam nunc”.

    • L. 1, 26 id hodie quoque publice semper refectum manet.
    • R. P. 2, 9 id quod retinemus hodie (a practice we still observe).
    • Or. 1, 55 clarissimi cives etiam hodie ei studio praesunt.
    • Rosc. A. 52 quae (spes) si manet, salvi etiam nunc esse possumus.
  7. Ever as yet = adhuc semper.

    • Or. 1, 26 enuntiabo quod adhuc semper tacui.
  8. “Still” before a comparative = etiam. Still greater, etiam maior, or maior etiam.

    • Off. 1, 30 erat in L. Crasso multus lepos; maior etiam in C. Caesare.
    • Verr. 3, 75 dic etiam clarius.
    • Also “still more,” without etiam.
    • Quinct. 31, 95 miserum est deturbari fortunis omnibus, miserius est iniuria.
    • Phil. 2, 22, 54 o miserum te, si haec intellegis, miseriorem, si non intellegis cet.
    • L. 3, 6, 6 discessere socii pro tristi nuntio tristiorem (masc.) domum referentes.
  9. Not yet = nondum. “Non adhuc” without a separating word is questionable, but “neque adhuc,” “nihil adhuc,” “adhuc non,” are quite common.

    • Off. 2, 21 nondum centum et decem anni sunt cum lex lata est (it is not yet a hundred and ten years since the law was passed).
    • Att. 3, 14 non commovi me adhuc Thessalonica.
    • Phil. 2, 44 res publica se adhuc tantum modo ulta est, nondum recuperavit (the republic as yet has only avenged its wrongs, not recovered its strength).
    • N. D. 3, 7, 15 non igitur adhuc … intellego deos esse.

Thus far Varro (of a quotation), haec (not hactenus) Varro.

  • Off. 3, 28, 103 haec fere contra Regulum.
  • L. 3, 10, 14 haec tribuni.


Obtinere, to hold, maintain, never strictly = to obtain. Cicero holds the first place among Roman writers, Cicero principem locum inter Latinos scriptores obtinet.

  • Verr. 3, 93 biennium provinciam obtinuit.
  • Caes. C. 1, 30 Sardiniam obtinebat M. Cotta, Siciliam M. Cato.
  • L. 1, 16 maestum aliquamdiu silentium obtinuit.
  • Balb. 27 volumus quaedam, contendimus, experti sumus: optenta non sunt (“we failed to hold them”—Tyrrell).

Hence = to make good, defend successfully, carry a point, gain (a suit).

  • Verr. 3, 71 possumus hoc teste, quod dicimus, obtinere (succeed in proving).
  • Fam. 1, 8 eo tu consule omnia, quae voles, optinebis.
  • Rosc. C. 4 ad iudicium hoc modo venimus, ut totam litem aut obtineamus aut amittamus.
  • Or. 21 id unum ad optinendas causas potest plurimum.
  • Att. 7, 25 malas causas semper obtinuit, in optima cecidit.
  • Att. 4, 18, 3 (16, 11) contra dicente et nihil obtinente Torquato.
  • Fam. 1, 4, 1 causam … optinebamus.
  • Brut. 66, 233 adhibebat ad optinendas causas curam etiam et gratiam.


Honos is objective = a position, post or action which confers honour; fides is subjective = the principle of honour, integrity of character, veracity. A man of stainless honour, homo spectata fide; we have lost all but honour, omnia nisi fidem nostram perdidimus.

  • Planc. 25 honorum populi (= quos populus defert) finis est consulatus.
  • N. Cato 1, 1 M. Cato … priusquam honoribus operam daret, versatus est in Sabinis.
  • Sen. 20 cuius interitum ne crudelissimus quidem hostis honore sepulturae carere passus est.
  • Caes. 6, 13 Druides magno sunt apud eos honore.
  • Arch. 4 adest vir summa fide M. Lucullus.

Officii causa, for the sake of honour, not honoris causa, which = out of respect, in order to show honour. Quem honoris causa nomino, whom I name with all respect, the usual formula when living persons were mentioned by name, like the Parliamentary phrase “the honourable member”.


Sperare, to hope, implies reasonable probability; optare, to hope against hope, “to look forward to what can only happen by some extraordinary stroke of good fortune” (Reid, Balb., 4).

  • Att. 11, 19 cogis me sperare, quod optandum vix est.
  • Att. 8, 15a qui ut adduci ad ullam condicionem possit, magis opto quam spero.
  • Fam. 2, 10, 4 haec ad te in praesenti scripsi, ut sperares te adsequi id, quod optasses.
  • Pomp. 9 tantum victus efficere potuit, quantum incolumis numquam est ausus optare (never would have dared to look forward to).
  • Fam. 9, 17 tu tamen debebis optare optima, cogitare difficillima (hope for the best, prepare for the worst).
  1. Sperare is regularly followed by the accusative and infinitive. The construction with ut belongs to late Latin. “Sperare ut” occurs once in Livy (34, 27), “spes ut” once in Cicero (Am. 19).

    The Latin requires the future infinitive, where the hope is directed to the future. He hopes to come, sperat se venturum (esse).

    Posse and velle are equivalent to future infinitives. He hopes to be able to come, sperat se venire posse (not fore ut venire possit).

    • Sen. 19 sperat adulescens diu se victurum (a young man hopes to live a long time).
    • Caes. 1, 3 totius Galliae imperio sese potiri posse sperant.
    • L. 28, 44 non speraverat Hannibal fore, ut tot in Italia populi ad se deficerent.
  2. The present infinitive is used where the hope is expressed that an action, of which one has received no intimation, has already begun and is progressing or lasting. I hope you are now approaching the city, sperabam iam te urbi appropinquare.

    • Fam. 4, 6, 3 sperabam tuum adventum adpropinquare.
    • Fam. 2, 2 spero (I flatter myself) nostram amicitiam non egere testibus.
  3. Instead of the future the present may be used of a hope which is capable of instant realisation, or which is directed to the result or effect of an event which has just occurred or is about to occur. I hope that you will forgive me, spero te mihi ignoscere.

    • Caes. C. 3, 8 dominos navium interfecit magnitudine poenae reliquos deterreri sperans.
    • Tus. 1, 41 magna me spes tenet, bene mihi evenire, quod mittar ad mortem.
    • Fam. 14, 7, 2 navem spero nos valde bonam habere.
    • Att. 5, 21, 1 spero te istic iucunde hiemare.
  4. The perfect infinitive follows the analogy the present; that is, it is used of a hope which is directed to the result or effect of an actual occurrence, or concerns a conjectured occurrence of which one has received no intimation. I hope I have made out my plea to your satisfaction, spero tibi me causam probasse.

    • Fam. 15, 1 sperabam eos, qui nostram mansuetudinem perspexerant, amiciores populo Romano esse factos.
    • L. 4, 15 Maelium bilibris farris sperasse libertatem se civium suorum emisse.
    • L. 45, 41 defunctam esse fortunam publicam mea calamitate spero.
    • L. 44, 22 deos huic favisse sorti spero.
    • Att. 8, 3, 7 est quaedam spes Afranium in Pyrenaeo cum Trebonio pugnasse.
  5. The parenthetic ut spero is correspondingly used in connexion with the present and perfect as well as the future.

    • Att. 7, 2 omnia experiar et, ut spero, adsequar.
    • Phil. 14, 11 sed id quidem restat, ut spero, victoribus.
    • Planc. ap. Fam. 10, 15 sedulitas mea, ut spero, et mihi et rei publicae tulit fructum.
    • Fam. 16, 4, 3 omnia viceris, si, ut spero, te validum videro.
  6. Sperare is rarely used of what is undesirable, never in Cicero without a qualifying negative, e.g., Rosc. 4 sin a vobis, id quod non spero (which I hope will not be the case), deserar, tamen animo non deficiam (see Landgraf’s note).

  7. In personal constructions optare is regularly followed by ut; rarely by the accusative and infinitive, never in classical prose unless for structural symmetry or other collateral reason. Optatum (optandum) est follows the analogy of optabile est, and takes infinitive, accusative and infinitive, and sometimes ut. Optatum illud est, in hoc reo finem accusandi facere (Verr. 5, 71).

    • Pl. Aul. prol. 11-12 inopemque optavit potius eum relinquere quam eum thensaurum commostraret filio.


Eques, a horse-soldier, a trooper. Ducenti equites, two hundred horse; ducenti equi, two hundred horses. But equus is used in the sense of eques in the phrase equis virisque, with horse and foot, metaphorically = with might and main, with tooth and nail.

  • L. 35, 44 omnem se Graeciam armis, viris, equis, omnem oram maritimam classibus completurum.
  • Phil. 8, 7 armis, equis, viris (with all the forces at our command).
  • Off. 3, 33 cum his viris equisque, ut dicitur, decertandum est.

Cf. velis remisque (Tus. 3, 11); ventis remis (Fam. 12, 25); armis et castris (Off. 2, 24).


In equo (or equo), on horseback, simply mounted; ex equo, on horseback, as the position from which some act is performed, e.g., ex equo pugnare, ex equis colloqui.

  • Mil. 10 obviam ei fit Clodius, expeditus, in equo, nullis impedimentis (Clodius met him on the road, lightly equipped, on horseback, without luggage).
  • L. 26, 10, 6 quos cum ex Arce Capitolioque Clivo Publicio in equis decurrentis quidam vidissent.
  • Pis. 25, 60 legati in equis.
  • L. 2, 13 in Summa Sacra Via fuit posita virgo insedens equo.
  • N. D. 2, 2 Castor et Pollux ex equis pugnare visi sunt.
  • L. 1, 12, 9 ex equo tum forte Mettius pugnabat.

Similarly in vinculis and ex vinculis, in chains.

  • L. 6, 16 haec dextra, qua Gallos fudi a delubris vestris, iam in vinculis et catenis erit?
  • Caes. 1, 4 Orgetorigem ex vinculis causam dicere coegerunt (lit. out of chains).
  • L. 29, 19 Pleminium legatum vinctum (= in catenis) Romam deportari placere et ex vinculis causam dicere.

Cf. Caes. 4, 33, 1 genus hoc est ex essedis pugnae.


Hospes, a host, as a friend, one who entertains gratuitously; caupo, one who entertains for pay, an innkeeper.

  • Pl. Most. 2, 2, 48 (479) hospes necavit hospitem captum manu.
  • Div. 1, 27 alterum ad cauponem divertisse, ad hospitem alterum.
  • Hospes is used both of host and guest = a guest friend.
  • Deiot. 3 quam (dextram) regi Deiotaro hospes hospiti porrexisti.
  • Ov. M. 1, 144 non hospes ab hospite tutus.


Strictly, a Roman hour was a 12th part of day or night. Hence it varied with the season of the year (from 45 minutes to 1 hour 15 minutes), and only coincided with an hour of our day at the two equinoxes. The equinoctial hour known to astronomers came in process of time into common use. Horae nunc aequinoctiales non cuiuscumque diei significantur (Plin., N. H.).

  • Ter. Eu. 341 dum haec dicit, abiit hora.
  • Mil. 10 fit obviam Clodio hora fere undecima.
  • Att. 4, 3 haec ego scribebam hora noctis nona (I am writing this at three in the morning).
  • Rosc. A. 7 cum post horam primam noctis occisus esset, primo diluculo nuntius hic Ameriam venit (although he was not murdered till after the first hour of the night, this messenger was at Ameria at the screech of dawn).
  1. Prima hora = at the first hour, or in the first hour.

    • Mart. 4, 8, 1 prima salutantes atque altera conterit hora.
    • Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 6 si te grata quies et primam somnus in horam delectat.
    • Att. 4, 3, 4 nihil esse, quod in campum nocte veniretur; se hora prima in comitio fore (there was no occasion for his repairing to the Campus Martius by night; he (Metellus) would be in the forum at six in the morning).
  2. From hour to hour, hourly = in horas, in singulas horas, in singula diei tempora, omnibus horis.

    • Att. 14, 20, 4 consilia temporum sunt; quae in horas (from hour to hour) commutari vides.
    • L. 2, 12 proinde in hoc discrimen accingere, ut in singulas horas (every moment) capite dimices tuo.
    • Caes. 7, 16 per certos exploratores in singula diei tempora, quae ad Avaricum gererentur cognoscebat (by a fixed hourly service of scouts he got intelligence of the operations at Avaricum).
    • Rosc. A. 53 cum omnibus horis aliquid atrociter fieri videmus aut audimus (when every hour we see or hear of some atrocity).
    • Sen. 20 mortem igitur omnibus horis inpendentem timens qui poterit animo consistere?
  3. Horae is not used of hours or portions of time in a general sense = tempus (tempora). (See Leisure.)

    • Fam. 7, 1 neque dubito, quin per eos dies matutina tempora (the morning hours) lectiunculis consumpseris.
    • Sall. I. 6 pleraque tempora in venando agere (he spent many hours of his time in hunting).
    • Caes. 5, 11, 6 in his diebus circiter dies X consumit, ne nocturnis temporibus ad laborem militum intermissis.
    • Caes. 5, 40, 7 ipse Cicero … ne nocturnum quidem sibi tempus ad quietem relinquebat.
    • Sall. I. 108, 2 conloquio diem locum tempus ipse delegeret.


Quam, how, to what extent, always implies a high degree; ut, how, is used simply of the fact, not of the degree, after verbs sentiendi et declarandi, particularly video, scio, sentio, cognosco, audio, dico, doceo. See how he despises us, videte ut nos despiciat = eum nos despicere. Ut occurs also in direct sentences, and always qualifies the whole clause, whereas quam usually qualifies a single word or phrase. You see how he openly despises us, videtis ut aperte nos despiciat; you see how openly he despises us, videtis quam aperte nos despiciat. Quanto (not quam) is used before comparatives. We say quam prudens, quanto prudentior.

  • Fin. 2, 10 quam haec sunt contraria!
  • Verr. 1, 60 quam aperte, quam improbe fecerit, longum est dicere.
  • Tus. 3, 29 sed haec inter se quam repugnent plerique non vident.
  • Caes. 1, 43 docebat quam veteres quamque iustae causae necessitudinis ipsis cum Haeduis intercederent, ut omni tempore totius Galliae principatum Haedui tenuissent.
  • Leg. 1, 23, 61 quam se ipse noscet!
  • Hor. S. 2, 6, 53-54 “ut tu semper eris derisor”.
  • Hor. S. 2, 8, 62 “ut semper gaudes inludere rebus humanis”.
  • L. 10, 18, 11 “ut sese in Samnio res habent”?
  • Att. 1, 16, 4 credo te audisse ut me circumsteterint (I think you must have heard how they beset me).
  • Verr. 2, 43 videte ut, dum expedire sese vult, induat (how he entangles himself).
  • Rosc. A. 46 videtis ut omnes despiciat, ut hominem prae se neminem putet.
  • Mil. 24 quae postea in eum congesta sunt, ut sustinuit, ut contempsit ac pro nihilo putavit!
  • Off. 2, 19 videmus quam in paucis spes, quanto in paucioribus facultas, quam in multis sit audacia.

Quo modo, quo pacto, quem ad modum, how, in what manner; unde, how, from what source; qui, how, expresses surprise or incredulity, usually in direct questions which do not expect an answer.

  • Verr. 3, 20 quo modo hoc doces?
  • Am. 2 quo modo, ut alia omittam, mortem filii tulit! (quem ad modum is not used in exclamations).
  • Tus. 5, 26 non video quo modo sedare possint mala praesentia praeteritae voluptates.
  • Fam. 2, 5 haec negotia quo modo se habeant ne epistula quidem narrare audeo (how these matters stand I don’t venture to tell, even in a private letter).
  • Att. 10, 8, 9 quo modo illa fert publicam cladem, quo modo domesticas tricas!
  • Caes. 7, 83 quid quoque pacto agi placeat constituunt (they settle what is to be done, and how).
  • Flacc. 4 numquam laborant quem ad modum probent quod dicunt; sed quem ad modum se explicent dicendo.
  • Att. 1, 7 velim cogites quem ad modum bibliothecam nobis conficere possis.
  • Fam. 6, 6, 10 at nos quem ad modum est complexus!
  • Rosc. A. 34 ubi aut unde audivit Glaucia?
  • N. D. 1, 23 unde tibi notae sunt opiniones nationum?
  • N. D. 1, 30 qui potest esse in eius modi trunco sapientia?
  • Fin. 2, 28 qui potest habitare in beata vita summi mali metus?
  • Fin. 2, 4 qui fit, ut ego nesciam, sciant omnes, quicumque Epicurei esse voluerunt? (how comes it that I don’t know this, while all such as have chosen to become Epicureans are aware of it?).
  • Vat. 17 quaero qui possis eos, quos crimine coniungis, testimonio disiungere.


Utcumque, howsoever, whensoever = no matter how or when, attaches an adverbial clause to an accompanying principal one, and is regularly followed by the indicative. However that may be, keep your mind easy, utcumque illud se habet, aequo animo sis.

Utcumque is used in Tacitus and once or twice in Livy as an adverb = as best possible; e.g., L. 28, 29 auferat omnia inrita oblivio, si potest; si non, utcumque silentium tegat.

  • L. 26, 6 hoc ultimum—utcumque initum finitumque est—ante deditionem Capuae proelium fuit.
  • L. 45, 8 utcumque haec, sive errore humano seu casu seu necessitate inciderunt, bonum animum habe.
  • L. 44, 40 offendere in eo quod utcumque praetermissum revocari non posset.


Fames, hunger, a craving for food, hence metaphorically = (poetic) a longing for anything, e.g., auri sacra fames. Inedia, simply not eating, whether from choice or otherwise. Inedia periit, he starved himself to death.

  • Fin. 1, 11 cibo et potione fames sitisque depulsa est.
  • Fam. 16, 10 inedia et vi ipsius morbi consumptus es.
  • Planc. 10 Minturnenses Marium, fessum inedia fluctibusque, recrearunt.
  • Fin. 5, 27 Regulus vigiliis et inedia necatus est.


When an action or state depends on some condition, the clause containing the condition is introduced by si or one of its compounds. This clause, as usually standing first, is called the protasis, and the clause containing the conclusion is called the apodosis.

The indicative in the protasis conveys no implication as to the reality or unreality of the action or state; the subjunctive implies that the action or state is unreal. If he says this, he is wrong, si hoc dicit, errat (he may or may not be saying it); if he said this, he was wrong, si hoc dixit, erravit (he may or may not have said it); if he should say this, he would be wrong, si hoc dicat, erret (but he is not saying it); if he had said this, he would have been wrong, si hoc dixisset, erravisset (but he did not say it).

  • Fat. 14 id si verum est, nihil est in nostra potestate (here there is no implication).
  • Fat. 5 nihil esset in nostra potestate, si ita se res haberet (if such were the case = such is not the case).
  1. If the protasis is indicative, the apodosis is usually indicative or imperative, but it may be subjunctive if it expresses a wish, a command, an exhortation, or a modest or indignant assertion. Si innocens est, absolvetur (eum absolvite; absolvatur; utinam absolvatur), if he is innocent, he will be acquitted (acquit him; let him be acquitted; would that he were acquitted); if you are praised, why should I be blamed? si tu laudaris, cur ego reprehendar?

    The combination of tenses is unrestricted, and it is to be noted that the loose English present often corresponds to the future or future-perfect in Latin. If he asks, I shall answer, si quaeret or quaesiverit, respondebo; we shall be healed, if we wish, sanabimur, si volemus; you shall die, if you utter a word, moriere, si vocem emiseris; you will do a dastardly action, if you do not give warning, improbe feceris, nisi monueris.

    • Fam. 5, 2 si tu exercitusque valetis, benest (if you and the army are well, all is well).
    • Ter. Haut. 105 erras, si id credis (you are wrong if you believe that).
    • Ac. 2, 30 si dicis te mentiri verumque dicis, mentiris (if you say that you are a liar and tell the truth, you are a liar).
    • L. 25, 2 si me omnes Quirites aedilem facere volunt, satis annorum habeo.
    • Phil. 7, 6 si bellum omittimus, pace numquam fruemur.
    • L. 22, 60 si tanta clades vilem vitam non fecit, nulla faciet.
    • Off. 1, 28 si (naturam) sequemur, numquam aberrabimus.
    • Verr. 2, 69 neque tu hoc dicere audebis, nec, si cupias, licebit.
    • Fam. 2, 7 numquam labere, si te audies.
    • Verr. 5, 42 moriere, si appellaris.
    • Verr. 4, 39 moriere virgis, nisi mihi signum traditur (vivid present = this instant).
    • N. Ep. 4 nisi id confestim facis, ego te tradam magistratui.
    • Fam. 16, 4 omnia viceris, si te validum videro.
    • Fam. 7, 21 gratissimum mihi feceris, si ad eum ultro veneris (you will greatly oblige me, if you make the first advance and call upon him).
    • Fin. 2, 22 si id dicis, vicimus (rhetorical perfect).
    • L. 21, 43 si eundem (animum) habueritis, vicimus (= vicerimus).
    • Flacc. 25 si licuit, patris pecuniam recte abstulit filius.
    • Caes. 6, 13 si qui … eorum decreto non stetit, sacrificiis interdicunt.
    • Verr. 2, 61 si honoris causa statuam dederunt, inimici non sunt.
    • Inv. 1, 48 si ad illum hereditas veniebat, veri simile est ab illo necatum.
    • Verr. 4, 21 si quod erat grande vas, laeti adferebant (if there was any large vessel, they gladly brought it).
    • Mil. 33 excitate, excitate ipsum, si potestis, a mortuis.
    • Clu. 23 redargue me, si mentior.
    • Att. 4, 12 si me diligis, postridie Kal. cena apud me (dine with me on the second).
    • Att. 4, 17, 5 (16, 8) ne vivam, si scio.
    • Att. 5, 18 quam vellem Romae esses, si forte non es!
    • Div. 1, 16 fuerit (granted) hoc censoris, si iudicabat ementitum.
    • Tus. 5, 38 etenim si nox non adimit vitam beatam, cur dies nocti similis adimat?
    • Verr. 3, 39 si erat Heraclio mandatum, ut emeret, emisset; si non erat, qui poterat sua sponte pecuniam numerare?
    • L. 40, 11 ego vero, si in medio ponitur, non agnosco.
    • Fam. 5, 11, 2 eam, si opus esse videbitur, ipse conveniam.
    • Cat. 3, 3, 7 si ea … reperta non essent, tamen ego non arbitrabar …
    • Pl. Rud. 379 si amabat, rogas quid faceret?
  2. The indicative, as being colourless, is naturally used when two conflicting conditions are co-ordinated.

    • Att. 10, 8 adsequor omnia, si propero; si cunctor, amitto.
    • Fam. 5, 19 si feceris id, quod ostendis, magnam habebo gratiam; si non feceris, ignoscam (if you do not, I will excuse you).
    • Sall. I. 10 equidem ego vobis regnum trado firmum, si boni eritis; sin mali, inbecillum.
    • Fam. 14, 1 si erunt in officio amici, pecunia non derit; si non erunt, tu efficere tua pecunia non poteris.
    • Div. 2, 8 qui nisi revertisset, in eo conclavi ei cubandum fuisset, quod proxuma nocte corruit; at id neque, si fatum fuerat, effugisset, nec, si non fuerat, in eum casum incidisset (if it had been decreed by fate, he would not have escaped (even if he had turned back), and if it had not been decreed, he would have met with that disaster (even if he had turned back)).
  3. An ironical condition introduced by way of afterthought by nisi forte, nisi vero, is always expressed in the indicative.

    • Mur. 6 nemo fere saltat sobrius, nisi forte insanit (unless, perchance, he is mad).
    • Mil. 33 frangetis impetum vivi, cuius vix sustinetis furias insepulti? nisi vero sustinuistis eos, qui cum facibus ad curiam cucurrerunt.
    • Mil. 3, 8 an est quisquam qui hoc ignoret …? Nisi vero existimatis dementem P. Africanum fuisse [see Prof. Reid’s valuable note].
    • Fat. 16, 37 necesse est enim in rebus contrariis duabus … nisi forte volumus Epicureorum opinionem sequi cet.
  4. The subjunctive, it has been said, implies the unreality of the action or state. The perfect is rare, and the pluperfect, which is used of an action supposed, contrary to the fact, to have already occurred, presents no difficulty. The vexed question concerns the present and imperfect. The distinction between the two rests on their relation to time rather than on the notion of possibility or impossibility (sumptio dandi, sumptio ficti). Mr. Roby, in his contribution to the discussion of the question (Classical Review, I., 197), puts the distinction in a nutshell. “The imperfect subjunctive,” he says, “is used when you contemplate the present as the resultant of the past, and the present subjunctive is used when you contemplate the present as the starting-point of the future.”

    There are many cases where the use of the present or imperfect is a matter of subjective choice. The one or the other is employed according as the writer or speaker glances at the past or future. Such cases should be interpreted in the light of other examples which from their nature can only be viewed from one standpoint and expressed in one and the same way. If the sense is unambiguous, the expression is precise. If he were to rise from the dead, he would say this, si ab inferis exsistat (not exsisteret), hoc dicat; if he were still alive, he would say this, si viveret (not vivat), hoc diceret; if you were in my shoes, you would think differently, tu si hic sis, aliter sentias = if you were to put yourself in my place; tu si hic esses, aliter sentires = if you were (and had been) in my place.

    • L. 39, 37 si exsistat hodie ab inferis Lycurgus, gaudeat ruinis eorum.
    • Fin. 3, 2 Caepio, ut opinio mea fert, in principibus iam esset, si viveret (Caepio in my opinion would now be one of our leading men, were he still alive).
    • Fin. 5, 5 quod si ita se habeat, non possit beatam vitam praestare sapientia (praestare, to insure, points to the future).
    • Sen. 23 si quis deus mihi largiatur, valde recusem.
    • Rosc. C. 16 levior esset auctoritas Cluvi, si diceret iuratus, quam nunc est, cum dicit iniuratus.
    • Cat. 1, 8 haec si tecum patria loquatur, nonne impetrare debeat? (if your country should speak thus with you, ought she not to prevail?).
    • L. Praef. nec satis scio, nec, si sciam, dicere ausim.
    • Caecil. 11 neque est, quod possim dicere, neque, si esset, dicerem.
    • Off. 3, 25 si gladium quis apud te sana mente deposuerit, repetat insaniens, reddere peccatum sit, officium non reddere.
    • Plaut. Pseud. 4, 7, 138 si graderere tantum, quantum loquere, iam esses ad forum.
    • N. D. 2, 18 haec, si, bis bina quot essent, didicisset Epicurus, certe non diceret.
    • L. 2, 40 nisi filium haberem, libera in libera patria mortua essem.
    • L. 31, 7 si piguisset vos in Africam traicere, hodie in Italia Hannibalem haberetis.
    • Fin. 3, 2 si ibi te esse scissem, ad te ipse venissem.
    • L. 39, 23 si diutius vixisset, id bellum gessisset.
    • Am. 11 si voluisset, paruissem.
    • Phil. 2, 36 quantus fuisses, si illius diei mentem servare potuisses!
    • Arch. 7 si nihil litteris adiuvarentur, numquam se ad earum studium contulissent.
    • Caes. C. 3, 111 quas (naves) si occupavissent, mare totum in sua potestate haberent.
    • Rosc. A. 6 si has inimicitias cavere potuisset, viveret.
    • L. 40, 15 si pro alio dicendum esset, tempus ad componendam orationem sumpsissem.
    • Phil. 2, 15 si meum consilium auctoritasque valuisset, tu hodie egeres, nos liberi essemus, res publica non tot duces exercitusque amisisset (you would now be a beggar, we should be free, and the commonwealth would not have lost so many leaders and armies).
    • Am. 9, 32 si utilitas amicitias conglutinaret, eadem commutata dissolveret.
    • Tus. 1, 37, 89 si mors timeretur, non Brutus in proelio concidisset (if there were fear of death, Brutus would not have fallen in battle).
    • Caecil. 5, 19 Sicilia tota si una voce loqueretur, hoc diceret.
    • Har. Resp. 3, 5 qui quorum hominum esset, nesciremus, nisi se Ligurem ipse esse diceret.
    • L. 4, 38, 5 nec dubium erat, quin, si tam pauci simul obire omnia possent, terga daturi hostes fuerint.
    • Or. 1, 16, 71 numquam mehercule hoc dicerem, si eum quem fingo, me ipsum esse arbitrarer.
  5. In many cases the imperfect refers to past time (never to future). It is used of repeated and continued action, where the pluperfect would be appropriate if the action were represented as completed and momentary.

    • Tus. 1, 37 cur Camillus doleret, si haec post trecentos et quinquaginta fere annos eventura putaret?
    • Phil. 8, 4 num igitur (Opimium), si tum esses (if you had lived at that time), temerarium civem aut crudelem putares?
    • Verr. 2, 1 neque tam facile opes Carthaginis tantae concidissent, nisi illud receptaculum classibus nostris pateret (unless that station had been open to our fleets).
  6. The indicative is the regular construction in the apodosis with verbs and expressions denoting necessity, propriety, duty, ability and the like, where, with implied non-fulfilment of the action, such necessity, etc., is regarded as existing independent of the condition.

    • Verr. 4, 41 non possum istum accusare, si cupiam.
    • Verr. 4, 7 si velim, nonne possum?
    • Mil. 22 hos nisi manu misisset, tormentis etiam dedendi fuerunt.
    • Pomp. 17 quod si privatus esset hoc tempore, tamen is erat deligendus.
    • Verr. 1, 56 cuius (pupilli) aetatem et solitudinem, etiam si tutores non essent (as there were), defendere praetor debuit.
    • Phil. 2, 38 eum patris loco, si ulla in te pietas esset (as there is not), colere debebas.
    • Fin. 4, 23 si verum respondere velles, haec erant dicenda.
    • L. 2, 38 si unum diem morati essetis, moriendum omnibus fuit (you must all have died).
    • Serv. ap. Fam. 4, 5 si hoc tempore non diem suum obisset, paucis post annis tamen ei moriendum fuit.
    • Quinct. 13 si id velles, iam pridem actum esse poterat.
    • Div. 2, 8 num id vitari potuit, si paruisset?
    • L. 3, 52 quid, si hostes ad urbem veniant, facturi estis? (what do you propose to do, if the enemy come to the city?).
    • Att. 2, 24, 4 quod si impetrasset, iudicia fore videbantur.
    • Quinct. 13, 43 at si id velles, iam pridem actum esse poterat.
    • Sall. I. 85, 48 quae si dubia aut procul essent, tamen omnis bonos rei publicae subvenire decebat.
  7. A periphrastic past indicative in the apodosis is nearly equivalent to a pluperfect subjunctive. If you had said this, you would have been wrong, si hoc dixisses, erraturus fuisti or eras (= erravisses).

    • L. 2, 1 quid futurum fuit (what would have happened), si illa plebs agitari coepta esset tribuniciis procellis?
    • Verr. 3, 52 relicturi agros omnes erant (sc. et reliquissent), nisi ad eos Metellus Roma litteras misisset.
    • L. 5, 53 quod facturi fuimus, si sedes nostrae deflagrassent.
    • Div. 1, 15 conclave illud, ubi erat mansurus, si ire perrexisset, proxima nocte corruit.
    • L. 37, 14, 4 qui id alteri suaderet quod ipse, si in eo loco esset, facturus fuerit.
    • L. 40, 20 ut, nisi vesper esset, extemplo senatum vocaturi consules fuerint.
  8. But the subjunctive is sometimes found in the apodosis instead of the indicative, the necessity, etc., being in such cases expressed hypothetically. I could, if I wished, possim (usually possum), si velim.

    • Brut. 83 (Thucydidis) orationes ego laudare soleo; imitari neque possim, si velim, nec velim fortasse, si possim.

    Cf. Verr. 4, 9 te neque debent adiuvare, si possint, neque possunt, si velint.

    • Verr. 1, 27 haec si diceret, tamen ignosci non oporteret.
    • Verr. 4, 31 si iudex non esses, te potissimum hoc persequi oporteret.
    • Clu. 6 mihi ignoscere non deberetis, si tacerem.
    • Phil. 3, 5 esset enim ipsi certe statim serviendum, si Caesar ab eo regni insignia accipere voluisset.
    • Caes. 7, 88 nisi milites essent defessi, omnes hostium copiae deleri potuissent.
    • L. 32, 12 deleri totus exercitus potuit, si fugientis persecuti victores essent.
    • L. 22, 61 qui si Carthaginiensium ductor fuisset, nihil recusandum supplicii foret.
  9. The past tenses of the indicative are occasionally conjoined with a subjunctive protasis where the hypothetical result is rhetorically expressed as in process of completion (imperfect), on the verge of completion (perfect with paene or prope), or altogether completed (pluperfect).

    • Verr. 5, 49 si licitum esset, matres veniebant (the mothers were coming (and would have come), if it had been allowed).
    • Leg. 1, 19 labebar longius, nisi me retinuissem (I was slipping further, if I had not helped myself up).
    • L. 2, 50 vincebat auxilio loci paucitas, ni Veiens in verticem collis evasisset.
    • L. 3, 1 atrox certamen aderat (= futurum erat), ni Fabius rem expedisset.
    • L. 28, 33 pedestre certamen erat, ni Quinctius supervenisset.
    • L. 2, 10 pons iter paene hostibus dedit, ni unus vir fuisset.
    • Fam. 12, 10 praeclare viceramus, nisi spoliatum Lepidus recepisset Antonium.
    • L. 3, 19 nisi Latini sua sponte arma sumpsissent, capti et deleti eramus.
    • L. 38, 49 si gladium in Asia non strinxissem, tamen triumphum merueram.
    • Hor. C. 2, 17, 27-29 me truncus inlapsus cerebro sustulerat, nisi Faunus ictum dextra levasset.
  10. When the consequence in unfulfilled conditions is introduced by an indirect interrogative, or by a consecutive conjunction, it is the hypothetical (not the dependent) relation which regulates the tense of the apodosis, and the periphrastic perfect subjunctive usually takes the place of the subjunctive pluperfect and (its equivalent) the periphrastic pluperfect. I know not what I should do, nescio quid faciam; I know not what I should do if you were not here, nescio quid facerem nisi tu adesses; what would you have done, if I had not been here? quid fecisses, si ego non adfuissem? think what you would have done, if I had not been here, cogita quid facturus fueris, si ego non adfuissem. If I had done this, you would have praised me, si hoc fecissem, me laudavisses; there is (was) no doubt that, if I had done this, you would have praised me, non dubium est (erat) quin, si hoc fecissem, me laudaturus fueris; there is no doubt that, if I had done this, I should have been sorry for it, non dubium est quin, si hoc fecissem, me facti paenituisset (paenitet has no supine, and the circumlocution, “futurum fuerit ut,” is not used); there is no doubt that, if I had done this, I should have been praised, non dubium est quin, si hoc fecissem, laudatus essem (because passive) (Reisig-Haase, Vorlesungen, 417).

    • Fam. 13, 1, 5 nec dubitat, quin ego a te nutu hoc consequi possem, etiamsi aedificaturus essem.
    • Fat. 3, 6 puto enim, etiamsi Icadius tum in spelunca non fuisset, saxum tamen illud casurum fuisse.
    • Off. 3, 9 quaero, quod negant posse, id si posset, quidnam facerent.
    • L. 2, 1 neque ambigitur, quin pessimo publico id facturus fuerit, si priorum regum alicui regnum extorsisset (direct = fecisset, si extorsisset).
    • L. 40, 56 si vita longior suppetisset, haud dubium fuit, quin eum in possessione regni relicturus fuerit (direct = suppetisset, reliquisset).
    • L. 4, 38 nec dubium erat, quin, si tam pauci simul obire omnia possent, terga daturi hostes fuerint.
    • L. 37, 14 neminem fidelius posse dare consilium dixit quam eum qui id alteri suaderet, quod ipse, si in eodem loco esset, facturus fuerit.
    • L. 10, 45 subibat cogitatio animum, quonam modo tolerabilis futura Etruria fuisset, si quid adversi evenisset.
    • Pis. 7 ostendis, qualis tu, si ita forte accidisset, fueris illo tempore consul futurus.
    • L. 24, 26 virgines eo cursu se ex sacrario proripuerunt, ut, si effugium patuisset, impleturae urbem tumultu fuerint.
    • Sest. 38 non dubito, quin, si modo esset in re publica senatus, statua huic in foro statueretur (because passive).
  11. The subjunctive is always used in the apodosis if the subject is the gnomic or indefinite you = one. The memory decays if you do not exercise it, memoria minuitur, nisi eam exerceas (but nisi exercetur).

    • Fam. 15, 21 in excitando plurimum valet, si laudes eum, quem cohortere (or si laudamus eum, quem cohortamur).
  12. The condition is often omitted, but may be inferred from a word or a phrase or the construction or the context.

    • L. 22, 54 nulla alia gens tanta mole cladis non obruta esset (= if it had been any other people).
    • L. 9, 19 uno proelio victus Alexander bello victus esset.
    • Tus. 1, 15 nemo umquam sine magna spe inmortalitatis se pro patria offerret ad mortem.
    • Hor. Ep. 1, 10, 24 naturam expelles furca, tamen usque recurret.
    • Tus. 1, 13 tolle hanc opinionem, luctum sustuleris (= if you remove this opinion, you do away with grief).
    • Ter. E. 252 negat quis, nego; ait, aio (= if a man says yes, I say yes; if he says no, I say no).
    • Caes. C. 1, 73 erat unum iter, Ilerdam si reverti vellent, alterum, si Tarraconem peterent (there was one road (which they would have) if they wished to return to Ilerda, another if they were to make for Tarraco).
    • L. 3, 6, 6 per se sustinendum bellum erat, quod vix Romanis fulti viribus sustinuissent.
    • Mil. 9, 23 Reid neque de causa nostra quicquam aliter ac nos vellemus a senatu iudicatum est.
    • Off. 3, 16, 66 demoliri ea, quorum altitudo officeret auspiciis.
    • Fin. 5, 28, 83 utinam quidem dicerent alium alio beatiorem! iam ruinas videres.
    • Att. 6, 1, 5 metui, si impetrasset, ne tu ipse me amare desineres; nam ab edicto recessissem et civitatem … perdidissem.

Mihi responde, si scis, if you know, answer me; mihi responde, num scias, answer, telling me whether you know.

  • Att. 8, 6 ego autem Curium, si quid opus esset, rogaram (sc. ut suppeditaret).
  • Fam. 9, 6 si quid ego scirem, rogarat (sc. ut scriberem).


Si non accentuates a single word, and implies that the proposition in the principal clause holds good only in the case in which the condition in the subordinate clause is not fulfilled; nisi implies that the proposition in the principal clause holds good except in the case in which the condition in the subordinate clause is fulfilled. Memoria minuitur, si eam non exerceas, the memory decays only in the case in which you do not exercise it = the memory does not decay if you exercise it; memoria minuitur, nisi eam exerceas, the memory decays except in the case in which you exercise it. It is often immaterial whether si non or nisi is used, but there are certain distinct cases in which they cannot be interchanged.

  • Off. 3, 32 ut laudandus Regulus in conservando iure iurando, sic decem illi, quos iuratos ad senatum misit Hannibal, se in castra redituros, nisi de redimendis captivis impetravissent, si non redierunt, vituperandi.
  • Verr. 1, 9 hoc si non utor, non tibi iniuriam facio.
  • Verr. 1, 48 quid est, quod planum fieri testibus possit, si hoc non fit?
  • Verr. 2, 11 noli mirari, si tu hoc a me non impetras.
  • Off. 2, 22 aequitas tollitur omnis, si habere suum cuique non licet.
  • Off. 1, 22 parvi sunt foris arma, nisi est consilium domi.
  • Att. 8, 7 nisi me omnia fallunt, deseret.
  • Or. 3, 48, 185 quod fieri, nisi inest numerus in voce, non potest.
  1. Si non, not nisi, is used when if not has a concessive force = though not. If the snake is not killed, it is scotched, serpens, si non interfectus, collisus est; if I cannot kill Catiline, I will expel him, si Catilinam non potero interficere, expellam.

    • Phil. 7, 2 si non optabili, at necessario tempore.
    • Mil. 34 si mihi bona re publica frui non licuerit, at ego carebo mala.
    • Phil. 12, 8 dolorem iustissimum, si non potuero frangere, occultabo.
    • Quinct. 12 si non statim, paulo quidem post; si non paulo, at aliquanto.
    • Verr. 3, 4 si non virtute, non industria, non innocentia, non pudore, non pudicitia; at sermone, at litteris, at humanitate eius delectamini.
  2. Si non, not nisi, is used when a negative hypothesis follows its affirmative contrary, or when one word or notion is contrasted with another. If you call in a physician, you will get well, if you don’t, you will die, si medicum adhibueris, convalesces, si non adhibueris, morieris. When the verb in the second member is understood, si non is generally replaced by si minus (sin minus), which, on the other hand, is rarely used, if the verb is repeated.

    • Fam. 5, 19 si feceris id, quod ostendis, magnam habebo gratiam; si non feceris, ignoscam.
    • Q. F. 2, 7 si perficiunt, optime; si minus, ad nostrum Iovem revertamur (if they succeed, well and good; if not, let me betake myself to my Jupiter).
    • Fam. 7, 1 quod si adsecutus sum, gaudeo; sin minus, me tamen consolor.
    • Att. 5, 18 si fuerit occasio, manu, si minus, locis nos defendemus.
    • Phil. 3, 6 si Aricinam uxorem non probas, cur probas Tusculanam?
    • Tus. 5, 38 si nox non adimit vitam beatam, cur dies nocti similis adimat?
  3. Nisi before or after a negative, from which it must be separated by one or more words = except, and nisi—non (seldomer non—nisi) = only. Nisi (not si non) in bonis viris amicitia esse non potest, friendship cannot exist except among good men, or can exist only among good men.

    • Caes. C. 3, 19 nam nobis nisi Caesaris capite relato pax esse nulla potest.
  4. Nisi quod followed by the indicative = with this restriction that.

    • Att. 2, 1, 11 Tusculanum et Pompeianum valde me delectant, nisi quod me aere circumforaneo obruerunt.
    • Tus. 1, 41, 99 nec vero ego iis … habeo quod suscenseam, nisi quod mihi nocere se crediderunt.
  5. Nisi forte generally, and nisi vero always, is ironical.

    • Par. 4 nisi forte idem hostis esse et civis potest.
    • Att. 7, 1, 3 me autem uterque numerat suum, nisi forte simulat alter.
    • Off. 1, 1, 3 nisi forte Demetrius Phalereus in hoc numero haberi potest.
    • Mil. 4, 8 nisi vero (unless forsooth) existimatis dementem P. Africanum fuisse.
  6. Ni (not in Caesar and Nepos) is a frequent substitute in Sallust, Livy, and Tacitus for si non and nisi. In Cicero, who uses it sparingly, and archaic writers, it is almost always employed in the sense of si non (Draeger). It is a favourite word in wagers, asseverations, judicial procedure, and a few conventional phrases, especially in connexion with ita and vereri, e.g., pignus da, ni omnia memini; moriar, ni ita est; ni ita esset; quod ni esset; ni vererer (Verr. 4, 25).

He is frivolous, if not deceitful, levis est, ne dicam, fallax.


Inscius is used absolutely or with genitive; nescius is followed by a dependent clause. Non sum nescius (not inscius) te inscium (not nescium) hoc fecisse, I know very well that you did this unwittingly.

  • Brut. 85 omnium rerum inscius et rudis.
  • Phil. 9, 5 perficite ut is, quem vos inscii ad mortem misistis, immortalitatem habeat a vobis.
  • Ac. 2, 7, 22 distinguimus artificem ab inscio.
  • Deiot. 3 iratum te regi Deiotuso fuisse, non erant nescii (= they knew very well).
  • Fin. 5, 19 nec vero sum nescius esse utilitatem in historia (“nescius,” substituted by Madvig for the common reading “inscius”).

Imperitus and ignarus denote ignorance of things knowable by external as well as mental perception. “Imperitus” can be used absolutely, rarely “ignarus”. The ignorant multitude, “imperita (not ignara) multitudo”. “Indoctus” and the stronger “rudis,” ignorant, untutored.

  • Flacc. 7 imperiti homines rerum omnium rudes ignarique.
  • Phil. 2, 15 non sum tam indoctus ignarusque rerum.
  • Div. 2, 50 Epicurum hebetem et rudem dicere solent Stoici.


Immortalis is used of the gods, of the soul, and of things of imperishable memor, e.g., gloria, laus, but not as a complimentary epithet of men. The immortal Plato, Plato vir divinus or caelestis; immortal fame, immortalis laus. The immortals, di immortales, not immortales alone.

  • Tus. 1, 32 Platonem divinum, sapientissimum, sanctissimum, Homerum philosophorum appellat.
  • Mur. 36 divini hominis Africani mors.
  • Phil. 12, 3 ipsa illa Martia, caelestis et divina legio.
  • Balb. 17 imperatores quorum vivit inmortalis memoria et gloria.
  • Phil. 10, 3 ac de hac quidem divina atque immortali laude Bruti silebo.

The term deus is sometimes used of an ideal man.

  • Or. 1, 23 equidem te in dicendo semper putavi deum (a perfect ideal).
  • Or. 2, 42 in qua (dispositione argumentorum) tu mihi semper deus videri soles.


Impune, when one does something and is not punished for it; impunitus, when something exclusive of punishment is done to one. The soldiers dismissed the captives with impunity; milites captivos impune dimiserunt, if it was the soldiers that were not punished; milites captivos impunitos dimiserunt, if it was the captives that were not punished.

  • Sall. I. 31 nam impune quaelibet facere, id est regem esse.
  • Rosc. A. 29 eius modi tempus erat, ut homines vulgo impune occiderentur.
  • Sall. C. 51 postquam bello confecto de Rhodiis consultum est, maiores nostri impunitos eos dimisere.
  • Caes. 1, 14 quod tam diu se impune iniurias tulisse admirarentur, eodem pertinere (here iniurias tulisse = had committed wrongs, not, had suffered wrongs).


When an author is named by metonymy for his works, “in” is made by apud. In Plato, apud Platonem. In the Phaedrus of Plato, in Phaedro Platonis. This word is found in Cicero, hoc verbum apud Ciceronem invenitur. This word is found in Cicero’s orations, hoc verbum in Ciceronis orationibus invenitur.

“In Cicerone” means in the case or person of Cicero (like Greek ἐπὶ with the dative). In Cicero there was no less vanity than eloquence, in Cicerone non minor erat vanitas quam eloquentia. This was passed over in Cicero’s case, hoc in Cicerone praetermissum est.

  • Sen. 22 apud Xenophontem moriens Cyrus maior haec dicit.
  • Div. 1, 24 apud Agathoclem scriptum in historia est.
  • Div. 1, 29 vide quid Socrates in Platonis Politia loquatur.
  • L. 8, 30 apud antiquissimos scriptores una haec pugna invenitur, in quibusdam annalibus tota res praetermissa est.
  • Phil. 3, 4 id vitium maiores nostri ne in rege quidem ferre potuerunt.
  • L. 45, 38 satis peccatum in Camillo a maioribus vestris est.
  • L. 3, 17 ausurum se in tribunis, quod princeps familiae suae ausus in regibus esset.

“In Cicerone” is correct, if the reference is to Cicero’s style or manner of writing. In Thucydide orbem modo orationis desidero (Or. 71).


If quidem stands with concessive force = indeed, it is true, with sed or verum following, it is regularly attached to a personal or other appropriate pronoun, especially ille. The strengthened form equidem is generally used instead of ego quidem.

I love Brutus indeed, but I get now and then a little angry with him, Brutum equidem amo, sed ei interdum subirascor = (1) Brutum (not Brutum quidem) amo, sed ei interdum subirascor; (2) ut Brutum amo, ita ei interdum subirascor; (3) Brutum ita amo, ut ei interdum subirascar (cf. Pomp. 3, 8); (4) etsi Brutum amo, tamen ei interdum subirascor.

  • Q. F. 2, 15 reliqua non equidem contemno, sed plus habent tamen spei quam timoris (the rest I do not indeed undervalue, but what is still to do is more a matter for hope than fear).
  • Phil. 2, 9 non tu quidem tota re, sed, quod maximum est, temporibus errasti (you were wrong, not indeed in all the details, but what is most important, in the dates).
  • Fam. 2, 13 raras tuas quidem sed suavis accipio litteras.
  • Off. 1, 18, 60 Holden sic offici conservandi praecepta traduntur illa quidem, ut facimus ipsi, sed rei magnitudo usum quoque exercitationemque desiderat.
  • Brut. 77, 267 Domitius nulla quidem arte, sed Latine tamen, dicebat (Domitius spoke, with no art, it is true, but all the same, in good Latin).
  • Att. 6, 2, 2 est magnum illud quidem, verum tamen multiplex pueri ingenium (“the nature of the youth is powerful indeed, but variable”. —Watson).
  • Fam. 6, 2 misera est illa quidem consolatio, sed tamen necessaria.
  • Off. 1, 29 ludo et ioco uti illo quidem licet, sed tum, cum seriis rebus satis fecerimus (we may indulge in sport and mirth, I grant, but only when we have no serious work still to do).
  • Att. 12, 10 tuus dolor humanus is quidem, sed magno opere moderandus (your grief is natural indeed, but should be considerably moderated).
  • Off. 3, 18 est istuc quidem honestum, verum hoc expedit (that course, I grant, is right, but this is expedient).


Auctoritas, personal weight, the influence of the good or great; gratia, popularity, the influence of the favourite; potentia, power or sway, the influence of the strong.

  • Verr. 6 non gratia non auctoritate cuiusquam non potentia nititur.
  • Rosc. A. 42 nimiam gratiam potentiamque Chrysogoni dicimus nobis obstare.
  • Fam. 13, 29 omnia quae potui in hac summa tua gratia ac potentia a te impetrare.
  • L. 1, 7 Evander tum ea auctoritate magis quam imperio regebat loca (more by personal influence than official power).

Auctoritas in aliquem, authority over one; auctoritas apud aliquem, influence with one.

  • Sen. 11 Appius tenebat non modo auctoritatem sed etiam imperium in suos (Appius held not only authority but absolute command over his household).
  • L. 36, 41 Hannibalis eo tempore vel maxima apud regem auctoritas erat.


Incolere, of the community; habitare, of the individual.

  • Caes. 5, 14 qui Cantium incolunt (the inhabitants of Kent).
  • Verr. 4, 8 habitasti apud Heium Messanae.
  1. Incolere is constructed with the accusative, e.g., Asiam, terras, locum, or with prepositions or prepositional adverbs of place, e.g., “cis,” “trans,” “inter,” “prope,” “proxime”. The inhabitants of this place, qui hunc locum (not in hoc loco) incolunt.

    • Caes. 1, 1 qui trans Rhenum incolunt.
    • L. 1, 1 qui inter mare Alpesque incolebant.
    • L. 21, 31 incolunt prope Allobroges.
    • Caes. 4, 4 quas regiones (not in quibus regionibus) Menapii incolebant.
  2. “Habitare in aliquo loco” is the proper classical construction, not “habitare locum,” unless “habitare” is closely linked with a verb taking the accusative. Similarly “in luna habitatur,” not “luna habitatur”.

    • Verr. 5, 38 quo in loco maiores Syracusanum habitare vetuerunt.
    • Ac. 2, 39, 123 habitari ait Xenophanes in luna.
    • L. 5, 51 cum arcem dique et homines Romani tenuerint et habitaverint.
    • Ac. 2, 39 habitari ait Xenophanes in luna.
    • Verr. 4, 53 colitur ea pars et habitatur frequentissime.


    • L. 40, 3 barbaris urbes tradidit habitandas.
    • Tac. Ag. 11 rutilae Caledoniam habitantium comae (the red-haired inhabitants of Caledonia).


Cives and municipes, the inhabitants or burgesses of a town; incolae = domiciled aliens; advenae = casual sojourners.

  • Verr. 4, 11 quam (crucem) vos Reginis, itemque incolis vestris, civibus Romanis, ostendere soletis.
  • Verr. 4, 58 quod (signum) cives atque incolae [Syracusani] colere, advenae non solum visere, verum etiam venerari solebant.


Amentia = the absence of reason; dementia = the perversion of reason. A man who is stunned is amens; a man who is exasperated is demens. Insania = disease of mind, mental derangement.

  • Clu. 6 vicit pudorem libido, timorem audacia, rationem amentia.
  • Deiot. 7 ita non modo nequam et improbus, set fatuus et amens es.
  • Phil. 12, 2, 11 ira dementiaque inflammatus.
  • Cat. 3, 5 tum subito Catilina scelere demens, quanta conscientiae vis esset, ostendit.
  • Tus. 3, 4 nomen insaniae significat mentis aegrotationem et morbum.


“Instead of” followed by a substantive is expressed by pro with ablative, or by loco, in loco, or in locum with genitive. He gave money instead of corn, pecuniam pro frumento dedit; he was to me instead of a father, mihi (in) parentis loco fuit. When succession or change of place is implied, in locum is used. He sent the son instead of the father, filium in patris locum misit.

  • L. 2, 12 scribam pro rege obtruncat.
  • Caes. 6, 26 his sunt arbores pro cubilibus.
  • L. 4, 38 sequimini pro vexillo cuspidem meam.
  • Sall. C. 3 pro pudore, pro abstinentia, pro virtute audacia, largitio, avaritia vigebant.
  • L. 3, 33 plebicola repente evasit pro truci insectatore plebis.
  • L. 41, 20 sumpta loco vestis regiae toga forum circumibat.
  • Phil. 11, 5 qui consulatum in Bruti locum se petere profitetur.
  • L. 40, 37 Flaccus in locum vitrici consul est declaratus.
  • Verr. 4, 41 Verres in eorum locum substitutus est.
  • Verr. 5, 28 in eorum locum et ad eorum numerum cives Romani cruciati et necati.
  • Verr. 4, 5, 9 sanxerunt, ne quis emeret nisi in demortui locum.
  • Att. 2, 19, 4 Cosconio mortuo sum in eius locum invitatus.
  • Brut. ap. ad. Brut. 1, 13, 1 sororis meae liberos obliviscaris esse Lepidi filios, meque iis in patris locum successisse existimes.
  • L. 24, 39, 12 T. Quinctium Crispinum in eius locum classi castrisque praeficit veteribus.

“Instead of” in connection with verbs is variously translated.

  1. By non—sed. Instead of coming himself he sent his son, ipse non venit, sed filium misit.

    • Plaut. Cap. 242 non ego erus tibi, sed servus sum (instead of being your master I am your slave).
    • N. Mil. 5 tanto plus virtute valuerunt Athenienses, ut Persae non castra sed naves petierint.
    • Att. 12, 16 me scriptio et litterae non leniunt, sed obturbant.
  2. By posse or debere construed with cum, when the excluded alternative implies power or opportunity foregone, or duty neglected. Instead of playing he reads, legit, cum ludere possit; instead of watching he slumbers, dormit, cum vigilare debeat; Hannibal, instead of using his victory, preferred enjoying it, Hannibal, cum victoria posset (or deberet) uti, frui maluit.

    • L. 3, 5 cum persequi posset, metu subsistit.
    • N. Phoc. 1 fuit perpetuo pauper, cum ditissimus esse posset (instead of enriching himself, he remained poor).
    • L. 22, 34 consules Fabianis artibus, cum debellare possent, bellum traxisse.
    • L. 45, 37 cum te praeda partienda locupletem facere posset, pecuniam regiam translaturus in triumpho est.
    • Fin. 4, 24 vos autem, cum perspicuis dubia debeatis illustrare, dubiis perspicua conamini tollere (but instead of making what is plain illustrate what is doubtful, you are trying to destroy what is plain by means of what is doubtful).
  3. By adeo non or nihil (post-Cic.), non modo non, tantum abest ut, when the excluded alternative is the antithesis of the actual result. Instead of being moved, they laughed at me, adeo nihil moti sunt, ut me irriderent. Instead of being angry with you, I do not even blame your conduct, ego non modo tibi non irascor, sed ne reprehendo quidem factum tuum; instead of respecting his parents, he loaded them with insults, tantum abfuit ut parentes coleret, ut eos contumeliis oneraret. The weaker rendering, non—sed, is sometimes found: This affront, instead of dispiriting him, roused him to exertion, quae contumelia non fregit eum sed erexit (N. Them. 1): also ita non, e.g., Fin. 2, 20, 63 ita non timidus ad mortem, ut in acie sit ob rem publicam interfectus.

    • L. 8, 5 qui adeo non tenuit iram, ut gladio cinctum in senatum venturum se esse palam diceret.
    • Att. 3, 15 dies autem non modo non levat luctum hunc, sed etiam auget.
    • Tus. 2, 2 tantum abest ut scribi contra nos nolimus, ut id etiam maxime optemus (instead of feeling any dislike to have a work published on the opposite side, I really am most anxious to see it).
    • Tus. 5, 2 philosophia tantum abest ut laudetur, ut a plerisque neglecta, a multis etiam vituperetur (instead of being praised, philosophy is by most neglected and by many actually censured).
  4. By et or ac non, when a false hypothesis is either corrected or suggested. He asks the soldiers why they were brought to Italy instead of being at once disbanded, interrogat milites, ad quam rem in Italiam deportati, et non statim dimissi sint.

    • Verr. 1, 31 nam si quam Rubrius iniuriam suo nomine ac non impulsu tuo (instead of at your instigation) fecisset, de tui comitis iniuria questum ad te venirent.
    • N. D. 3, 3 similiter facis ac si me roges, cur te duobus contuear oculis et non altero coniveam, etc.

Pro vallo (1) instead of a rampart; (2) in defence of the rampart; (3) in front of the rampart.

  • Caes. 1, 26 pro vallo carros obiecerant (they had piled up their baggage-waggons to serve instead of a rampart).
  • L. 22, 60 cum pro vallo pugnandum erat, castra tradiderunt (instead of fighting in defence of the rampart, they surrendered the camp).
  • Caes. 7, 70 legiones pro vallo constituerat (he had stationed the legions in front of the rampart).


Ius gentium, such rules or principles of law as are common to all nations. The law which a people enacts is called the ius civile or civil law of that people, but that which natural reason suggests is called ius gentium, the law of nations, or more simply ius naturale, the law of nature = natural right. The proper expression for international or diplomatic law is ius fetiale or ius belli et pacis.—See Maine’s Ancient Law, chap. iii., and Nettleship’s classical article, “Ius Gentium,” in Contributions to Latin Lexicography, s. v.

  • L. 5, 36 legati contra ius gentium arma capiunt.
  • Off. 3, 17 itaque maiores aliud ius gentium, aliud ius civile esse voluerunt.
  • Off. 3, 5 neque hoc solum natura, id est iure gentium, sed etiam legibus populorum, quibus in singulis civitatibus res publica continetur.
  • L. 4, 32 scelus legatorum contra ius gentium interfectorum.
  • L. 4, 19 hicine est, inquit, ruptor fœderis humani violatorque gentium iuris?
  • Off. 1, 11 belli aequitas sanctissime fetiali populi Romani iure perscripta est.
  • Leg. 2, 9, 21 “foederum pacis, belli, indotiarum ratorum fetiales iudices, nontii sunto, bella disceptanto.”
  • Off. 3, 29, 108 cum iusto et legitimo hoste res gerebatur, adversus quem et totum ius fetiale et multa sunt iura communia.

Iura gentium, the rights of the clans or patrician families. Patres confundi iura gentium rebantur (L. 4, 1).


Invadere regularly takes in and accusative in Cicero, while in Livy and Sallust (cf. C. 2 Cook) it almost as regularly takes accusative without in. In the solitary instance in which it occurs in Caesar (C. 1, 14) it is used absolutely.

  • In Fam. 16, 12 “mirus invaserat furor improbis,” the dative is a colloquialism.
  • Phil. 11, 2 in Galliam invasit Antonius, in Asiam Dolabella.
  • L. 10, 10 consul exercitusque sine certamine urbem invasere.
  • L. 2, 34 aliud multo gravius malum civitatem invasit.
  • L. 27, 42 in transversa latera invaserant cohortes (in occurs only here and in 2, 47, and 28, 29).

Invader = qui invadit, not invasor. Invasion = incursio, excursio, aggressio, not invasio.


Invehi (not invehere) in aliquem, to inweigh against one, upbraid. Cato inveighed against the luxury of his countrymen, Cato in luxuriam civium suorum invectus est.

  • Tus. 3, 26 Aeschines in Demosthenem invehitur (Aeschines upbraids Demosthenes).
  • Sull. 22 hoc loco in Caecilium invectus est.

Invehere = to carry into, introduce. They carried provisions into the city, commeatus in urbem invexerunt. Riches introduced avarice, divitiae avaritiam invexere (L. praef.). The dictator rides into the city in triumph, dictator triumphans urbem invehitur (L. 2, 31).


“Is to be,” implying necessity or duty, is made by the gerund or gerundive. Carthage is to be destroyed, delenda est Carthago. The king is to be obeyed, regi parendum est.

“Is to be,” implying possibility, is made by posse. This word is to be found in Cicero, hoc verbum apud Ciceronem inveniri potest or invenitur. The prince is not to be persuaded, principi persuaderi non potest. The horses of Rhesus were not to be matched in running, Rhesi equi cursu aequari non potuerunt.

  • Fam. 2, 8 quae nec possunt scribi nec scribenda sunt.
  • Sall. C. 58 quocumque ire placet, ferro iter aperiundum est.
  • Tus. 1, 27 animorum nulla in terris origo inveniri potest.
  • Quinct. 23 quis est qui absentem defensum neget esse Quinctium? nemo invenitur (is to be found).
  • L. 45, 41 neque cogi pugnare poterat rex.
  • Att. 6, 3, 2 persuaderi ei non posse arbitror.

“Is to be” is sometimes equivalent to the future tense. Livy is to be (= is going to be) read to-day, Livius hodie legetur. Livy is to be (= must be) read to-day, Livius hodie legendus est. The dog thinks that he is to be struck, canis putat se percussum iri.


Gaudium, joy as an inward emotion, joy felt; laetitia, the utterance of joy, joy manifested. But cf. Pl. Stich. 466 (3, 2, 13) ut prae laetitia lacrumae prosiliunt mihi.

  • L. 30, 17 tacitum continere gaudium non poterant, quin clamoribus laetitiam immodicam significarent.

So gaudere, to be glad, feel joy; laetari, to show oneself glad, manifest joy.

  • Tus. 4, 31 gaudere decet, laetari non decet, quoniam docendi causa a gaudio laetitiam distinguimus.


Iudex decides according to statute law, arbiter according to equity. Arbiter hac re ab iuduce discrepat, quod nullis legum et formularum vinculis adstrictus est, sed ex aequitate iudicat; inde etiam arbitrium dicitur sententia quae ab arbitro statuitur. A case referred to a iudex was termed iudicium or actio stricti iuris; a case referred to an arbiter was termed arbitrium or actio ex fide bona (cf. Landgraf, Rosc., § 114).

  • Rosc. C. 4 ceteri cum ad iudicem causam labefactari animadvertunt, ad arbitrum confugiunt.
  • Caes. 5, 1, 9 arbitros inter civitates dat, qui litem aestiment poenamque constituant.


Iustitia, justice subjectively = the virtue of giving to every one his due; ius, justice objectively = what is a person’s right, what is just. Iustitia as defined by Cicero = animi affectio suum cuique tribuens, a disposition of mind assigning to each individual what is his own (Fin. 5, 23).

  • N. D. 3, 15 nam iustitia, quae suum cuique distribuit, quid pertinet ad deos?
  • Off. 1, 19 nullum est tempus, quod iustitia vacare debeat.
  • L. 5, 27 fides Romana, iustitia imperatoris in foro et curia celebrantur.
  • Caes. 6, 24 quae gens ad hoc tempus summam habet iustitiae opinionem.
  • Phil. 2, 29 ius postulabas (you demanded your rights).
  • Leg. 1, 6 (lex) est iuris atque iniuriae regula.

To administer justice, ius dicere.

Ius in the plural has only the nominative and accusative. He deprived them of all their privileges, omnia iura eis ademit.

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