Horae Latinae

Studies In Synonyms and Syntax, by Robert Ogelvie

For everybody eager to learn Latin, we proudly present Latinitium’s digital edition of Horae Latinae by Robert Ogelvie, originally published posthumously in 1901.

Here you will find almost 500 English words and expressions with detailed descriptions of how to best render them in Latin, and with copious quotes from classical authors illustrating the usage. It is thus an excellent complement to the English–Latin dictionary by Smith & Hall.

For more resources on Latin synonyms, see our blog post A guide to Dictionaries of Latin synonyms!

Tips, updates, and learning material.


a or an first (adverb) play
abandon first who if you please
about flee poet
abroad flow poetry
access to forget poisoned
accompany former—latter politics
of one’s own accord freedman as—as possible
accurate great friend poverty
accuse on the front power
accuser fruitful prejudice
across garden present
advocate general pretend
affirm grateful prevail on
African gratification prevent
after Greeks pride
afterwards grief priest
again happen prithee
age happiness promise
ago hasten proof
all but health prove
along the river hear province
also hear well publicly
altar heart quarrel
although high rather than
angry hither and thither really
animal hitherto refer
annual hold refuse
any one honour reign
Apennines hope relations
appeal horse remember
appear on horseback remove
apple host report
appoint a dictator hour represent
arm how resign office
arms however rest
army hunger the rest
as if return
as far as if not reward
as to ignorant rightly
as well as immortal river
assemble with impunity robber
assembly in an author Roman
assuredly indeed rose
attain influence royal
audience inhabit rule
author inhabitants rustic
baggage insanity safe
banker instead of same as
bargain international law I say
because invade I will not say
become inveigh against as they say
before is to be scarcely
before (adverb) joy sculpture
before (of place) judge seat
begin justice second
belief kill secretly
believe know seize
besides we know self
beware of know how sell
beyond Lacedaemonian serious
blame land services
blood last ship
bloodless too late shore
bloody lately shortly
in a book Latin show
books laugh sickness
both learn siege
both—and at least sight
bridge legislator silent
bring leisure sing
build lend six hundred
burn much less sloping
but letter smell
by in a letter soldier
canvassing liberty some
carry life some one
cattle light sometimes
cause lightning soul
cease like speak
certain likely speak against
character little staff
children how little statue
cold live stay
command long (adjective) step
commit long (adverb) storm (verb)
common for a long while strength
conceal no longer style
confess lose subjects
conscience love such
conscious lungs suitable
consul Macedonian sustain
consult magnanimity sword
content majesty take away
continue make a speech take up arms
contract man tempest
control how many territory
corn forced march than
country marriage thankfulness
fellow-countryman marry that of
cousin master the
crime mean theory
crown from memory this (that)
cui bono? in memory of three
custom mind throne
daily (adjective) modesty time
daily (adverb) money one time
day more at the same time
two days more than title
the dead more than once too
deal with many more towards
death morning trade
debt the morrow trader
defend mortal travel
deny most tributary
deserve multitude in triumph
despise name troops
despoil namely trust
die nation truth
different natural uncle
diligence necessity undertake
dislodge neck unjustly
divide new of us
doubt by night in vain
dream noble vote
dress nor wall
drink and not wander about
drunk do not want
drunkenness not even wanting
each not one water
each other not so very way
earthly not to say on the way
either—or nothing when (interrogative)
embark nothing but whenever
employed now where
enemy oath whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
enjoy obey whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
enough obstructionist which?
entreat obtain while
envy oh that! for a while
epidemic old age white
especially omit whoever
estate one why not?
even one of wisdom
ever one more with
everywhere only with one
for example not only not within
exception open without
exile openly witness
expect opinion word
expense or work at
express or not workman
extend orator world
face otherwise worse
fail our would be
famous own wound
fault palace wretch
favour passenger a year after
for fear paternal yes and no
feast people yesterday
few perhaps yield
how few persuade you
first (adjective) places younger
a or an how little
abandon live
about long (adjective)
abroad long (adverb)
access to for a long while
accompany no longer
of one’s own accord lose
accurate love
accuse lungs
accuser Macedonian
across magnanimity
advocate majesty
affirm make a speech
African man
after how many
afterwards forced march
again marriage
age marry
ago master
all but mean
along the river from memory
also in memory of
altar mind
although modesty
angry money
animal more
annual more than
any one more than once
Apennines many more
appeal morning
appear the morrow
apple mortal
appoint a dictator most
arm multitude
arms name
army namely
as nation
as far as natural
as to necessity
as well as neck
assemble new
assembly by night
assuredly noble
attain nor
audience and not
author do not
baggage not even
banker not one
bargain not so very
because not to say
become nothing
before nothing but
before (adverb) now
before (of place) oath
begin obey
belief obstructionist
believe obtain
besides oh that!
beware of old age
beyond omit
blame one
blood one of
bloodless one more
bloody only
in a book not only not
books open
both openly
both—and opinion
bridge or
bring or not
build orator
burn otherwise
but our
by own
canvassing palace
carry passenger
cattle paternal
cause people
cease perhaps
certain persuade
character places
children play
cold if you please
command poet
commit poetry
common poisoned
conceal politics
confess as—as possible
conscience poverty
conscious power
consul prejudice
consult present
content pretend
continue prevail on
contract prevent
control pride
corn priest
country prithee
fellow-countryman promise
cousin proof
crime prove
crown province
cui bono? publicly
custom quarrel
daily (adjective) rather than
daily (adverb) really
day refer
two days refuse
the dead reign
deal with relations
death remember
debt remove
defend report
deny represent
deserve resign office
despise rest
despoil the rest
die return
different reward
diligence rightly
dislodge river
divide robber
doubt Roman
dream rose
dress royal
drink rule
drunk rustic
drunkenness safe
each same as
each other I say
earthly I will not say
either—or as they say
embark scarcely
employed sculpture
enemy seat
enjoy second
enough secretly
entreat seize
envy self
epidemic sell
especially serious
estate services
even ship
ever shore
everywhere shortly
for example show
exception sickness
exile siege
expect sight
expense silent
express sing
extend six hundred
face sloping
fail smell
famous soldier
fault some
favour some one
for fear sometimes
feast soul
few speak
how few speak against
first (adjective) staff
first (adverb) statue
first who stay
flee step
flow storm (verb)
forget strength
former—latter style
freedman subjects
great friend such
on the front suitable
fruitful sustain
garden sword
general take away
grateful take up arms
gratification tempest
Greeks territory
grief than
happen thankfulness
happiness that of
hasten the
health theory
hear this (that)
hear well three
heart throne
high time
hither and thither one time
hitherto at the same time
hold title
honour too
hope towards
horse trade
on horseback trader
host travel
hour tributary
how in triumph
however troops
hunger trust
if truth
if not uncle
ignorant undertake
immortal unjustly
with impunity of us
in an author in vain
indeed vote
influence wall
inhabit wander about
inhabitants want
insanity wanting
instead of water
international law way
invade on the way
inveigh against when (interrogative)
is to be whenever
joy where
judge whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
justice whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
kill which?
know while
we know for a while
know how white
Lacedaemonian whoever
land why not?
last wisdom
too late with
lately with one
Latin within
laugh without
learn witness
at least word
legislator work at
leisure workman
lend world
much less worse
letter would be
in a letter wound
liberty wretch
life a year after
light yes and no
lightning yesterday
like yield
likely you
little younger


Mortui, the dead, opposed to the living; inferi, the inhabitants of the under world, the shades below. In Hades, apud inferos (not in inferis); to descend into Hades, ad inferos descendere (not in inferos); to raise from the dead, ab inferis excitare (not ex inferis).

  • Tus. 1, 36 de mortuis loquor, qui nulli sunt.
  • Ac. 2, 2 qui mihi videntur non solum vivis, sed etiam mortuis invidere.
  • Phil. 9, 5 vita enim mortuorum in memoria est posita vivorum.
  • Fam. 4, 5 si qui etiam inferis sensus est (if the shades below have even consciousness).
  • Verr. 5, 49 mihi ad pedes misera iacuit, quasi ego eius excitare ab inferis filium possem.
  • Or. 1, 57, 245 patrem eius, ut soles, dicendo a mortuis excitasses.
  • Top. 10, 45 ut mortui ab inferis excitentur.
  • Tus. 1, 5 triceps apud inferos Cerberus.
  • Tus. 1, 42 hodie apud inferos fortasse cenabimus.
  • N. D. 3, 15 quem Homerus apud inferos conveniri facit ab Ulixe sicut ceteros qui excesserant vita.


Cum aliquo agere, to deal or negotiate with one; de aliquo agere, to deal with one’s case, to deliberate concerning one. The impersonal “cum aliquo actum est” implies the dealing of destiny with one; de aliquo actum est, it is all over with one, his fate is sealed.

  • Fam. 4, 5 cogita quem ad modum adhuc fortuna nobiscum egerit.
  • Am. 1, 4 cum enim saepe mecum ageres, ut de amicitia scriberem aliquid.
  • Am. 3 cum illo vero quis neget actum esse praeclare? (who would say that he has not had a splendid destiny?).
  • Verr. 3, 50 secum male actum putat.
  • Att. 15, 2, 4 quoniam inciderat in tam gravem morbum, bene actum cum illo arbitror.
  • N. Cim. 1 egit cum Cimone ut Elpinicen sibi uxorem daret.
  • Phil. 2, 21 neque tu tecum de senatus auctoritate agi passus es (nor would you enter upon any negotiations (concessions) concerning the resolution of the Senate).
  • L. 1, 47 iam de Servio actum rati (under the impression that by this time it was all over with Servius).
  • L. 4, 38 nisi haec parmata cohors sistit impetum hostium, actum de imperio est.
  • L. 2, 48 actum de exercitu foret, ni Fabius in tempore subsidio venisset.
  • Fam. 9, 18 actum igitur de te est, nisi provides.
  • Fam. 14, 3 si inveterarit, actum est.

Actum est de also = a discussion was raised about, hence “de exercitu actum est” may mean it is all over with the army, or the army was the subject of discussion.

  • L. 40, 36 de Semproni deinde exercitu actum est (the matter of Sempronius’ army was then discussed).
  • L. 27, 21 actum de imperio Marcelli in circo Flaminio est.
  • L. 2, 18 actum tamen est de pace (the question of peace was nevertheless discussed).

Res (rarely de re) agitur = the matter is at stake. Fr. il s’agit de.

  • Hor. Ep. 1, 18, 84 nam tua res agitur paries cum proximus ardet (surely your interest is at stake when the next house is on fire).
  • Phil. 7, 9, 27 libertas agitur populi Romani.
  • Pomp. 6 praesertim cum de maximis vestris vectigalibus agatur (especially when your chief revenues are at stake).

“Agere cum populo” is the technical expression for to lay a matter before the people in their assemblies (used of the presiding magistrate).


Mors, death in any form, natural or violent. Death is common to every age, mors omni aetati est communis; he made away with himself, mortem sibi conscivit. Nex, violent death only. Hence potestas (dominus, arbiter) vitae necisque, belongs to man; vitae mortisque, to God. Mors (not nex) is correctly used in the Vulgate (Sap. 16, 13)—Tu es enim, domine, qui vitae et mortis habes potestatem, for Thou art, O Lord, Who hast the power of life and death.

  • Caes. 7, 77 qui se ultro morti offerant, facilius reperiuntur, quam qui dolorem patienter ferant.
  • L. 39, 17 quidam ex eis viri feminaeque mortem sibi consciverunt.
  • R. P. 3, 13 sunt enim omnes, qui in populum vitae necisque potestatem habent, tyranni.
  • Caes. 6, 19 viri in uxores sicut in liberos vitae necisque habent potestatem (the husband has power of life and death over the wife as over the children).
  • L. 2, 35 se iudicem quisque, se dominum vitae necisque inimici factum videbat.

This cost him his life, hoc ei morte stetit.


Aes alienum, opposed to aes suum = the money of another, hence, in reference to him who has it, money owed, a debt; “aes alienum est quod nos aliis debemus; aes suum, quod alii nobis debent”.

  • Verr. 4, 6 hominem video non modo in aere alieno nullo, sed in suis nummis multis esse et semper fuisse.
  • Off. 2, 16 aes alienum suscipiunt amicorum (take upon themselves the debts of their friends).
  • Hor. Ep. 2, 2, 12 res urguet me nulla; meo sum pauper in aere (no difficulties harass me; though I have but slender means I have no debt).
  • Fam. 15, 14 multi anni sunt cum ille in aere meo est (since he has been among my effects, i.e., my friend).


Tueri supposes only possible danger, to protect, opposed to neglegere; defendere, an actual attack, opposed to deserere. Tueri implies care, defendere courage.

  • Caes. C. 3, 94 tuemini castra ac defendite.
  • Caes. 7, 65 Allobroges magna cum cura et diligentia suos fines tuentur.
  • Verr. 1, 58 quis est qui tueri possit liberum nostrorum pueritiam contra improbitatem magistratuum?
  • Caes. 5, 7 ille resistere ac se manu defendere coepit.
  • L. 1, 5, 3 cum Romulus vi se defendisset.

Defendere bellum, to keep or fend off war, to act on the defensive; inferre bellum, to act on the offensive.

  • Caes. 1, 44 quod bellum non intulerit, sed defenderit.


Negare = to say that something is not; non dicere = not to say that something is. Who says that a dog is not like a wolf? quis negat canem similem esse lupo? who does not say that a dog is like a wolf? quis non dicit canem similem esse lupo?

  • Flacc. 37 mulieres negant se scire.
  • Verr. 4, 1 nego ullum argenteum vas fuisse quin (= quod non) conquisierit.
  • Verr. 4, 21, 52 dices frumentum Mamertinos non debere.
  • Att. 6, 1 quis Zaleucum leges Locris scripsisse non dixit?
  1. Negare is sometimes followed by a second clause where the affirmative idea involved in dicere is to be supplied, in which case the copulatives et, que, ac take the place of adversatives = sed. He said that he did not blame the slave, but approved of his conduct, negavit se servum reprehendere et factum eius probare.

    Similarly iubere is left to be supplied from vetare, scire from nescire, velle from nolle.

    • Fin. 4, 9, 22 patronusne causae in epilogo pro reo dicens negaret esse malum exsilium, publicationem bonorum? haec reicienda esse, non fugienda? nec misericordem iudicem esse oportere?
    • N. D. 1, 25, 71 negat esse corpus deorum, sed tamquam corpus, nec sanguinem, sed tamquam sanguinem.
    • Off. 3, 27, 100 atque illud etiam … reddi captivos negavit esse utile; illos enim adulescentes esse et bonos duces, se iam confectum senectute.
    • Sall. I. 106 ille negat se Numidam pertimescere; virtuti suorum credere.
    • N. Ag. 5 negavit id suae virtuti convenire; se enim eum esse, qui ad officium peccantes redire cogeret.
    • N. Cim. 1 Elpinice negavit se passuram Miltiadis progeniem in vinclis publicis interire, seque Calliae nupturam.
    • Att. 7, 15 plerique negant Caesarem in condicione mansurum, postulataque haec ab eo interposita esse, quo minus, quod opus esset, a nobis pararetur.
    • N. D. 1, 7, 17 tu autem nolo existimes me adiutorem huic venisse, sed auditorem, et quidem aequum cet.
    • Tus. 5, 40, 116 nostri Graece fere nesciunt, nec Graeci Latine.
  2. Dicere may be followed by a negative which belongs to a special word or phrase.

    • Verr. 5, 50, 133 non poenam flagitii tolli dico oportere.
    • Or. 2, 68, 276 qui quom … ei ab ostio quaerenti Ennium ancilla dixisset domi non esse.
    • Verr. 3, 22, 55 dicebat ille non modo se non arasse, id quod sat erat, sed nec dominum esse eius fundi nec locatorem, uxoris esse.
    • Fin. 2, 23, 75 hoc enim identidem dicitis, non intellegere nos, quam dicatis voluptatem.
    • Att. 15, 29, 2 dixi nihil sane me audisse (nesciebam enim, cur quaereret) nisi de ore et patre.
    • Vat. 3 dixisti non mea, sed rei publicae causa homines de meo reditu laborasse.
    • Caes. 4, 9 ne id quidem Caesar ab se impetrari posse dixit.
  3. Negare in the passive ordinarily takes the personal construction. but such locutions as “negari non potest,” “num negari potest?” are followed by the accusative and infinitive. It is denied that Quinctius was defended, Quinctius negatur esse defensus; it cannot be denied that Quinctius was defended, negari non potest Quinctium esse defensum. Caecin. 15 ibi vis facta negabitur?

    • Flacc. 14 num id negari potest, bipertito classem distributam fuisse?
  4. Non negare quin belongs to poetry and later Latin (once in Liv. 40, 36). You cannot deny that a dog is like a wolf, negare non potes canem similem esse lupo (not quin canis similis sit lupo).


Dignum esse, to deserve, be worthy of, implies the possession of some quality; mereri, to deserve, to earn, implies the performance of some particular service. Laude dignus est, he is worthy of praise = he is a praiseworthy man; laudem meruit (better than meritus est), he performed a meritorious act.

  • Pis. 33 cum me omni laude dignum putet.
  • Caecil. 18 tamen eas iniurias ferendo maiorem laudem quam ulciscendo mererere (still you would deserve greater credit by bearing such iniuries than by revenging them).

Mereri is used either in a good or bad sense, hence mereri de aliquo, to deserve of one, is always accompanied by an adverb of quality, as, bene, melius, optime, mirifice, or male, peius, pessime, never by an adverb of mere degree, as, valde, magno opere, e.g., Phil. 2, 14, 36 non est tuum de re publica bene mereri.


Contemnere, to hold in low esteem, make light of, undervalue, opposed to magni facere, or metuere; spernere is stronger than contemnere = to hold in contempt, despise; despicere, to look down upon, disdain.

  • Or. 13 orationis genus, quod diximus proprium sophistarum, spretum et pulsum foro.
  • Off. 1, 9 ea quae plerique vehementer expetunt, contemnunt et pro nihilo putant.
  • Mur. 7 contempsisti Murenae genus; extulisti tuum.
  • Off. 1, 1 quorum uterque, suo studio delectatus, contempsit alterum.
  • L. 6, 6 se tamen ut nihil timendi sic nihil contemnendi auctorem esse.
  • L. 22, 39, 20 omnia audentem contemnet Hannibal, nihil temere agentem metuet.
  • Fin. 2, 9 contemnit disserendi elegantiam, confuse loquitur.
  • Tus. 5, 1 virtus haec omnia subter se habet, eaque despiciens casus contemnit humanos.
  • Rosc. A. 46 videtis, ut omnes despiciat, ut hominem prae se neminem putet.
  • Mur. 37 Catilina rem publicam despexit atque contempsit.


Diripere takes only an accusative. He despoiled the temple, templum diripuit (spoliavit); he despoiled the temple of its image, templum imagine spoliavit.

  • Pis. 35 a te Iovis fanum antiquissimum direptum est.
  • Verr. 1, 58 hic bonis patriis fortunisque omnibus spoliatus venit in iudicium.
  • Planc. 9, 22 est gravius spoliari fortunis quam non augeri dignitate.
  • N. Thras. 2, 6 neminem iacentem veste spoliavit.


Mori, to die, in opposition to vivere, to live; emori, to pass from the scene of life = to cut connexion with life; demori (only in form demortuus), to die off and cause a vacancy, as one belonging to a circle of associates, or filling an official or other post.

  • Tus. 2, 1 necesse est mori.
  • Tus. 1, 31, 75 secernere autem a corpore animum ecquidnam aliud est nisi mori discere? Quare hoc commentemur, mihi crede, disiungamusque nos a corporibus, id est consuescamus mori.
  • Sall. I. 14, 24 nunc neque vivere lubet neque mori licet sine dedecore.
  • ap. Tus. 1, 8 emori nolo, sed me esse mortuum nihili aestimo.
  • Fam. 14, 4 cupio in tuo conplexu emori, quoniam neque di neque homines nobis gratiam rettulerunt.
  • Cat. 1, 8 dubitas, si emori aequo animo non potes, abire in aliquas terras?
  • L. 5, 31 nec deinde umquam in demortui locum censor sufficitur.
  • Att. 16, 11 alii enim sunt alias, nostrique familiares fere demortui.

According to the father’s dying wish, ex morientis patris voluntate.


Contrarius, different, opposite; diversus, different, having nothing in common. Varius denotes the varieties of kindred things, or the different phases of the same thing. Alius can be used to translate “different” sometimes. It expresses complete difference.

  • Div. 2, 26 iam vero coniectura omnis ingeniis hominum in multas aut diversas aut etiam contrarias partis saepe diducitur.
  • L. 2, 6 contrario ictu uterque transfixus (by a blow from the opposite direction).
  • Fam. 1, 9, 25 varias esse opiniones intellego.
  • Or. 1, 61 quae collegisti ex variis et diversis studiis et artibus.
  • L. 1, 33 Marte incerto varia victoria pugnatum est.
  • N. D. 2, 5 quales sint, varium est: esse nemo negat (their nature is a matter as to which people differ: their existence no one denies).
  • Caes. C. 3, 51, 4 aliae enim sunt legati partes atque imperatoris.
  • L. 1, 12, 9 iam sciunt longe aliud esse virgines rapere, aliud pugnare cum viris.


Diligentia, painstaking effort which allows nothing to be overlooked, opposed to neglegentia. It does not correspond to our word “diligence,” which is industria. Studium, zeal as an inspiring sentiment, enthusiasm; labor, the actual exertion or toil.

  • Fam. 13, 68 ego quae ad tuam dignitatem pertinere arbitrabor, summo studio diligentiaque curabo.
  • Sull. 15 ne denique aut neglegentia turpis aut diligentia crudelis putaretur.
  • Phil. 4, 6 Catilinam diligentia mea, senatus auctoritate, vestro studio et virtute fregistis.
  • Off. 2, 24 res familiaris conservatur diligentia.
  • Or. 2, 35 reliqua sunt in cura, attentione animi, cogitatione, vigilantia, adsiduitate, labore; complectar uno verbo, quo saepe iam usi sumus, diligentia.
  • Pomp. 1 nihil huc nisi perfectum ingenio, elaboratum industria, afferri oportere putavi.
  • Or. 1, 33 est enim magni laboris.
  • Rosc. C. 8 laborem quaestus recepit; quaestum laboris reiecit.
  • Inv. 1, 25 studium est animi adsidua et vehemens ad aliquam rem applicata magna cum voluntate occupatio.

On purpose, de industria.


Repellere of what seeks admission; depellere of what has found admission. “Pellitur hostis in acie stans, repellitur irruens, depellitur praesidium colle” (Madvig, Fin. 1, 10).

  • Caes. 1, 8 telis repulsi conatu destiterunt.
  • Caes. 7, 67 summum iugum nacti hostes loco depellunt.
  • Fin. 1, 11 cum cibo et potione fames sitisque depulsa est (whenever hunger and thirst are banished by food and drink).


Dividere, distribuere, and the like verbs, take in and the accusative in the sense of to divide into parts; the dative in the sense of to divide among. He divided the booty into three parts, praedam in tres partes divisit; he divided the booty among the soldiers, praedam militibus divisit.

  • Fin. 4, 2 totam philosophiam tris in partes diviserunt.
  • Caes. C. 1, 39 has (pecunias) exercitui distribuit.
  • Att. 1, 18 pater eius nummos vobis dividere solebat.

Inter se takes the place of the dative, where the idea of reciprocity is involved. They divided the booty among themselves, praedam inter se (not sibi) diviserunt. In Livy and post-classical writers the acc. with inter is sometimes irregularly used instead of the dat., e.g., L. 21, 27 inter consules (= consulibus) copiae divisae.

  • L. 22, 27 obtinuit, ut legiones inter se dividerent.
  • L. 26, 5 ita inter sese copias partiti sunt.
  • L. 23, 26, 2 P. et Cn. Scipionibus inter se partitis copiis, ut cet.
  • Caes. C. 1, 73, 4 id opus inter se Petreius atque Afranius partiuntur.


In a negative sentence, or an interrogative sentence implying a negative answer, dubitare is followed by quin with subjunctive, in the sense of to doubt whether so and so is the case, and by the infinitive, when it means to hesitate, have scruples about. Nobody doubts his coming, nemo dubitat, quin venturus sit; he never scrupled to tell him his mind freely, quid sentiret ei libere dicere numquam dubitavit.

  • Tus. 1, 38 dubitas, quin sensus in morte nullus sit?
  • L. 22, 39 dubitas ergo quin sedendo superaturi simus eum qui senescat in dies?
  • Mil. 4 non enim dubito quin probaturus sim vobis defensionem meam.
  • Brut. 18 nec dubitari debet quin fuerint ante Homerum poetae.
  • Caes. C. 2, 33 ne Varus quidem dubitat copias producere.

The infinitive is rare in affirmative sentences, only one or two instances being found in Cicero.

  • Sall. C. 15 quod ea nubere illi dubitabat.
  • N. D. 1, 40 accusat fratrem suum, quod dubitet omnia, quae ad vitam beatam pertineant, ventre metiri.
  • Att. 10, 3 homines ridiculos! qui cum filios misissent ad Pompeium circumsidendum, ipsi in senatum venire dubitarent.

“Quin” instead of infinitive, otherwise rare, is the regular construction, if “dubitare” stands in the gerund.

  • Caes. C. 3, 37 Domitius sibi dubitandum non putavit, quin proelio decertaret.
  • Caes. 2, 2 dubitandum non existimavit, quin ad eos proficisceretur.
  • Pomp. 23 nolite dubitare, quin huic uni credatis omnia.

The infinitive instead of “quin” is found in Nepos, Livy, and later writers. “Non dubito fore plerosque” would have been in Cicero or Caesar “Non dubito quin plerique futuri sint”.

We say “dubitare hoc, hoc unum, multa,” but “de aliqua re, de fide, de legione”. “Dubitare num” is un-Ciceronian.


Somnium = the substance of the dream. In a dream = in somnis (somno), in quiete, or secundum quietem, not in somnio. Interpreters of dreams, interpretes somniorum.

  • Div. 1, 25 in somnis (in a dream) vidit ipsum deum dicentem, qui id fecisset.
  • Att. 7, 23, 1 haec metuo equidem ne sint somnia.


Vestis is always singular in classical prose = dress or dresses, apparel; vestimentum = an article of dress, a garment.

  1. Vestis, like vestitus, is used only in a collective sense: the different parts of a dress, i.e., the different garments = vestimenta.

    Vestis generaliter dicitur, vestimentum pars aliqua” (Festus).

  2. Vestitus differs from vestis in that it cannot be used absolutely, i.e., it always associates the dress with its wearer.

  3. Vestis is applied to any kind of clothing material, whether as a dress for the body, or as upholstering of furniture = coverings of couches, carpets, hangings.

  • N. Dat. 3 Datames Thuyn optima veste texit.
  • Tus. 1, 47 iuvenes veste posita corpora oleo perunxerunt.
  • Caes. 7, 47 de muro vestem argentumque iactabant (vestments and plate).
  • Am. 15 parant equos, famulos, vestem egregiam (superb dresses).
  • Phil. 2, 27 maximus vini numerus fuit, pretiosa vestis, multa et lauta supellex (there was a very large stock of wine, costly tapestry, and a quantity of handsome furniture).
  • Rosc. A. 49 vestitum, quo ipse tectus erat, tibi tradidit.
  • Caes. 7, 88, 1 eius adventu ex colore vestitus cognito.
  • R. P. 1, 12, 18 tum Scipio calceis et vestimentis sumptis e cubiculo est egressus.
  • Flacc. 29, 70 tibi invideo, quod unis vestimentis tam diu lautus es.
  • Mil. 10 calceos et vestimenta mutavit.
  • Pl. As. 1, 1, 79 nudo detrahere vestimenta me iubes (you bid me strip the naked = do what is impossible).

Mutare vestem or vestitum = to put on mourning )( ad vestitum suum redire, to put off mourning. But mutare vestem is also a general expression for to change one’s dress = vestimenta mutare.

  • Sest. 11 senatus frequens vestem pro mea salute mutandam censuit.
  • Q. F. 2, 3 vestitum filius mutavit.
  • Sest. 14 edicunt duo consules, ut ad suum vestitum senatores redirent.
  • L. 22, 1 mutando nunc vestem nunc tegumenta capitis sese ab insidiis munierat (by changing now his dress, now his wig, he had protected himself from conspiracies).
  • Ter. Eu. 609 An. muta vestem: Ch. ubi mutem?


Bibere, to drink, generally, whether to quench one’s thirst, or in reference to customary moderate convivial drinking; potare, to drink to excess, to tipple.

  • Tus. 5, 34 Darius in fuga, cum aquam turbidam bibisset, negavit umquam se bibisse iucundius.
  • Fin. 2, 3 estne, inquam, sitienti in bibendo voluptas?
  • Verr. 1, 26 fit sermo inter eos et invitatio, ut Graeco more biberetur.
  • Pl. Rud. 361 periit potando (he has drunk himself to death).
  • Phil. 2, 27 totos dies potabatur.
  • Sall. C. 11 ibi primum insuevit exercitus populi Romani potare.

Potum, or potatum, is used instead of bibitum. He is going to drink, poturus or potaturus est.


Ebrius, drunk, intoxicated. Ebriosus, addicted to drinking, drunken. A person may be “ebrius,” drunk, on a particular occasion, without incurring the imputation of being “ebriosus,” a drunkard.

  • Sen. Ep. 83 plurimum interesse concedes inter ebrium et ebriosum.
  • Mil. 24 servos Milonis apud se ebrios factos (had got drunk in his house.)
  • Fam. 9, 17, 1 ex quo vel ex sobrio vel certe ex ebrio scire posses.
  • Deiot. 9 Deiotarum saltantem quisquam aut ebrium vidit umquam?
  • Fat. 5 hunc scribunt ipsius familiares ebriosum fuisse.


Ebrietas, drunkenness as an act, intoxication; ebriositas, drunkenness as a habit, sottishness.

  • Tus. 4, 12 inter ebrietatem et ebriositatem interest.


Quisque is used in a differentiated, never in a purely collective sense = each in each several case.Quisque semper cum aliqua distributione singulos separatim significat” (Madvig, Fin. 1, 4). Unus quisque, every single one, no one excepted, without implying distinction between one and another; singuli, each or any taken singly, one by one, opposed to universi; also one each or one apiece, opposed to bini, two each, terni, three each, deni, ten each, etc. I will summon every single senator, unum quemque senatorem citabo; I will summon every senator singly, singulos senatores citabo; what you decide in the case of each shall be carried out, quod de quoque censueritis, fiet.

  • Off. 3, 17 magni est iudicis statuere, quid quemque cuique praestare oporteat (it needs great judgment to decide what each should make good to each).
  • L. 38, 23 laudati quoque omnes sunt, donatique pro merito quisque.
  • L. 1, 44 edixit, ut omnes cives in suis quisque centuriis (in their respective centuries) adessent.
  • L. 21, 48 in civitates quemque suas dimisit (“suas quemque civitates” would have been more correct).
  • L. 23, 3 de singulorum capite vobis ius sententiae dicendae faciam, ut quas quisque meritus est poenas pendat (I will give you the right of passing sentence on them one by one, so that each may pay the penalty he has deserved).
  • Fam. 1, 7, 2 quod scire vis, qua quisque in te fide sit, difficile dictu est de singulis (as to your wish to know how far every one is loyal to you, it is diffcult to speak of each singly).
  • Caes. C. 2, 29 unus quisque enim opiniones fingebat.
  • Verr. 2, 39 unum quemque senatorem rogabat, ut filio suo parceret.
  • Or. 3, 21 in qua (exercitatione) Velleius est rudis, unus quisque nostrum versatus.
  • Cat. 1, 1, 2 notat et designat oculis ad caedem unum quemque nostrum.
  • Q. F. 1, 1, 16, 45 uti uni cuique sua domus nota esse debeat.
  • Fin. 3, 19, 64 philosophi censent unum quemque nostrum mundi esse partem (philosophers hold that every one of us is a member of the universe).
  • L. 21, 41, 16 unus quisque se non corpus suum sed coniugem ac liberos parvos armis protegere putet.
  • Off. 3, 15, 63 singulorum facultates divitiae sunt civitatis (the means of individuals are the state’s riches).
  • N. D. 3, 39 non curat singulos homines (he does not concern himself about individuals).
  • L. 1, 25 ut universis solus nequaquam par, sic adversus singulos ferox.
  • L. 30, 30 Scipio et Hannibal cum singulis interpretibus congressi sunt.
  • Caes. 1, 52 Caesar singulis legionibus singulos legatos praefecit.
  • L. 35, 34 singuli in singulas (civitates) principes missi sunt.
  • L. 3, 69 bini senatores singulis cohortibus praepositi.
  1. Quisque is especially used with the reflexive pronouns suus and se, which, as a general rule, are placed before, e.g., non omnia omnibus tribuenda sunt, sed suum cuique.

    • Ter. Ad. 399 ut quisque suom volt esse, itast.
    • L. 22, 22, 14 volt sibi quisque credi.
    • L. 22, 59, 19 suum quisque animum habet.
    • Flacc. 28, 69 sua cuique civitati religio, Laeli, est, nostra nobis.
    • Caes. 7, 81, 4 suus cuique erat locus attributus.
    • Fam. 9, 22, 1 placet Stoicis suo quamque rem nomine appellare.
    • L. 6, 8, 2 procurrunt … “sequere imperatorem” pro se quisque clamantes.
    • Fin. 5, 9, 25 sua cuique propria.
    • Fin. 5, 12, 36 in sensibus est sua cuiusque virtus.
    • Off. 3, 10, 42 suae cuique utilitati … serviendum est.
    • N. D. 3, 1 suo cuique iudicio est utendum (each must use his own judgment).
    • Rosc. A. 24 sua quemque fraus et suus terror maxime vexat (a man’s worst tormentor is his own crime and remorse).
    • Att. 6, 1, 16 sunt omnes ita mihi familiares, ut se quisque maxime putet.
    • Verr. 1, 27 pro se quisque, ut in quoque erat auctoritatis plurimum, ad populum loquebatur (each one for himself, according to the amount of influence he possessed, began to address the people).
  2. Quisque gives a peculiar signification to a superlative, which is always placed before = all or always. All the best people, optimus quisque; all the scarcest things, rarissima quaeque. The rule is for the superlative to be singular in the masculine or feminine, and singular or plural (oftener plural) in the neuter. When a second superlative follows in the predicate, quisque implies proportion. The most learned men are always the most modest, doctissimus quisque est modestissimus = ut quisque est doctissimus, ita est modestissimus, or quo quisque est doctior, eo est modestior. The last rendering is the only form in which quisque is used with the comparative. We cannot say bonus quisque or melior quisque.

    • Sall. I. 22, 2 ab adulescentia ita se enisum, ut ab optumo quoque probaretur.
    • Verr. 4, 64, 142 ut quisque aetate et honore antecedit, ita primus solet sua sponte dicere.
    • Or. 2, 66, 265 ut quisque optime Graece sciret, ita esse nequissimum.
    • Tus. 1, 31 disseruit doctissimus quisque.
    • L. 3, 69 cohortes sibi quaeque centuriones legerunt (quaeque is singular; Cf. 2, 7 ut ambo exercitus suas quisque abirent domos).
    • L. 7, 19 trecenti delecti, nobilissimus quisque, qui Romam mitterentur.
    • Sen. 23 sapientissimus quisque aequissimo animo moritur (all the wisest men die with the greatest equanimity).
    • Phil. 5, 18 senatui atque optimo cuique carissimus.
    • L. 30, 30 maximae cuique fortunae minime credendum est (the highest fortune is always least to be trusted).
    • Off. 2, 21 leges et proxuma quaeque duriores (proxuma instead of the usual proxumae is Reid’s emendation = “laws, and harsher each than its predecessor”).
    • Am. 19 veterrima quaeque (amicitia) esse debet suavissima.
    • Inv. 2, 2 excellentissima quaeque libavimus.
    • L. 25, 38 fortissima quaeque consilia tutissima sunt (the boldest policy is always the safest).
    • Fin 2, 25 optimum quidque rarissimum est.
    • Q. F. 1, 1, 4 ut quisque est vir optimus, ita difficillime esse alios improbos suspicatur (the better a man is, the more difficult it is for him to suspect that others are bad).
    • Or. 1, 26 ut quisque optime dicit, ita maxime dicendi difficultatem pertimescit.
    • Rosc. C. 11 quo quisque est sollertior et ingeniosior, hoc docet iracundius et laboriosius.

    The plural is necessarily used when quisque refers to a noun of plural form, or to a group or set of cases, e.g., Fam. 7, 33 velim sic statuas, tuas mihi litteras longissimas quasque gratissimas fore; L. 1, 9 multi mortales convenere, maxime proximi quique, Caeninenses, Crustumini, Antemnates.

  3. The use of quisque after an ordinal corresponds to its use after a superlative. Not all, but all the best, non omnes, sed optimus quisque; not every year, but every three years, non singulis annis (quotannis), sed tertio quoque anno, not singulis tribus annis. One out of each hundred, centesimus quisque, not e centenis singuli; scarce one in ten, vix decimus quisque. Primus quisque, each first in sequence, each as it comes to the front, each successively, one after the other. Similarly proximus quisque, each nearest in turn. Cf. postremus quisque.

    • Verr. 2, 56 quinto quoque anno Sicilia tota censetur (a census of all Sicily is taken every five years).
    • Fam. 5, 2, 8 Metellus tertio quoque verbo orationis suae me appellabat.
    • N. D. 3, 3 primum quidque videamus (let us consider each successive point).
    • L. 2, 59, 11 cetera multitudo sorte decumus quisque ad supplicium lecti.
    • Verr. 5, 34, 90 ut quisque in fuga postremus, ita in periculo princeps erat.
    • Inv. 1, 23 ad primam quamque partem primum accessit.

    In such expressions as primo quoque tempore, as soon as possible; primo quoque die, on the very earliest day, the idea of succession is effaced.

    • L. 42, 48 ut exercitui diem primam quamque diceret ad conveniendum.
    • Verr. 4, 26, 58 misit, ut is anulus ad se primo quoque tempore adferretur.
  4. In a complex sentence consisting of a demonstrative and a relative clause, quisque, contrary to English idiom, is almost always thrown into the dependent clause, in which case it appropriately follows the relative, not suus or se, e.g., ap. Tus. 1, 18 quam quisque norit artem, in hac se exerceat, let every one practise the art which he knows. There are certain other words to which the enclitic quisque similarly attaches itself, such as ut, quo, ubi, or an interrogative, e.g., Am. 9 ut quisque sibi plurimum confidit, ita maxime excellit, the more a man trusts in himself, the more he excels.

    • Am. 16 quanti quisque se ipse facit, tanti fiat ab amicis.
    • Caes. 1, 19, 4 ostendit quae separatim quisque de eo apud se dixerit.
    • Sall. I. 60, 1 ubi quisque legatus aut tribunus curabat, eo acerrume niti.
    • Brut. 73, 257 quare non quantum quisque prosit, sed quanti quisque sit ponderandum est.
    • L. 3, 27 (vallum) sumpsere, unde cuique proximum fuit.
    • Fin. 3, 20 theatrum cum commune sit, recte tamen dici potest eius esse eum locum, quem quisque occuparit (that the place each man has secured belongs to him).
    • Verr. 7 ut quisque me viderat, narrabat (each one proceeded to tell me as soon as he caught sight of me).
    • Verr. 4, 64 ut quisque aetate antecedebat, ita sententiam dixit ex ordine.
  5. Sometimes quisque appears in both clauses, usually in different cases; rarely in the principal clause only, as for example, Or. 7 tantum quisque laudat, quantum se posse sperat imitari for tantum laudant, quantum quisque se posse sperat imitari (each one praises just so much as he is in hopes of being able to imitate).

    • Off. 1, 7 quod cuique obtigit, id quisque teneat.
    • Phil. 2, 46 hoc opto, ut ita cuique eveniat, ut de re publica quisque mereatur (“my wish is that, such as are each man’s public deserts, such may be that man’s reward”.—Jebb).
    • Fam. 7, 30 id enim est cuiusque proprium, quo quisque fruitur atque utitur.
    • Phil. 5, 7 tantum quisque habebat possessor, quantum reliquerat Antonius (= tantum habebant possessores, quantum cuique reliquerat Antonius).
  6. Unless after a reflexive, or a superlative or ordinal, quisque is seldomer used in an independent sentence, as for example, R. P. 6, 24 mens cuiusque is est quisque, a man’s mind is the man himself.


The reciprocal relation is generally expressed by inter nos, inter vos, inter se, inter ipsos. The children love each other, pueri inter se amant. Inter se may be replaced by inter ipsos, if the reference is to a case other than the nominative or accusative. Inter se ipsos is used only where opposition or contrast is expressed or implied.

Pueri se amant = the children love themselves; hence it would be absurd to say “pueri se inter se amant”. The insertion of the pronoun is possible only where it has no reflexive reference, i.e., where the subject is different from the object, e.g., amor patriae nos inter nos coniungit.

  • Att. 6, 1, 12 Cicerones pueri amant inter se.
  • Cat. 3, 5 furtim inter sese aspiciebant.
  • L. 39, 39 ingens certamen tribunis et inter se ipsos et cum consule fuit.
  • Brut. 16, 63 quodam modo est nonnulla in iis etiam inter ipsos similitudo.
  • L. 3, 68, 8 sedemus desides domi, mulierum ritu inter nos altercantes.
  • Am. 22 veri amici non solum colent inter se ac diligent, sed etiam verebuntur (will not only care for and love, but also respect one another).
  • Caes. 1, 9 obsides uti inter sese dent, perficit (not sibi inter sese).
  • Fat. 8 in sphaera maximi orbes medii inter se dividuntur (in a sphere great circles bisect each other).
  • Or. 1, 8 colloquimur inter nos (we converse with one another).
  • Par. 3, 2 verbis inter nos contendimus, non pugnis.
  • Or. 3, 7 omnes inter se dissimiles fuerunt.
  • Leg. 1, 10 hominum inter ipsos societas.
  • Fam. 5, 7 res publica nos inter nos conciliabit.
  1. Reciprocal action is sometimes expressed by the repetition, usually in juxtaposition, of the same word.

    Hands wash each other, manus manum lavat.

    We embraced each other, alter alterum complexi sumus.

    Alius alium complexus est, strictly = one embraced one, another another. Alii alios vincunt vicissimque vincuntur (C. Tim. 9).

    • Verr. 3, 34 Siculi Siculos non tam pertimescebant.
    • L. 9, 5, 8 alii alios intueri.
    • Sall. C. 6, 5 alius alium hortari.
    • Sall. C. 9, 2 cives cum civibus de virtute certabant.
    • N. Thras. 2 cives civibus parcere aequum censebat (he thought it right that citizens should spare each other).
    • Fin. 5, 23 coniunctio inter homines hominum.
    • Div. 2, 24 Cato mirari se aiebat, quod non rideret haruspex, haruspicem cum vidisset (Cato used to say that he wondered soothsayers did not laugh when they looked each other in the face).
    • Fin. 1, 6 numquam fore, ut atomus altera alteram posset attingere (no two atoms could ever touch each other).
    • Fin. 3, 2 quod cum accidisset, ut alter alterum necopinato videremus, surrexit statim (when it came about that we suddenly caught sight of each other, he got up at once).
    • L. 30, 30 alter alterius conspectu, admiratione mutua prope attoniti, conticuere.
    • Sall. I. 53 alteri apud alteros formidinem facere (the one detachment causes consternation to the other).
    • N. Dion 4 ostendens se id utriusque causa facere, ne, cum inter se timerent, alteruter alterum praeoccuparet.
    • Sall. I. 53 milites alius alium laeti appellant (the soldiers in ecstasy hail each other by name).
    • Off. 1, 7 ut ipsi inter se aliis alii prodesse possent (aliis alii restricts the general expression inter se).
    • N. D. 1, 43 ita fit ut ipsi di inter se ab aliis alii neglegantur.
    • Off. 1, 7 iustitiae primum munus est, ut ne cui quis noceat (the first duty of justice is to do no wrong to any man).
  2. The repetition of the same word is not, like inter se, a general reciprocal expression. It is a construction which conveys various other meanings, e.g.:—

    Vir virum legit, each man picked another. Aetas succedit aetati, age succeeds to age. Ignis ignem incendit, fire kindles fire. Cives a civibus caeduntur, citizens are slain by citizens; but, cives cum civibus pugnant = citizens fight with each other.

    • N. Att. 22 (Atticus moriens) non ex vita, sed ex domo in domum (from one home to another) videbatur migrare.
    • L. 22, 47 vir virum amplexus detrahebat equo.
    • L. 29, 8, 11 inter se ducem in ducem, militem in militem rabie hostili vertit.
    • L. 4, 20 ea rite opima spolia habentur quae dux duci detraxit.
    • Off. 3, 23 victus alteri cedet alter.
  3. In vicem (not in Cicero) = alternately, in turn, is employed by Livy and later writers in a reciprocal sense, sometimes with, but usually without, inter se. In Livy it is commonly attached as an adjective to verbal nouns = mutuus; e.g., L. 6, 24 adhortatio in vicem = adhortatio mutua, mutual encouragement.

    • L. 9, 43 in vicem inter se gratantes.
    • L. 3, 6 ministeria in vicem (attendance on one another).
    • Tac. H. 2, 47 experti in vicem sumus ego ac fortuna (fortune and I now know each other).
    • Plin. Ep. 7, 20 ut invicem ardentius diligamus (that we should love one another more warmly).


Terrestris, existing on the earth or land; terrenus, made of earth, earthen; e.g., copiae terrestres, land forces; tumulus terrenus (not terrestris), a mound of earth.

Terrenus came to be also used in the sense of terrestris; e.g., bestiae terrestres or terrenae, land animals; umores terrestres or terreni, land exhalations.

  • Caes. C. 3, 15 alter praesidiis terrestribus praeerat.
  • L. 38, 20 animadvertit meridiana regione terrenos colles esse (cf. Sall. I. 92 mons saxeus).

Earthly things = res humanae, not res terrestres; heavenly things = res divinae, not res caelestes.


Aut—aut are objective and absolute; vel—vel are subjective, implying that the choice of the alternatives, whether they are co-existent or mutually exclusive, is a matter of indifference to the speaker.

  1. Aut Romae aut Athenis te conveniam, I shall meet you at Rome, or (if not there) at Athens. Vel Romae vel Athenis te conveniam, I will meet you at Rome or Athens (as you please).

  2. Aut bibat aut abeat, let him drink or (if he will not) go. Vel bibat vel abeat, let him drink or go (just as he pleases).

  3. Vel Graece vel Latine loquendo cuivis erat par, he was equal to any one in speaking either Greek or Latin (in whichever language you take him; almost = et Graece et Latine loquendo).

  • Fat. 9 omne enuntiatum aut verum aut falsum est (every proposition is either true or false).
  • Ac. 2, 30 aut vivet cras Hermarchus aut non vivet (Hermarchus will either be alive to-morrow or he will not).
  • L. 2, 56 ego hic aut in conspectu vestro moriar, aut perferam legem (either I will die here before your eyes or pass the law).
  • Caes. 1, 19 satis esse causae arbitrabatur, quare in Dumnorigem aut ipse animadverteret aut civitatem animadvertere iuberet (= he considered that there was sufficient ground to justify him either in inflicting punishment himself on Dumnorix or bidding the state do so).
  • Caes. 1, 19 petit ut vel ipse de eo statuat vel civitatem statuere iubeat (he begs him either to allow him to pass judgment on him, or bid the state do so; here the choice of alternatives, which is left to Divitiacus, is a matter of indifference to Caesar).
  • Ter. Eu. 319 hanc tu mihi vel vi vel clam vel precario fac tradas (= see that you deliver her to me by force or stealth or entreaty, I care not which).
  • Ter. Heaut. 86 aut consolando aut consilio aut re iuuero.
  • L. 23, 45, 10 vos vel ducam quo voletis vel sequar.
  • Sall. C. 20 vel imperatore vel milite me utimini (make use of me either as your general or your fellow-soldier).
  • L. 9, 18 Romani multi fuerunt Alexandro vel gloria vel rerum magnitudine pares.

Where a general negative (non, nihil, nemo, nullus, numquam, nusquam, nego) precedes, the Latin idiom treats the distributed terms as negative, and neque (nec)—neque (nec) usually (not always) take the place of aut—aut or vel—vel. Never either before or after, numquam nec antea nec postea.

  • Att. 14, 20, 3 nemo umquam neque poeta neque orator fuit, qui quemquam meliorem quam se arbitraretur (there never was any one either poet or orator who thought any one better than himself).
  • Att. 14, 13, 6 quae Caesar numquam neque fecisset neque passus esset, ea nunc ex falsis eius commentariis proferuntur (Caesar would never have either done or tolerated such things as are now produced from his forged manuscripts).
  • L. 39, 40 nulla ars neque privatae neque publicae rei gerendae ei defuit.
  • Tus. 1, 25 non est certe nec cordis nec sanguinis nec cerebri.
  • L. 4, 38 nihil nec imperium nec maiestas valebat.
  • Fin. 3, 15, 48 negant nec virtutes nec vitia crescere.
  • L. 6, 23, 9 Camillus negare in eis neque se neque populum Romanum aut consilii sui aut fortunae paenituisse.
  • N. Timol. 4, 2 nihil umquam neque insolens neque gloriosum ex ore eius exiit (nothing either insolent or boastful ever came out of his mouth).
  • L. 5, 4 nusquam nec opera sine emolumento nec emolumentum ferme sine inpensa opera est.
  • L. 29, 25 ut nemo mortalium aut in Italia aut in Sicilia relinqui videretur (that no human being appeared to be left either in Italy or Sicily).
  • Caes. C. 3, 61 ante id tempus nemo aut miles aut eques a Caesare ad Pompeium transierat.
  • L. 24, 5 nemo aut latuit aut fugit (no one either hid himself or fled).


Conscendere navem, to go on board, opposed to e navi egredi; imponere in navem, to put on board, opposed to exponere.

  • N. Han. 7 navem clam conscendit.
  • Vat. 5 cum mercatores e navi egredientes terreres, conscendentes morarere.
  • Att. 14, 20, 1 navi advectus sum in Luculli nostri hospitium … egressus autem e navi accepi tuas litteras.
  • Att. 14, 16, 1 conscendens ab hortis Cluvianis in phaselum epicopum.
  • L. 30, 45 exercitu in naves imposito in Siciliam Lilybaeum traiecit.


Occupatum esse, to be employed, to employ one’s self, be busy, is always used of engrossing occupation;, versari, to employ one’s self in some sphere of operation.

  • Att. 1, 14 vereor ne putidum sit scribere ad te quam sim occupatus (I’m afraid you will think it affectation in me to tell you how busy I am).
  • Fam. 16, 21, 7 scio quam soleas esse occupatus.
  • Top. 1, 4 dum fuimus una, tu optumus es testis quam fuerim occupatus.
  • Caes. 4, 16 si id facere occupationibus rei publicae prohiberetur, exercitum modo Rhenum transportaret.
  • N. Them. 2 multum in iudiciis privatis versabatur.

Versari implies an agency, whether a person or a thing, and a sphere or element in which that agency operates. We say “versari in aliqua re” (not aliqua re), “versari mihi ante oculos” (not ante meos oculos).

  • Rosc. A, 52 inter feras satius est aetatem degere quam in hac tanta immanitate versari.
  • Clu. 38 quae (dignitas) in iudiciis publicis versari debet.
  • Off. 1, 6, 19 omnes artes in veri investigatione versantur.
  • Cat. 4, 6 versatur mihi ante oculos aspectus Cethegi.
  • Sest. 21 non mihi mors, non exsilium ob oculos versabatur? (did not natural, did not civil death stare me in the face?).


Adversarius, an opponent of any kind, in the field, in politics, in lawsuits, or in disputations = ἀνταγωνιστής; hostis, a public enemy, an enemy to one’s country (or party) = πολέμιος; inimicus, a personal or private enemy, an enemy at heart = ἐχθρός. Catiline was “hostis patriae, inimicus Ciceronis”.

  • L. 22, 39 nescio an infestior hic adversarius quam ille hostis maneat te (I rather think the one will prove more dangerous to you as an opponent than the other as an open enemy).
  • L. 3, 9, 11 oramus ut cogitetis potestatem istam ad singulorum auxilium, non ad perniciem universorum comparatam esse: tribunos plebis vos creatos non hostes patribus.
  • Caes. C. 1, 72, 4 degreditur, ut timorem adversariis minuat.
  • Att. 10, 8, 8 corruat iste necesse est aut per adversarios aut ipse per se, qui quidem sibi est adversarius unus acerrimus (his own worst enemy).
  • Pomp. 10 Pompeius saepius cum hoste conflixit quam quisquam cum inimico concertavit.
  • Phil. 2, 1 non existimavit sui similibus probari posse se esse hostem patriae nisi mihi esset inimicus.
  • N. Alc. 4 non adversus patriam sed inimicos suos bellum gessit, quod idem hostes essent civitati.
  • Curt. 7, 10 illi regi respondent numquam se inimicos ei, sed bello lacessitos hostes fuisse.
  • Caes. 5, 44 succurrit inimicus illi (his personal enemy) Vorenus, et laboranti subvenit.
  • Phil. 12, 7 ego semper illum appellavi hostem, cum alii adversarium; semper hoc bellum, cum alii tumultum (I always called him an enemy, when others called him a political opponent. I always called it a war, when others called it a mere rising).


Uti, to possess, avail one’s self of; frui, to derive enjoyment from, delight in, make the most of. He enjoys good health, bona valetudine utitur (not fruitur, which denotes a felt sense of pleasure). He enjoys the pleasures of life, vitae iucunditatibus fruitur. He enjoyed a good education, liberaliter educatus est.

  • Phil. 1, 11 armis utatur, si ita necesse est, ut dicit, sui defendendi causa.
  • Rosc. A. 45 commoda quibus utimur lucemque qua fruimur spiritumque quem ducimus ab eo nobis dari videmus.
  • N. D. 1, 37 utatur enim suis bonis oportet et fruatur qui beatus futurus est (he who is to be blessed must use and enjoy his goods).
  • Fam. 7, 30 id est cuiusque proprium quo quisque fruitur atque utitur.
  • Caes. C. 3, 49, 5 Caesaris exercitus optima valetudine utebatur.
  1. Uti aliquo (familiariter), to enjoy the friendship of one, to be intimate with.

    • Clu. 16 his Fabriciis semper est usus Oppianicus familiarissime (with these Fabricii Oppianicus had always been on terms of the greatest intimacy).
  2. Abuti, to use up, hence to push the use of a thing too far, abuse; hence to misuse, or use improperly, especially in rhetoric, to use a word wrongly.

    • Mil. 2, 6 T. Anni tribunatu rebusque omnibus pro salute rei publicae gestis ad huius criminis defensionem non abutemur [and Reid’s note].
    • N. D. 2, 60, 152 nos sagacitate canum ad utilitatem nostram abutimur (we take advantage of the sagacity of dogs for our own profit).
    • Caes. C. 3, 90, 2 neque se umquam abuti militum sanguine neque …
    • R. P. 1, 9 sumus parati abuti tecum hoc otio (to spend this leisure time with you).
    • Cat. 1, 1 quousque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra?
    • Or. 3, 43 abutimur saepe etiam verbo, ut, cum grandem orationem pro longa, minutum animum pro parvo dicimus.
  3. Percipi and colligi are passives of frui.

    • Fin. 1, 11 maximam illam voluptatem habemus, quae percipitur omni dolore detracto (the highest pleasure we take to be that which is enjoyed when all pain is removed).
    • Or. 3, 7 oculis colliguntur paene innumerabiles voluptates.
    • Fin. 2, 28, 91 non minor voluptas percipitur ex vilissimis rebus quam ex pretiosissimis.


Satis est is construed with the infinitive, the accusative and infinitive, or with ut and subjunctive. Suffice it to say, satis est (not sit) dicere.

  • Rosc. A. 29 verbo satis est negare.
  • Pis. 38 admoneri me satis est.
  • Tus. 5, 18 satis est enim certe in virtute, ut fortiter vivamus.
  • Quinct. 22 ut alia omittam, hoc satis est (let this suffice).
  • L. 3, 67, 11 satisne est nobis vos metuendos esse?
  1. Satis sometimes weakens the force of the next word = tolerably, passably. Satis bene, pretty well = Fr. assez bien.

    • Off. 2, 25 cum quaereretur, quid maxume expediret, respondit, bene pascere; quid secundum; satis bene pascere; quid tertium; male pascere.
    • Or. 3, 22 si iam me vultis esse oratorem, si etiam sat bonum, si bonum denique, non repugnabo.
  2. Enough to = tam ut (qui). He was brave enough to take the bull by the horns, tam (not satis) fortis fuit, ut cornua tauri comprehenderet.

    • Phil. 3, 14 nemo est tam stultus, qui non intellegat (no one is fool enough not to know).
  3. Often enough = totiens, used only in a demonstrative sense, in reference to something already known, otherwise = satis saepe (not saepissime) or non parum saepe (Nägelsbach, Lat. Stil. (ed. 7), p. 303).

    • Or. 2, 3 dixit te, quem ego totiens omni ratione temptans ad disputandum elicere non potuissem, permulta de eloquentia cum Antonio disseruisse.
    • Fin. 3, 10, 33 bonum autem, quod in hoc sermone totiens usurpatum est cet.
    • Sall. I. 106, 3 negat se totiens fusum Numidam pertimescere.
    • L. 25, 6 servorum legionibus Ti. Sempronius consul totiens iam cum hoste signis conlatis pugnavit.
    • Sall. I. 62 satis saepe iam et virtutem militum et fortunam temptatam.
    • Fin. 2, 4 est autem dictum non parum saepe.
  4. Parum = too little, hence non parum = enough.

    • Verr. 4, 12 non enim parum res erat clara (for the matter was notorious enough).
    • Tus. 1, 45 nemo parum diu vixit (there is no one who has not lived long enough).

I have enough of money, pecunia non egeo; let this be enough for to-day, in hunc diem hactenus.


Orare, to entreat; exorare, to entreat successfully, to prevail on. So with laborare and elaborare.

  • Deiot. 3 cum facile orari, Caesar, tum semel exorari soles.
  • Caes. 6, 9 petunt atque orant, ut sibi parcat.
  • Tus. 5, 21 denique exoravit tyrannum, ut abire liceret, quod iam beatus nollet esse.
  • Fam. 16, 21 exoro enim, ut mecum quam saepissime cenet.


Invidere, to envy, grudge, takes the dative of a person or a thing = alicui, alicui rei, alicui rei alicuius. Instead of the dependent genitive, the possessive pronouns of the first and second persons stand in agreement with the object of envy. I envy Caesar his glory, Caesaris gloriae invideo; I envy you your glory, gloriae tuae invideo (not gloriam tibi invideo). But, in poetry, we find, e.g., Verg. G. 1, 503-4 nobis caeli te regia, Caesar, invidet; E. 7, 58 Liber pampineas invidit collibus umbras.

  • L. 38, 47 nullius equidem invideo honori.
  • Phil. 8, 10 ne alterius labori inviderent (they should not envy the toil of their neighbour).
  • Phil. 6, 4 non invidebit huic meae gloriae (he will not grudge me this honour).
  • Sall. I. 85 invident honori meo: ergo invideant labori, innocentiae, periculis etiam meis.
  1. The thing grudged or envied is occasionally put in the ablative with in. The simple ablative occurs once in Livy, and becomes more and more common in later writers.

    In Plautus and Terence invidere is always used with a personal object.

    • Or. 2, 56 in hoc (= in hac re) Crasso paulum invideo.
    • Flacc. 29 affers purpuram Tyriam, in qua tibi invideo.
    • L. 2, 40 non inviderunt laude sua mulieribus viri Romani (= laudi mulierum).
    • Tac. A. 1, 22 ne hostes quidem sepultura invident (no enemy even grudges burial).
  2. Invidere alicui aliquam rem is a poetic construction (see above). It appears first in prose in an isolated example in Livy (44, 30).


Pestis is not the disease or epidemic, which is pestilentia, but destruction, or a destructive person or thing, a pest. Pestis is used by the poets instead of pestilentia for the sake of scansion.

  • Sall. C. 10 contagio quasi pestilentia invasit (the moral infection spread like an epidemic).
  • Caes. C. 3, 87 multos autumni pestilentia in Italia consumpsit.
  • L. 27, 23 pestilentia gravis incidit in urbem.
  • Sall. I. 70 monere ne praemia Metelli in pestem convorteret (warned him not to bring ruin on himself in place of the rewards offered by Metellus).
  • L. 25, 19 ceteri passim alii alia peste absumpti sunt (the rest perished in scattered flight, some by one death, others by another).
  • Verr. 3, 54 post abitum huius importunissimae pestis.


Praesertim, especially, as a modifying condition, often conjoined with the conjunctions cum and si; praecipue, especially, in a higher degree than others. Kings are to be honoured, especially if they are good, reges sunt honorandi, praesertim si sunt boni; we ought to imitate the best authors, especially Cicero, auctores optimos, praecipue Ciceronem, imitari debemus. Potissimum resembles praecipue, in that it expresses a preference for one, but differs from it in that it implies the exclusion of all others. Maxime = in the highest degree.—(Berger, Styl. Lat., p. 37.)

  • Off. 1, 38 deforme est de se ipsum praedicare, falsa praesertim.
  • L. 45, 23 superbiam, verborum praesertim, iracundi oderunt, prudentes irrident.
  • Off. 2, 22 nullum igitur vitium taetrius quam avaritia, praesertim in principibus (especially in statesmen).
  • N. Alc. 5 Alcibiades erat ea sagacitate, ut decipi non posset, praesertim cum animum attendisset ad cavendum.
  • Sen. 22 faciam vero, Laeli, praesertim si utrique vestrum, ut dicis, gratum futurum est.
  • Fam. 13, 55, 2 cum me non fugiat, quanta sit in praetore auctoritas praesertim ista integritate, gravitate cet.
  • Cic. Cat. 3, 12, 28 Wilkins mihi quidem ipsi quid est quod iam ad vitae fructum possit adquiri, cum praesertim neque in honore vestro neque in gloria virtutis quicquam videam altius?
  • Part. Or. 17, 57 cito enim exarescit lacrima, praesertim in alienis malis.
  • L. 25, 33, 1 Hasdrubal … peritus omnis barbaricae et praecipue earum gentium, in quibus per tot annos militabat, perfidiae.
  • Att. 9, 11 aliquot sunt anni, cum vos duo delegi, quos praecipue colerem (praecipue, above others; potissimum would have excluded all other intimacies).
  • Div. 1, 42 tota Caria praecipueque Telmesses in ostentis animadvertendis diligentes fuerunt.
  • L. 1, 29 voces etiam miserabiles exaudiebantur mulierum praecipue.
  • Caes. 7, 40 semper Haeduorum civitati praecipue indulserat.
  • L. 21, 11, 6 nec, qua primum aut potissimum parte ferrent opem, … satis scire poterant.
  • L. 21, 39, 8 Scipionem Hannibal eo ipso, quod adversus se dux potissimum lectus esset, praestantem virum credebat.
  • Att. 3, 15, 7 ego si tuam fidem accusarem, non me potissimum tuis tectis crederem (I should not have been trusting myself to your house rather than any other).
  • N. Them. 9 ego potissimum Thucydidi credo.
  • Fam. 13, 55 mihi diu dubium fuit quid ad te potissimum scriberem.
  • Tus. 1, 49 cras agamus haec et ea potissimum quae levationem habeant aegritudinum.
  • Off. 1, 15 hoc maxime officii est, ut quisque maxime opis indigeat, ita ei potissimum opitulari.
  1. Praesertim sometimes introduces a consideration which tells against what precedes = and that though, notwithstanding the fact that. It is virtually the same meaning under reversed conditions. Are kings not to be honoured and that though they are bad (in spite of the fact that they are bad)? non honorandi sunt reges, cum praesertim mali sint? See Munro on Lucr. 4, 786; [Madvig on De Fin. 2, 25; Reid on Mil. § 42]; Hale, “Cum-Constructions,” p. 101.

    • Tus. 5, 26 cum praesertim omne malum dolore definiat.
    • Or. 9 nec vero, si historiam non scripsisset, nomen eius exstaret, cum praesertim (and that though) fuisset honoratus et nobilis.
    • Sull. 2 quis nostrum adfuit Vargunteio? Nemo, ne hic quidem Hortensius, praesertim qui (notwithstanding the fact that) illum solus antea de ambitu defendisset.
    • Off. 3, 30 cur igitur ad senatum proficiscebatur, cum praesertim (especially as) de captivis dissuasurus esset.
  2. Potius, rather, has the same signification with reference to two that potissimum has with reference to many. Cur iste potius quam ego? why that fellow rather than I?

    • Off. 1, 25 similiter facere eos, qui inter se contenderent uter potius rem publicam administraret, ut si nautae certarent, quis eorum potissimum gubernaret.
    • Off. 3, 23 quaerit, si in mari iactura facienda sit, equine pretiosi potius iacturam faciat, an servuli vilis.


Ager, a piece of land; fundus, a piece of land with a house; villa, a house with a piece of land. Praedium is a general term for real property, whether in town or country. Praedium urbanum, house property; praedium rusticum, landed property.

  • Rosc. A. 15 an amandarat hunc sic ut esset in agro (in the country), ac tantum modo aleretur ad villam (at the country house), ut commodis omnibus careret?
  • Rosc. C. 12 qui ager neque villam habuit neque ulla ex parte fuit cultus.
  • Tull. 20 servus respondit dominum esse ad villam.
  • Rosc. C. 12 accepit agrum temporibus iis, cum iacerent pretia praediorum.


Quoque annexes something similar = also; etiam marks gradation = farther, what is more. Quoque always qualifies a single word which it follows; etiam qualifying a single word precedes it, but when it qualifies a sentence its position is optional. “In Livy and Curtius quoque is sometimes found where etiam would rather be expected” (Riemann). [W. Hamilton Kirk shows, in Amer. Journ. Phil., xxi. (1900), 303 ff., that etiam is generally used with verbs, quoque with substantives, in the best Latin.] “Even” after a negative = ne—quidem, e.g., nemo, ne minimus quidem. So with nego (Fin. 2, § 87).

  • L. 26, 13, 11 eam quoque tempestatem imminentem spreverunt.
  • R. Com. 17, 50 quod cum est veritate falsum, tum ratione quoque est incredibile.
  • ap. Cat. 3, 5, 12 “cura, ut omnium tibi auxilia adiungas, etiam infimorum”.
  • ap. Sall. C. 44, 5 “auxilium petas ab omnibus, etiam ab infimis”.
  • Fin. 1, 21, 71 mutae etiam bestiae paene loquuntur.
  • Fam. 9, 18, 2 quid quaeris? me quoque delectat consilium; multa enim consequor.
  • L. 40, 37, 7 inter multa alia testimonia ad causam pertinentia haec quoque vox … valuit.
  • Rosc. C. 1 quod si ille suas proferet tabulas, proferet suas quoque Roscius.
  • Fam. 6, 18 qui si est talis, qualem tibi videri scribis, ego quoque aliquid sum.
  • Rosc. A. 19 verum haec tu quoque intellegis esse nugatoria.
  • Div. 2, 6 agricola, cum florem oleae videt, bacam quoque se visurum putat.
  • Q. F. 3, 1, 3 ignosco equidem tibi, sed tu quoque mihi velim ignoscas (but I beg you also to forgive me).
  • Verg. A. 1, 407 quid natum totiens, crudelis tu quoque, falsis ludis imaginibus?
  • L. 23, 15 Neapoli quoque sicut Nola omissa petit Nuceriam.
  • L. 10, 26 ita caesa ab tergo legio atque in medio, cum hostes undique urgeret, circumventa; deletam quoque (= etiam) ita ut nuntius non superesset quidam auctores sunt.
  • Fam. 4, 14 secundas etiam res nostras, non modo adversas pertimescebam.

Vel = even, is used, especially with superlatives, as an intensive particle, to express the utmost degree, a climax, opposed to “ne—quidem”.

  • Ac. 2, 29 per me vel stertas licet, non modo quiescas (you may even snore if you will for me, not merely keep quiet).
  • Off. 1, 41 in fidibus musicorum aures vel minima sentiunt (detect the very slightest variation).
  • Verr. 5, 32 est enim locus, quem vel pauci possint defendere.
  • Att. 16, 15 veniendum est igitur vel in ipsam flammam.

Sometimes, however, vel is restrictive = perhaps.

  • Rosc. A. 43 si enim taceo, vel (perhaps) maximam partem relinquo.
  • Verr. 4, 2 huius domus est vel optima Messanae.


Semper, ever, for ever, always; umquam, ever, at any time, ever at all. Nothing flourishes for ever, nihil semper floret; ever after, postea semper; what is ever in motion, quod semper movetur; who ever said that? quis hoc dixit umquam? nobody will ever believe that you said that, nemo umquam credet, te hoc dixisse; I never heard anything more delightful, nihil umquam audivi iucundius.

  • Verr. 1, 1 est idem Verres, qui fuit semper.
  • Sall. C. 34 nemo umquam ab eo frustra auxilium petiit.
  • L. 21, 61 per quos (dies) raro umquam (hardly ever) nix minus quattuor pedes alta iacuit.
  1. As two superlatives with quisque imply a general relation, the insertion of semper would be a pleonasm. The deepest rivers always flow with the least noise, altissima quaeque flumina minimo sono labuntur. Arch. 11 optimus quisque maxime gloria ducitur (the best men are always most influenced by the love of fame).

  2. Umquam, like quisquam and ullus, is used in negative and quasinegative sentences; aliquando, like aliquis, is used in affirmative sentences = at some time or other. Si umquam, if ever at all; si (ali-) quando, if at any time, if at some time or other; num quando, whether at any time. He told me all that ever I did, omnia, quae umquam feci, mihi dixit = I did nothing whatever which was not told me; if he ever saw a captive he would weep, si captivum aliquando viderat, flebat.

    • Or. 13 ut minime mirum futurum sit, si reliquis praestet omnibus, qui umquam orationes attigerunt (that he would naturally be expected to outshine all who ever handled oratory).
    • Off. 1, 23 nec committere ut aliquando dicendum sit, “non putaram” (that I should ever have to say, “I should not have thought”).
    • Sest. 49 plausum vero etiam si quis eorum aliquando acceperat, ne quid peccasset pertimescebat.
    • Am. 19 num quando amici novi veteribus sint anteponendi (whether new friends are ever to be preferred to old).
    • Or. 3, 29 anquiritur sitne aliquando mentiri boni viri (the question is whether it squares with the character of a good man ever to tell a lie).
    • L. 31, 9 ne quid praetermitteretur, quod aliquando factum esset (which had ever been done on such occasions).
    • Fam. 3, 8, 5 ego, si in provincia de tua fama detrahere umquam cogitassem, non … rettulissem.
    • L. 1, 28, 4 si umquam ante alias ullo in bello fuit … hesternum id proelium fuit.
    • Or. 28, 98 etiam si quando minus succedet, ut saepe fit, magnum tamen periculum non adibit.
    • L. 45, 38, 13 si quando non deportati ex provincia milites ad triumphum sint, fremunt.
    • Planc. 8, 20 num quando vides Tusculanum aliquem de M. Catone … gloriari?
    • Cat. 4, 9, 19 id ne umquam posthac … cogitari … possit a civibus, hodierno die providendum est.
  3. Ecquando, when? ever? is chiefly used in impassioned and unwelcome questions.

    • L. 3, 67 ecquando communem hanc esse patriam licebit? (shall we ever be at liberty to enjoy this as our common country?).


Ubique, wherever it may be, corresponds to quisque, and in classical prose is always joined with a relative or interrogative pronoun. In Cicero it is often used in connexion with omnes, quicquid, or ceteri, and is invariably attached to the verb esse. Before Vergil and Livy it never has the signification of everywhere = (in) omnibus locis, usque quaque, nusquam non. Undique, from every quarter or side; passim, far and wide, in later Latin only = here and there.

  • Fin. 2, 3 omnes mortales, qui ubique sunt, nesciunt.
  • Phil. 10, 5 omnes legiones, quae ubique sunt.
  • Att. 16, 4, 2 summa postulatorum, ut omnes exercitus dimittantur, qui ubique sint.
  • Or. 3, 9, 34 quid censetis, si omnes, qui ubique sunt aut fuerunt oratores, amplecti voluerimus?
  • Caes. 3, 16, 2 navium quod ubique fuerat, unum in locum coegerant.
  • Verr. 4, 59 nam, ut ante demonstrabant, quid ubique esset, item nunc, quid undique (not ubique) ablatum sit, ostendunt.
  • Verr. 4, 4 Verres, quod ubique erit pulcherrimum, auferet?
  • Caes. C. 2, 20 quid ubique habeat frumenti, ostendit.
  • Caes. 2, 27 equites omnibus in locis pugnae se militibus praeferebant.
  • Caes. 7, 84, 2 pugnatur uno tempore omnibus locis.
  • L. 5, 45, 3 nusquam proelium, omnibus locis caedes est.
  • L. 40, 40 cum undique acclamassent.
  • L. 25, 11, 5 tum signo dato coorti undique Poeni sunt.
  • L. 4, 30 undique otium fuit Romanis.
  • N. Han. 12 propere sibi nuntiaret, num eodem modo undique obsideretur.
  • Phil. 2, 43 aut undique religionem tolle aut usque quaque conserva.
  • Sest. 56 omnes undique flosculos carpere.
  • Caes. 3, 1 vicus altissimis montibus undique continetur.
  • Caes. 3, 6 undique circumventos interficiunt.
  • Inv. 1, 2 nam fuit quoddam tempus, cum in agris homines passim (far and wide) bestiarum modo vagabantur.
  • L. 4, 46, 7 palati alii per agros passim multis itineribus.
  • Verg. A. 2, 368 crudelis ubique luctus.


Verbi causa or exempli gratia, to give an example or illustration; exempli causa, to give an example or pattern, to serve as an example. If, for example, you say you lie and speak the truth, you lie, si, verbi causa, dicis te mentiri verumque dicis, mentiris; he did this for the sake of example, hoc exempli causa fecit.

  • Tus. 1, 6 miserum esse, verbi causa, Crassum, qui illas fortunas morte dimiserit.
  • Fat. 6 si quis, verbi causa, oriente Canicula natus est, is in mari non morietur.
  • N. Lys. 2 cuius de perfidia satis est unam rem exempli gratia proferre.
  • Ac. 2, 29 cum interrogetur, verbi causa, tria pauca sint anne multa (when a question is asked, such for example as, “are three things few or many?”).
  • Off. 3, 12 si exempli gratia vir bonus Alexandrea Rhodum magnum frumenti numerum advexerit (the only instance of exempli gratia in Cicero).
  • Off. 3, 4 exempli causa ponatur aliquid quod pateat latius (let a case of wider application be supposed which may serve as an example, i.e, which may be applied to other cases).
  • Verr. 2, 74 verum tantum inveni, quod apud vos quasi exempli causa proferre possem.
  • Phil. 13, 2 exempli causa paucos nominavi (I have named a few as specimens).
  • Rosc. A. 10 in qua muliere etiam nunc quasi exempli causa (as if to serve as a pattern) vestigia antiqui officii remanent.
  • Fin. 5, 11, 30 propter aliam quampiam rem, verbi gratia propter voluptatem.
  • Clu. 42, 119 neque in re nota consumam tempus; exempli causa ponam unum illud … .

Ut or velut is used to introduce an example of a class or principle already mentioned.

  • Inv. 1, 22 genus est, quod plures partes amplectitur, ut animal (a genus is that which comprehends many species—an animal, for example).
  • Brut. 24 quod peringeniosis hominibus neque satis doctis plerumque contingit, ut ipsi Galbae.
  • R. P. 1, 40, 63 licet enim lascivire, dum nihil metuas, ut in navi ac saepe etiam in morbo levi.
  • Brut. 26 Antipater fuit ut temporibus illis luculentus, multorum etiam, ut Crassi, magister.
  • Fin. 5, 14 sunt autem bestiae quaedam, in quibus inest aliquid simile virtutis, ut in leonibus, ut in canibus, ut in equis.
  • Tus. 1, 20 quid, quod eadem mente res dissimillimas comprehendimus, ut colorem, saporem, odorem, sonum?
  • Fin. 4, 14 in omni animante est summum aliquid atque optimum, ut in equis.
  • Ac. 1, 5 cetera autem pertinere ad id putant aut ad augendum aut tuendum, ut divitias, ut opes, ut gloriam, ut gratiam.
  • N. D. 2, 48 bestiae, quae gignuntur in terris, veluti crocodili.


Exceptio, restriction, reservation. All without exception, omnes ad unum (not sine exceptione); I don’t like qualified praise, nolo cum exceptione laudari.

  • Am. 23 omnes ad unum idem sentiunt.
  • Q. F. 3, 2, 2 consurrexit senatus cum clamore ad unum.
  • Caes. C. 3, 27, 2 tempestas naves Rhodias adflixit, ita ut ad unam omnes constratae numero XVI eliderentur et naufragio interirent.
  • Q. F. 1, 1, 13 neque te patiar cum exceptione laudari.
  • Att. 8, 4 plane sine ulla exceptione praecidit (he flatly refused).


Exsul, an exile, by reason of a judicial conviction; extorris, an exile, by reason of political misfortune. The extorris will not, the exsul dare not remain in his native land.

  • Phil. 5, 4 restituebantur exsules quasi lege sine lege.
  • Phil. 7, 5 exsules sine lege restituit.
  • Tus. 5, 37 at multantur bonis exsules.
  • Par. 4 nescis exsilium scelerum esse poenam?
  • L. 9, 34 extorres patria sacrum montem cepistis.
  • L. 2, 6 ille est vir, inquit, qui nos extorres expulit patria.
  • Verr. 3, 51 hinc cxxxii patres familias extorres profugerunt.


Exspectare, to expect, wait for, takes the subjunctive with dum or ut, according as the idea of waiting or wishing predominates.

The construction with accusative and infinitive is confined to one example—Liv. 43, 22 cum exspectaret effusos omnibus portis Aetolos in fidem suam venturos.

  • L. 3, 11 exspectate, dum consul aut dictator fiat (wait till he become consul or dictator).
  • Hor. Ep. 1, 2, 42 rusticus exspectat dum defluat amnis (the clown waits for the river to run by).
  • Rosc. A. 29 nisi forte exspectatis, ut illa diluam, quae de peculatu obiecit.
  • Caes. C. 1, 6 in reliquas provincias praetores mittuntur. Neque exspectant, ut de eorum imperio ad populum feratur.
  1. Exspectare is sometimes followed by an indirect interrogative, especially quam mox = how soon, in reference to an event which is expected every moment to occur.

    • Caes. 3, 24 quid hostes consilii caperent, exspectabat (he waited to see what tactics the enemy would adopt).
    • Rosc. C. 1 exspecto, quam mox Chaerea hac oratione utatur.
    • Inv. 2, 28 ne utile quidem, quam mox iudicium fiat, exspectare.
    • L. 3, 37 exspectabant, quam mox consulibus creandis comitia edicerentur.

    Cf. L. 5, 45 corpora curant intenti, quam mox signum daretur.

  2. Exspectare si (not num or an) = to wait to see whether.

    • Caes. C. 3, 85 exspectans, si iniquis locis Caesar se subiceret.


Sumptus, expense as the diminution of means, allied to extravagance, opposed to quaestus; impensa, expense as a necessary outlay or sacrifice for the attainment of some object.

  • Verr. 4, 10 hi magnum sumptum in Timarchidi prandium fecerunt.
  • Caes. 1, 18 magnum numerum equitatus suo sumptu semper alere et circum se habere.
  • L. 5, 4, 5 moleste antea ferebat miles se suo sumptu operam rei publicae praebere.
  • Verr. 3, 21 arationes magnas habebat, easque magna impensa tuebatur.
  • L. 9, 43 viae per agros publica impensa factae.


Exprimere, from its reference to plastic modelling, means to reproduce, represent, portray (always with accessory idea of vividness or clearness). As it supposes an original or model, it cannot be used of the mere fact of talking or speaking. He expressed himself thus, ita locutus est; opinions were expressed, sententiae dictae sunt; he expressed himself in good Latin, bene Latine dixit.

  • Ac. 1, 3 non verba, sed vim Graecorum expresserunt (reproduced in translation) poetarum.
  • Or. 1 si eum oratorem, quem quaeris, expressero (“if I succeed in portraying your ideal orator.”—Sandys).
  • Or. 3, 4 in Platonis libris omnibus fere Socrates exprimitur.
  • Arch. 9 Mithridaticum bellum totum ab hoc expressum est.
  • Div. 1, 36 hanc speciem Pasiteles caelavit argento et noster expressit Archias versibus.
  • Fin. 3, 4 nec tamen exprimi verbum e verbo necesse erit.


Patere denotes extension generally; pertinere, extension from one point to another.

  • Or. 1, 55 ars et late patet et ad multos pertinet.
  • Caes. 7, 69 planities circiter milia passuum tria in longitudinem patebat.
  • L. 25, 11, 16 planae et satis latae viae patent in omnis partis.
  • Caes. 1, 6 ex eo oppido pons ad Helvetios pertinet.
  • Caes. 1, 1 Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes pertinet.

Fines imperii propagavit (extendit, longius protulit), he extended the frontiers. Ille exercitatus est in propagandis finibus, tu in regendis, he is engaged in extending the boundaries of the empire, you in the delimitation of estates (Mur. 9).


Facies, the face in a physiological sense, the features; voltus, the face in a psychological sense, the face as reflecting the varying emotions of the mind.

  • Pl. Rud. 314 ecquem adulescentem huc dum hic astatis strenua facie, rubicundum, fortem, qui …
  • Ter. Hec. 439 at non novi hominis faciem.
  • Sall. I. 1 praeclara facies brevi dilabitur.
  • Verr. 5, 31 erat Nice facie eximia, ut praedicatur, uxor Cleomeni.
  • Phil. 2, 16 Turselius qua facie fuit? qua statura? (what sort of a looking man was Turselius? what was his stature?).
  • Or. 3, 59 imago animi voltus est.
  • Sest. 9, 22 etenim animus eius vultu, flagitia parietibus tegebantur; sed haec opstructio nec diuturna est neque obducta ita, ut curiosis oculis perspici non possit.
  • Leg. 1, 9 vultus nullo in animante esse praeter hominem potest.
  • Clu. 26 recordamini faciem atque illos eius fictos simulatosque vultus.
  • Iuv. 10, 68 quae labra, quis illi vultus erat!


Deficere, of a commencing state; deesse, of a finished state. Money fails me, pecunia me deficit = I begin to be scarce of money; pecunia mihi deest = I have no money.

  • Caes. 2, 10 ipsos res frumentaria deficere coepit.
  • Verr. 1, 11 non verebar, ne oratio deesset, ne vox viresque deficerent.
  • L. 40, 10 quid illis defuit nisi ferrum?

Deficere, in good prose, takes the accusative, never the dative, of a personal object. In the solitary instance quoted from Caesar, 3, 5: “tela nostris deficerent,” “nostros” is now considered the correct reading.


Clarus (lit. clear, bright), well known, renowned; praeclarus, eminent, but not necessarily manifest to all. This is as clear as day, hoc est luce (sole ipso) clarius (not praeclarius). Famosus = notorious, infamous.

  • Or. 2, 37 certe non tulit ullos haec civitas gloria clariores aut auctoritate graviores.
  • Sen. 4 multa in eo viro praeclara (not clara) cognovi.
  • Verr. 4, 12, 27 minus clarum putavit fore, quod de armario, quam quod de sacrario esset ablatum.
  • L. 8, 19, 4 vir non domi solum sed etiam Romae clarus.


Culpa, a fault subjectively, a fault as involving responsibility and blame on the part of the agent, guilt, applicable only to persons. Vitium, a fault objectively, that which marks imperfection in persons and things, a flaw or crack, blemish, vice.

  • Ac. 2, 29 quid ergo? istius vitii num nostra culpa est? (what then? Are we to blame for this fallacy?)
  • Tus. 3, 30 sunt enim ista non naturae vitia, sed culpae (for these are not faults of nature, but our own errors).
  • Tus. 4, 37 qui autem non natura, sed culpa vitiosi esse dicuntur.
  • Tus. 4, 14 corporum offensiones sine culpa accidere possunt, animorum non item.
  • N. D. 3, 31 in hominum vitiis ais esse culpam.
  • Verr. 5, 51 ego culpam non in nauarchis, sed in te fuisse demonstro.
  • L. 4, 25 alii purgare plebem, culpam in patres vertere.
  • L. 30, 14 cave deformes multa bona uno vitio et tot meritorum gratiam maiore culpa quam causa culpae est corrumpas.
  • Fam. 10, 23, 1 credulitas enim error est magis quam culpa.
  • N. D. 3, 31, 76 urgetis identidem hominum esse istam culpam.
  • Fin. 3, 12 omni virtuti vitium contrario nomine opponitur.
  • Or. 3, 11 sunt enim certa vitia, quae nemo est quin effugere cupiat.
  • L. 30, 39 aediles plebis vitio creati magistratu se abdicaverunt.


Gratia, a position of favour; favor, a disposition to favour; beneficium, an act of favour. I am glad that you are in favour with the king, gaudeo te cum rege in gratia esse; I have made it up with Caesar, cum Caesare in gratiam redii; he did this to gain the favour (goodwill) of the people, hoc fecit ut favorem populi conciliaret; if you lend me the money, you will do me the greatest favour, si pecuniam mutuam dederis, maximum in me beneficium contuleris.

  • L. 8, 35 mecum, ut voles, reverteris in gratiam (with me you shall be reconciled, just as you please).
  • Fam. 1, 9 certior factus es, me cum Caesare et cum Appio esse in gratia.
  • Att. 4, 16 Hirrus cum Domitio in gratia est.
  • Att. 1, 14, 7 cum Lucceio in gratiam redii.
  • L. 39, 53 Demetrium, ut pacis auctorem, cum ingenti favore conspiciebant.
  • L. 21, 3 brevi effecit ut pater in se minimum momentum ad favorem conciliandum esset.
  • Off. 1, 15 duo sunt genera liberalitatis; unum dandi beneficii, alterum reddendi.
  • Sall. I. 104 senatus et populus Romanus beneficii et iniuriae memor esse solet.


Propter metum denotes the existence of fear; prae metu denotes excess of fear, fear that paralyses action, prae being always used of a preventive cause.

  • Att. 5, 21, 3 cum Pompeius propter metum rerum novarum nusquam dimittatur.
  • Sest. 46, 99 magna multitudo est eorum, qui aut propter metum poenae … novos motus … quaerant, aut …
  • Caecin. 15, 44 quid igitur fugiebant? Propter metum.
  • Par. 5, 1, 34 qui ne legibus quidem propter metum paret.
  • L. 25, 8 nocte maxime commeare propter metum hostium credebant (they supposed that he went to and fro chiefly by night from fear of the enemy).
  • L. 5, 1 cuius decreti suppressa fama est Veiis propter metum regis (the news of this decree was suppressed at Veii from fear of the king).
  • L. 5, 13 prae metu, ne simul Romanus irrumperet, obiectis foribus extremos suorum exclusere (from fear that the Romans should rush in at the same time, they shut the gates and excluded the hindmost of their own men).
  • L. 22, 3 abi, nuntia, effodiant signum, si ad convellendum manus prae metu obtorpuerunt (go, tell them to dig out the standard, if their hands are too numb with fear to wrench it up).

Similarly propter multitudinem, prae multitudine, propter vulnera, prae vulneribus, etc.

  • Ter. Heaut. 308 prae gaudio … ubi sim nescio.
  • Caes. 2, 8, 1 et propter multitudinem hostium et propter eximiam opinionem virtutis proelio supersedere statuit.
  • L. 6, 40, 1 cum prae indignitate rerum stupor silentiumque inde ceteros patrum defixisset.
  • L. 28, 36, 12 incerto prae tenebris, quid aut peterent aut vitarent, foede interierunt.
  • L. 45, 39 prae pudore videntur insignia ipsi sua tradituri.
  • Rosc. A. 32 verum ego forsitan propter multitudinem patronorum in grege adnumerer.
  • Tus. 1, 42 solem prae iaculorum multitudine non videbitis.
  • Caes. 1, 26 propter vulnera militum nostri triduum morati eos sequi non potuerunt.
  • L. 21, 56 iam moveri nequibant prae lassitudine ac vulneribus.
  • Mil. 38 neque prae lacrimis iam loqui possum.
  • L. 22, 5 prae strepitu ac tumultu nec consilium nec imperium accipi poterat (neither admonitions nor commands could be heard for the uproar and confusion).


Cena, the principal meal of the day; epulae, a banquet; epulum, a solemn public entertainment; convivium, a repast among friends, a convivial meal.

  • Q. F. 3, 1, 6 venit ad nos Cicero tuus ad cenam, cum Pomponia foris cenaret.
  • Tus. 5, 21 mensae conquisitissimis epulis extruebantur.
  • Mur. 36 Maximus epulum (a funeral banquet) populo Romano dabat.
  • Vat. 12 ita illud epulum est funebre, ut munus sit funeris, epulae quidem ipsae dignitatis (“the epulum is so far funereal that the show of gladiators (munus) is part of the funeral, but the feast itself is for the honour of him who gives it”—Long).
  • Sen. 13 bene maiores accubitionem epularem amicorum, quia vitae coniunctionem haberet, convivium nominaverunt (our ancestors appropriately named the reclining of friends at festive entertainments convivium, because it was a common enjoyment of life).

Over the walnuts and the wine, inter pocula.


Pauci, negatively = few, not many, affirmatively = a few; plures, more than a few. There are few who believe, pauci sunt qui credant. There are a few who (and they) believe, pauci sunt qui credunt.

  • Sall. C. 18 sed antea item coniuravere pauci contra rem publicam in quis Catilina fuit.
  • Att. 8, 15 malo interdum multi me non caute quam pauci non honeste fecisse existiment.
  • Fin. 4, 5 pauca mutat; vel plura sane (he makes a few changes, or for that matter more than a few).
  • Phil. 6, 6 nunc enim sunt pauci illi quidem, sed tamen plures quam re publica dignum est, qui ita loquantur.
  • Mur. 22, 46 unum sustinere pauci possunt, utrumque nemo.


Quam pauci, how few, generally. Quotus quisque, how few, as an interrogative exclamation, always in a disparaging sense = each how many-eth. Quotus quisque is used in principal sentences and generally (always in Cicero) in nominative. Quoto cuique lorica est? quis equum habet? (Curt. 9, 3). How much you have written in how few words, quam multa quam paucis scripsisti! The heaps of the slain show how few escaped, acervi caesorum ostendunt, quam pauci effugerint. How few men are handsome! quotus quisque formosus est! How few people pay heed to dreams! quotus est quisque qui somniis pareat!

  • Tus. 5, 35 cottidie nos ipsa natura admonet quam paucis rebus egeat.
  • L. 45, 2 legati exposuerunt, quam paucorum militum iactura tanta hostium strages facta; quam cum paucis rex fugisset.
  • Off. 2, 19 videmus quam in paucis spes, quanto in paucioribus facultas, quam in multis sit audacia.
  • Tus. 2, 4 quotus quisque philosophorum invenitur, qui sit ita moratus ut ratio postulat?
  • Planc. 25 quotus quisque iuris peritus est, ut eos numeres, qui volunt esse? (even if we count those who claim to be).
  • Div. 2, 39 quotus quisque est qui voluptatem neget esse bonum?
  • Lig. 9, 26 quotus enim istud quisque fecisset, ut … ad eos ipsos rediret.

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