Horae Latinae

Studies In Synonyms and Syntax, by Robert Ogelvie

For everybody eager to learn Latin, we proudly present Latinitium’s digital edition of Horae Latinae by Robert Ogelvie, originally published posthumously in 1901.

Here you will find almost 500 English words and expressions with detailed descriptions of how to best render them in Latin, and with copious quotes from classical authors illustrating the usage. It is thus an excellent complement to the English–Latin dictionary by Smith & Hall.

For more resources on Latin synonyms, see our blog post A guide to Dictionaries of Latin synonyms!

Tips, updates, and learning material.


a or an first (adverb) play
abandon first who if you please
about flee poet
abroad flow poetry
access to forget poisoned
accompany former—latter politics
of one’s own accord freedman as—as possible
accurate great friend poverty
accuse on the front power
accuser fruitful prejudice
across garden present
advocate general pretend
affirm grateful prevail on
African gratification prevent
after Greeks pride
afterwards grief priest
again happen prithee
age happiness promise
ago hasten proof
all but health prove
along the river hear province
also hear well publicly
altar heart quarrel
although high rather than
angry hither and thither really
animal hitherto refer
annual hold refuse
any one honour reign
Apennines hope relations
appeal horse remember
appear on horseback remove
apple host report
appoint a dictator hour represent
arm how resign office
arms however rest
army hunger the rest
as if return
as far as if not reward
as to ignorant rightly
as well as immortal river
assemble with impunity robber
assembly in an author Roman
assuredly indeed rose
attain influence royal
audience inhabit rule
author inhabitants rustic
baggage insanity safe
banker instead of same as
bargain international law I say
because invade I will not say
become inveigh against as they say
before is to be scarcely
before (adverb) joy sculpture
before (of place) judge seat
begin justice second
belief kill secretly
believe know seize
besides we know self
beware of know how sell
beyond Lacedaemonian serious
blame land services
blood last ship
bloodless too late shore
bloody lately shortly
in a book Latin show
books laugh sickness
both learn siege
both—and at least sight
bridge legislator silent
bring leisure sing
build lend six hundred
burn much less sloping
but letter smell
by in a letter soldier
canvassing liberty some
carry life some one
cattle light sometimes
cause lightning soul
cease like speak
certain likely speak against
character little staff
children how little statue
cold live stay
command long (adjective) step
commit long (adverb) storm (verb)
common for a long while strength
conceal no longer style
confess lose subjects
conscience love such
conscious lungs suitable
consul Macedonian sustain
consult magnanimity sword
content majesty take away
continue make a speech take up arms
contract man tempest
control how many territory
corn forced march than
country marriage thankfulness
fellow-countryman marry that of
cousin master the
crime mean theory
crown from memory this (that)
cui bono? in memory of three
custom mind throne
daily (adjective) modesty time
daily (adverb) money one time
day more at the same time
two days more than title
the dead more than once too
deal with many more towards
death morning trade
debt the morrow trader
defend mortal travel
deny most tributary
deserve multitude in triumph
despise name troops
despoil namely trust
die nation truth
different natural uncle
diligence necessity undertake
dislodge neck unjustly
divide new of us
doubt by night in vain
dream noble vote
dress nor wall
drink and not wander about
drunk do not want
drunkenness not even wanting
each not one water
each other not so very way
earthly not to say on the way
either—or nothing when (interrogative)
embark nothing but whenever
employed now where
enemy oath whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
enjoy obey whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
enough obstructionist which?
entreat obtain while
envy oh that! for a while
epidemic old age white
especially omit whoever
estate one why not?
even one of wisdom
ever one more with
everywhere only with one
for example not only not within
exception open without
exile openly witness
expect opinion word
expense or work at
express or not workman
extend orator world
face otherwise worse
fail our would be
famous own wound
fault palace wretch
favour passenger a year after
for fear paternal yes and no
feast people yesterday
few perhaps yield
how few persuade you
first (adjective) places younger
a or an how little
abandon live
about long (adjective)
abroad long (adverb)
access to for a long while
accompany no longer
of one’s own accord lose
accurate love
accuse lungs
accuser Macedonian
across magnanimity
advocate majesty
affirm make a speech
African man
after how many
afterwards forced march
again marriage
age marry
ago master
all but mean
along the river from memory
also in memory of
altar mind
although modesty
angry money
animal more
annual more than
any one more than once
Apennines many more
appeal morning
appear the morrow
apple mortal
appoint a dictator most
arm multitude
arms name
army namely
as nation
as far as natural
as to necessity
as well as neck
assemble new
assembly by night
assuredly noble
attain nor
audience and not
author do not
baggage not even
banker not one
bargain not so very
because not to say
become nothing
before nothing but
before (adverb) now
before (of place) oath
begin obey
belief obstructionist
believe obtain
besides oh that!
beware of old age
beyond omit
blame one
blood one of
bloodless one more
bloody only
in a book not only not
books open
both openly
both—and opinion
bridge or
bring or not
build orator
burn otherwise
but our
by own
canvassing palace
carry passenger
cattle paternal
cause people
cease perhaps
certain persuade
character places
children play
cold if you please
command poet
commit poetry
common poisoned
conceal politics
confess as—as possible
conscience poverty
conscious power
consul prejudice
consult present
content pretend
continue prevail on
contract prevent
control pride
corn priest
country prithee
fellow-countryman promise
cousin proof
crime prove
crown province
cui bono? publicly
custom quarrel
daily (adjective) rather than
daily (adverb) really
day refer
two days refuse
the dead reign
deal with relations
death remember
debt remove
defend report
deny represent
deserve resign office
despise rest
despoil the rest
die return
different reward
diligence rightly
dislodge river
divide robber
doubt Roman
dream rose
dress royal
drink rule
drunk rustic
drunkenness safe
each same as
each other I say
earthly I will not say
either—or as they say
embark scarcely
employed sculpture
enemy seat
enjoy second
enough secretly
entreat seize
envy self
epidemic sell
especially serious
estate services
even ship
ever shore
everywhere shortly
for example show
exception sickness
exile siege
expect sight
expense silent
express sing
extend six hundred
face sloping
fail smell
famous soldier
fault some
favour some one
for fear sometimes
feast soul
few speak
how few speak against
first (adjective) staff
first (adverb) statue
first who stay
flee step
flow storm (verb)
forget strength
former—latter style
freedman subjects
great friend such
on the front suitable
fruitful sustain
garden sword
general take away
grateful take up arms
gratification tempest
Greeks territory
grief than
happen thankfulness
happiness that of
hasten the
health theory
hear this (that)
hear well three
heart throne
high time
hither and thither one time
hitherto at the same time
hold title
honour too
hope towards
horse trade
on horseback trader
host travel
hour tributary
how in triumph
however troops
hunger trust
if truth
if not uncle
ignorant undertake
immortal unjustly
with impunity of us
in an author in vain
indeed vote
influence wall
inhabit wander about
inhabitants want
insanity wanting
instead of water
international law way
invade on the way
inveigh against when (interrogative)
is to be whenever
joy where
judge whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
justice whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
kill which?
know while
we know for a while
know how white
Lacedaemonian whoever
land why not?
last wisdom
too late with
lately with one
Latin within
laugh without
learn witness
at least word
legislator work at
leisure workman
lend world
much less worse
letter would be
in a letter wound
liberty wretch
life a year after
light yes and no
lightning yesterday
like yield
likely you
little younger


Incohare, in opposition to perficere; coepisse and incipere, in opposition to desinere; ordiri and exordiri, in opposition to continuare = the commencement, in opposition to the remainder. Incohare is construed with the accusative: he began the temple (but did not finish it), incohavit templum. Coepisse, though used absolutely by Sallust and Livy, is always followed by an infinitive expressed or understood in Cicero and Caesar. Incipere is rarely found except in the parts in which coepisse is defective, and, though sometimes used absolutely, is mostly in construction with the infinitive. Though Cicero has “ver incipit,” spring begins, he says, “ver esse coepit,” spring began.

  • Fin. 5, 17, 46 ut a corpore ordiar, videsne cet.
  • Serv. ap. Fam. 4, 5, 4 coepi regiones circumcirca prospicere.
  • L. 1, 28, 7 rex cetera ut orsus erat peragit.
  • L. 26, 41, 10 vetera omitto, Porsinam, Gallos, Samnites; a Punicis bellis incipiam.
  • Clu. 18 semper equidem magno cum metu incipio dicere.
  • Tus. 2, 5 agamus igitur, ut coepimus (agere).
  • L. 39, 28 pergite, ut coepistis facere.
  • Cat. 1, 5 perge quo coepisti (= coepisti pergere).
  • Marc. 11 unde est orsa in eodem terminetur oratio.
  • L. 41, 23 immo, si vere volumus dicere, iam incohavit bellum.
  • Off. 1, 37 ut incipiendi ratio fuerit, ita sit desinendi modus.
  • Ac. 2, 4 cum ita esset exorsus, ad audiendum animos ereximus.
  • Hor. C. 1, 4, 15 vitae summa brevis spem nos vetat incohare longam.
  • L. 30, 16 ipse ad Tyneta rursus castra refert, et quae munimenta incohaverat permunit.
  • Fin. 4, 6 hoc incohati cuiusdam officii est, non perfecti.
  • L. 25, 16, 10 rem se ait magnam incohasse, ad quam perficiendam ipsius Gracchi opera opus esse.
  • L. 24, 22, 17 incohata vestra gloria, nondum perfecta est.
  • Off. 3, 7 quoniam operi incohato, prope tamen absoluto, tamquam fastigium imponimus.
  • Off. 3, 2 nemo pictor inventus est, qui in Coa Venere eam partem, quam Apelles incohatam reliquerat, absolveret.

Coepi, when followed by a passive infinitive, is itself put in the passive. This construction is uniformly observed by Cicero and Caesar, but is violated in a few instances by Livy, and more frequently by later writers (see Draeger). Incipio, which has less of the nature of an auxiliary verb, is not subject to change of voice. These things began to be done, haec fieri coepta sunt; these things begin to be done, haec fieri incipiunt.

  • Caes. 2, 6 lapides in murum iaci coepti sunt.
  • L. 35, 35 copiae educi coepere (for coeptae sunt).

But if the passive infinitive has the signification of the middle voice, the active of “coepi” is used.

  • Tus. 3, 27 afflictari lamentarique coeperunt.
  • Brut. 27 fieri iudicia (take place) coeperunt.
  • Sall. C. 12 innocentia pro malevolentia duci (pass for) coepit.

With an impersonal subject, coepi is put in the passive, even when the dependent infinitive is not passive.

  • Fam. 8, 8 de damnatione ferventer loqui est coeptum.

To begin with = incipere or ordiri a or ab. He begins with Jupiter, ab Iove incipit; he began his speech with threats, orationem suam a minis orsus est; let us begin then with the senses, ordiamur igitur a sensibus (Ac. 2, 7).


Fidem alicui habere, to have belief in one = to believe; fidem alicui facere, to inspire belief in one = to be believed.

  • Fam. 7, 18 ego enim ignavissimo cuique maximam fidem habeo (for I believe the greatest cowards most).
  • Q. F. 2, 5 fidem mihi faciebat se velle nobis placere (he made me believe that he was anxious to please us).

Fides is used objectively of a quality of a thing as well as subjectively of a state of mind, hence habere fidem predicated of a thing = to be believed. This story is not believed, haec fabula fidem nullam habet.

  • Ac. 2, 18 visa (perceptions) fidem nullam habebunt sublata veri et falsi nota.
  • Fam. 6, 6, 7 debebit habere fidem nostra praedicatio.


Credo deum esse, I believe in God’s existence; puto Deum (esse) (Cic. Div. 1, 46, 104), I believe in God; credo deo, I believe in God’s promises; credo me deo, I believe in God’s protection.

  • Tus. 1, 13 firmissimum hoc afferri videtur, cur deos esse credamus.
  • N. D. 1, 31 quid? deum ipsum numne vidisti? cur igitur credis esse?
  • L. 28, 42 an Syphaci Numidisque credis?
  • Fam. 4, 7 victori sese crediderunt.
  1. Homer is believed, Homero creditur. It is believed that Homer was blind, Homerus (not Homerum) caecus fuisse creditur.

    • L. 22, 51 mora eius diei satis creditur saluti fuisse urbi.
  2. The parenthetic credo is generally (but not always) ironical.

    • Mil. 14 diem mihi, credo, dixerat (he had given notice of a day, I suppose, for my trial).
    • Phil. 1, 5 Hannibal, credo, erat ad portus aut de Pyrrhi pace agebatur.


Praeter, praeter quam, and praeter quam quod are used respectively as preposition, adverb, and conjunction to denote an addition or an exception. Occasionally (never, it is said, in Cicero) praeter is used also as an adverb; e.g., Sall. Cat. 36, 2 praeter rerum capitalium condemnatis; L. 4, 59 ne quis praeter armatus violaretur.

Besides yourself alone, I fear nobody, neminem praeter te unum metuo = te unum metuo, praeterea neminem. Besides corn he demanded money, nummos praeter frumentum postulavit = frumentum postulavit et nummos praeterea. Besides breaking into the farmer’s house, he threatened the man himself with his stick, praeter quam quod agricolae domum irrupit, ipsi baculo minatus est = agricolae domum irrupit et praeterea ipsi baculo minatus est.

  • Clu. 20 omnibus sententiis praeter unam condemnatus est.
  • Fam. 3, 7, 1 itaque nullas iis praeter quam ad te et ad Brutum dedi litteras.
  • L. 22, 53 malum, praeterquam atrox, etiam novum.
  • Cat. 3, 11 nullum monumentum laudis postulo praeterquam huius diei memoriam sempiternam.
  • Div. 2, 12 at id, praeterquam quod fieri non potuit, ne fingi quidem potest.
  • L. 21, 10 praeterquam quod admissi auditique sunt, ea quoque vana legatio fuit (this mission, save that the envoys were received and heard, likewise ended in failure).


Cave canem, or a cane, beware of the dog = be on your guard; cave cani = take care of the dog. Similarly cavere ne = to guard against a thing (so videre ne); cavere ut = to take care of a thing.

  • Off. 1, 34 cum dare se iucunditati volent, caveant intemperantiam, meminerint verecundiae.
  • Fin. 5, 22 regem monuerunt, a veneno ut caveret.
  • Fam. 3, 1 melius ei cavere volo, quam ipse aliis solet.
  • Off. 1, 26 cavendum est, ne assentatoribus patefaciamus auris neve adulari nos sinamus.
  • Ac. 2, 19, 63 ut caveres, ne quis improbus tribunus plebis … arriperet te.
  • L. 6, 18, 8 ne fortuna mea desit, videte.
  • Fin. 2, 31 Epicurus testamento cavit, ut dies natalis suus ageretur (Epicurus provided in his will that his birthday should be observed).
  • L. 3, 10, 14 cavisse deos priore anno, ut tuto libertas defendi posset.


Trans, on the other side of a barrier, as a river, a mountain, and usually near it; ultra implies extension beyond. He wintered beyond the Rhine, trans Rhenum hiemavit; he extended the boundaries of the empire beyond the Rhine, fines imperi ultra Rhenum propagavit.

  • Caes. 1, 1 Belgae proximi sunt Germanis, qui trans Rhenum incolunt.
  • Quinct. 25 satellites Sex. Naevi Roma trans Alpes in Segusianos biduo veniunt.
  • L. 41, 4 cum trans vallum signum traiecisset, primus omnium portum intravit.
  • L. 22, 43 omnibus ultra castra transque montes exploratis.
  • Caes. C. 3, 66 Caesar paulo ultra eum locum castra transtulit.
  • Att. 12, 27 ultra Silianam villam est villula sordida.
  • Caes. 1, 48 ultra eum castra fecit.
  • Tac. G. 29 protulit magnitudo populi Romani ultra Rhenum ultraque veteres terminos imperi reverentiam.

Ultra, not trans, is used if the sense is metaphorical, as, ultra spem, ultra vires.


Reprehendere, to blame, find fault with, )( probare; vituperare is stronger = to reprobate, vilify, )( laudare. Culpare is not used in classical prose.

  • Caes. 1, 20 Caesar, quae in Dumnorige reprehendat ostendit.
  • Or. 2, 74 imperiti facilius, quod stulte dixeris, reprehendere, quam quod sapienter tacueris, laudare possunt (it is easier for ignorant people to censure foolish observations than to commend judicious omissions).
  • Tus. 3, 29 laudant eos, qui aequo animo moriantur; qui alterius mortem aequo animo ferant, eos putant vituperandos.
  • Fat. 5 neque haec scribunt vituperantes, sed potius ad laudem (they mention this, not by way of reproach, but rather as redounding to his credit).
  • Hor. S. 1, 2, 11 laudatur ab his, culpatur ab illis (he is praised by some, blamed by others).


Sanguis,* blood generally, blood circulating in, or shed from, the body; cruor, blood shed, especially in a judicial sense, as the evidence of slaughter.

* “Sanguis is the condition of physical life; cruor, the symbol of death by slaughter.”—Doederlein.

  • N. D. 2, 55 sanguis per venas in omne corpus diffunditur.
  • L. 7, 24 hauriendus aut dandus est sanguis.
  • Part. Or. 11 est enim genus argumentorum aliud, quod ex facti vestigiis sumitur, ut telum, cruor, clamor.
  • L. 21, 63 multos circumstantes cruore respersit.
  • Rosc. A. 7 ut cruorem inimici quam recentissimum ostenderet.
  • Caecin. 27 nisi cruor appareat, vim non esse factam.


Incruentus, bloodless, without the effusion of blood; exsanguis, bloodless, pale, ghastly.

  • L. 7, 8 nec Romanis incruenta victoria fuit.
  • Verr. 5, 49 exsanguium corpora mortuorum.
  • L. 3, 48 exsangue corpus sublatum ostentant populo.


Cruentus, mixed or covered with blood, or implying the effusion of blood. Cruentae manus, blood-shedding, or blood-stained hands. Sanguineus, consisting of blood, as, sanguineus imber, a bloody shower: in other senses it is poetical or unclassical.

  • Mil. 13 tu P. Clodi cruentum cadaver eiecisti domo.
  • Phil. 2, 12 Brutus quem ego honoris causa nomino (whom I name with all respect) cruentum pugionem tenens Ciceronem exclamavit.
  • Phil. 1, 7 pecunia utinam ad Opis maneret! cruenta illa quidem, sed his temporibus necessaria.
  • Sall. I. 31 homines sceleratissimi, cruentis manibus immani avaritia.
  • L. 27, 11 cruentam etiam fluxisse aquam Albanam quidam auctores erant.
  • L. 40, 12 an ut cruentum fraterna caede diadema gererem?
  • Div. 2, 28 ita te nec terrae fremitus nec caeli discessus nec lapideus aut sanguineus imber nec faces visae terrebunt.


Libro or libris, of the whole contents, the book or books being written on the subject in question; in libro or in libris, of something within the compass of the book or books. Hence the preposition is always used of an allusion in a distinct part of a book; as I said at the end of the book, ut in extremo libro dixi.

  • Off. 2, 9 sed de amicitia alio libro dictum est, qui inscribitur Laelius.
  • Att. 8, 11 sic quinto, ut opinor, in libro loquitur Scipio.
  • Off. 3, 18 ut in primo libro disserui.
  • Off. 2, 12 (13), 43 Holden ea quae essent, dictum est in libro superiore.
  • Att. 9, 9, 3 nos autem in libris habemus non modo consules a praetore, sed ne praetores quidem creari ius esse.
  • Sen. 17 quam copiose ab eo agri cultura laudatur in eo libro, qui Oeconomicus inscribitur!

Similarly tota urbe, tota provincia, in the whole city or province, in a general sense, and in tota urbe, in tota provincia, in any or every part of the city or province.

  • Verr. 4, 23 Archagathum … tota Sicilia nobilem.
  • L. 2, 49 manat tota urbe rumor.
  • Verr. 4, 19 conquiri Diodorum tota provincia iubet.
  • Brut. 91, 315 quorum erat princeps Menippus Stratonicensis meo iudicio tota Asia illis temporibus disertissimus.
  • Fam. 11, 8, 2 Romae dilectus habetur totaque Italia.
  • Verr. 2, 66 vestigium statuarum istius in tota Sicilia nullum esset relictum.
  • Verr. 4, 32 nihil postea tota in Sicilia neque sacri neque religiosi duxit esse.
  • Verr. 4, 1 cum dico nihil istum eius modi rerum in tota provincia reliquisse, Latine me scitote, non accusatorie loqui (Latine, literally, not figuratively or rhetorically, i.e., non accusatorie. Compare our “plain English” and the German “gut deutsch”).
  • Verr. 4, 45 sacrarium Cereris est apud Catinenses eadem religione qua Romae, qua prope in toto orbe terrarum.


Libri, books, in a literary sense; tabulae, books, in a mercantile sense. Tabulae novae, a new set of accounts, a clearing or repudiation of old debts.

  • Cael. 17 haec genera virtutum vix iam in libris reperiuntur.
  • Sall. C. 21 tum Catilina polliceri tabulas novas (then Catiline promised abolition of debts).

Aliquid in tabulas (rationes) referre, to enter something in an account book; acceptum referre = to set down in the credit side of one’s accounts; tabulae accepti et expensi, an account-book of receipts and expenditure. Nomen = the heading in an account book; pecuniam in nominibus habere, to have money in vested. Pecuniam sibi esse in nominibus, numeratam in praesentia non habere, that he had money invested, but none in coin at that moment—(Verr. 5, 7).


Ambo, both, as forming a pair or couple, both together or at the same time; uterque, each of two regarded separately, each in each case.

He threw down a tile with both his hands, tegulam ambabus manibus deiecit = with both hands together; tegulam utraque manu deiecit = with each hand separately.

Uterque generally agrees with substantives, but takes the genitive of pronouns. Both of the brothers, uterque frater; both of these, horum uterque (hi utrique is an irregularity).

  • Ter. Eu. 702 una ambo abierunt foras (not una uterque abiit).
  • Tus. 2, 5 ita est utraque res sine altera debilis (not ambae res).
  1. Occasionally uterque is used as a collective with a plural predicate (never in Cicero, except in a second clause from which uterque disappears).

    • Caes. C. 3, 30 uterque eorum ex castris stativis exercitum educunt (they both lead out their armies from the stationary camps).
    • Fin. 2, 1 uterque me intuebatur seseque ad audiendum significabant paratos.
  2. The plural utrique is used of each of two parties or classes, rarely, unless with substantives of plural form, of each of two persons or things.

    The battle was hotly contested on both sides, pugnatum est ab utrisque acriter. I received both letters, the one this morning, the other yesterday, utrasque litteras accepi, alteras hodie mane, alteras heri.

    • Sall. C. 38 utrique victoriam crudeliter exercebant (both parties made a cruel use of victory).
    • L. 42, 34 duae (nobis) filiae sunt, utraeque iam nuptae (utraeque by the attraction of the antecedent plural).
  3. Alter is used with uterque of reciprocal action. The repetition of uterque (in close sequence) is an occasional but less logical construction.

    • Off. 1, 1 quorum uterque suo studio delectatus contempsit alterum (each of whom enamoured of his own hobby underrated the other).
    • Ter. Phor. 800 quia uterque utrique est cordi (because each is dear to the other).
    • Caes. 7, 35 cum uterque utrique esset exercitus in conspectu (when both armies were in sight of one another).


Et—et, both—and, divides a whole into its component parts. Life is full of both pain and pleasure, vita est plena et doloris et voluptatis. Cum—tum accentuates the second member = both—and especially, not only—but also; the first member is usually (not always) the more general, and the second member is often strengthened by maxime, praecipue (not potissimum), vero, certe, in primis, etc. If there are more than two members, either cum or tum can be anaphorically repeated.

  • Am. 25 et monere et moneri proprium est verae amicitiae.
  • Arch. 3 hunc et Tarentini et Regini et Neapolitani civitate donarunt.
  • Rosc. 39, 112 simul et amicitiam dissolvere et fallere eum.
  • L. 1, 13, 3 movet res cum multitudinem tum duces.
  • N. Paus. 3 ibi consilia cum patriae tum sibi inimica capiebat.
  • Caes. 6, 30 multum cum in omnibus rebus tum in re militari potest fortuna.
  • N. Ag. 1 Agesilaus cum a ceteris scriptoribus tum eximie a Xenophonte collaudatus est.
  • Flacc. 38 cum alia multa, tum hoc vel maxime moliuntur.
  • Brut. 65 quae (virtutes) cum omnibus tum certe mihi notissimae sunt.
  • Off. 3, 11 cum saepe, tum maxime bello Punico secundo.
  • Caes. C. 3, 68 fortuna plurimum potest cum in reliquis rebus tum praecipue in bello.
  • Brut. 87 volvendi sunt libri cum aliorum tum in primis Catonis.
  • Brut. 49 cum tuo iudicio (special) tum omnium (general).
  • Rosc. A. 22 cum multa antea commissa maleficia, cum vita hominis perditissima, tum singularis audacia ostendatur necesse est.
  • Verr. 1, 58 quem pater moriens cum tutoribus et propinquis, tum legibus, tum aequitati magistratuum, tum iudiciis vestris commendatum putavit.
  1. The second et differs from tum in that it may append a negative to a positive assertion, the et and the negative particle in some (rare) instances coalescing in nec or neque.

    • L. 45, 11 et sorore adiuvante, et non repugnantibus fratris amicis.
    • Fam. 14, 12 et longum est iter et non tutum.
    • Phil. 11, 2 in Syriam patebat via et certa neque longa.
  2. Cum and tum have sometimes a common verb, which stands in the indicative, sometimes different verbs, which are usually (not always) in the same mood and tense. “If the cum clause introduces a fact viewed as a concession made by the speaker, then the subjunctive is necessary; otherwise not” (Reid ap. Mayor, N. D. 1, 1).

    • N. D. 1, 23 quod cum leve per se, tum etiam falsum est.
    • Mur. 27 quae cum sunt gravia, tum illud acerbissimum est.
    • L. 6, 25 cum collegae levavit infamiam, tum sibi gloriam ingentem peperit.
    • Flacc. 38, 94 cum alia multa certi homines, tum hoc vel maxime moliuntur.
    • Att. 3, 8 cum meus me maeror lacerat, tum vero haec cura vix mihi vitam reliquam facit.
    • Fam. 12, 30, 2 cum antea distinebar maximis occupationibus, tum hoc tempore multo distineor vehementius.
    • Fam. 7, 1, 4 nam me cum antea taedebat, tum vero hoc tempore vita nulla est.
    • Fam. 4, 4, 2 consilium tuum, cum (considering that) semper probavissem, tum multo magis probavi lectis tuis proximis litteris.

    Cum temporale = when or whenever, is sometimes strengthened by a following tum, e.g., Fam. 16, 12, 6 cum recte navigari poterit, tum naviges; Verr. 5, 10 cum rosam viderat, tum incipere ver arbitrabatur. Fam. 16, 4 cum valetudini consulueris, tum consulito navigationi. Att. 14, 8, 1 cum perspexero, tum scribam.

  3. Tum—tum is not used in good prose for both—and, but = at one time—at another = modo—modo or alias—alias (nunc—nunc is un-Ciceronian).

    • Am. 4 Socrates non tum hoc tum illud, sed idem dicebat semper.
    • N. D. 2, 20, 53 neque a sole longius umquam unius signi intervallo discedit tum antevertens, tum subsequens.
    • Div. 2, 2, 6 ut eae (res publicae) tum a principibus tenerentur, tum a populis, aliquando a singulis.
    • Catull. 64, 126ff. ac tum praeruptos tristem conscendere montes unde aciem in pelagi vastos protenderet aestus, tum tremuli salis adversas procurrere in undas …
  4. Que—que is peculiar to the poets, and Sallust, Tacitus, and later prose writers. It is of doubtful authority in Cicero, and occurs in Livy only in connexion with the relative, e.g., L. 22, 26 quique Romae quique in exercitu erant. Et—que occurs once or twice in Cicero, e.g., Rosc. A. 17 qui et ipsi incensi sunt studio, vitamque hanc rusticam et honestissimam et suavissimam esse arbitrantur.

  5. Qua—qua = et—et is rare, and used only of single words = in like manner—as, on one hand—on the other hand.

    • L. 9, 3, 4 qua cibi qua quietis inmemor nox traducta est.
    • L. 2, 45, 3 qua consules ipsos qua exercitum increpando.
    • L. 3, 11, 6 ferox iuvenis qua nobilitate gentis qua corporis magnitudine et viribus.
    • Att. 9, 12 quam expedita tua consilia qua itineris, qua navigationis! (In Cicero only in his letters).
  6. After a foregoing negative, both—and = aut—aut, vel—vel, or nec—nec, not et—et. Nothing could be both shorter and sweeter, nihil nec brevius nec dulcius esse potest, or aut brevius aut dulcius, not et brevius et dulcius.

    • N. Alc. 1 constat inter omnes nihil illo fuisse excellentius vel in vitiis vel in virtutibus.
    • Att. 5, 1 sic habeas, nihil mehercule te mihi nec carius esse nec suavius.
    • Am. 5, 17 nihil est enim tam naturae aptum, tam conveniens ad res vel secundas vel adversas.
    • L. 39, 1 nec deerat umquam cum iis vel materia belli vel causa.


Pons, a bridge; pontes also = a pontoon bridge.

  • Caes. 1, 13 pontem in Arari faciendum curat (he has a bridge thrown over the Arar).
  • Tac. A. 2, 8 plures dies efficiendis pontibus (a bridge) absumpti.

To throw a bridge over a stream = (in classical Latin) pontem in flumine facere; to break down a bridge, pontem interrumpere or interscindere, not rumpere, abrumpere, or solvere. Nepos has rescindere (Milt. 3) and dissolvere (Them. 5).


Ferre, to bring, to carry; ducere, to bring, to lead or conduct. He brought money with him, pecuniam secum tulit; he brought a friend with him, amicum secum duxit.

  • Verr. 5, 45 prohibentur liberis suis cibum vestitumque ferre.
  • Att. 16, 5 duxi enim mecum adulescentem ad Brutum.
  • L. 30, 2 tredecim novas naves Villius secum in Siciliam duxit.
  • N. Mil. 2 multitudinem, quam secum duxerat, in agris collocavit.
  • L. 9, 29 viam munivit et aquam in urbem duxit.
  1. Deducere, to bring a person to another for the purpose of making him known, especially to introduce a youth to a master or guardian.

    • Am. 1 ego autem a patre ita eram deductus ad Scaevolam, ut a senis latere numquam discederem.
  2. Educere is the technical word “to bring an accused person before a judge”.

    • Verr. 2, 37 Sthenium statim educunt.
    • Verr. 2, 26 quisquis erat eductus senator Syracusanus, duci iubebat Metellus (Metellus ordered to be taken to prison).


Condere, to build, to found; aedificare, to complete or carry on the building after founding. Romulus founded Rome, Romulus condidit Romam. Athens was founded by Cecrops, Athenae a Cecrope conditae sunt. Aedificare could not be used of the building of a city, unless the reference is to the progress or completion of the work. Cecrops began to build Athens, Cecrops Athenas aedificare coepit. Rome was not all built in a day, non tota Roma uno die aedificata est. From the building of Rome, ab Roma condita. To found a colony, coloniam (deducere constituere). He founded a colony in Asia Minor, coloniam in Asiam deduxit.

  • Sall. C. 6 urbem Romam, sicuti ego accepi, condidere atque habuere initio Troiani (the city of Rome according to tradition was originally built and inhabited by Trojans).
  • L. 39, 53 oppidum in Deuriopo condere instituit.
  • L, 39, 22 haud procul inde locum oppido condendo ceperunt.
  • R. P. 2, 18 ad ostium Tiberis urbem condidit.
  • L. 39, 54 oppidum quoque aedificare coeperunt.
  • Att. 4, 2, 7 domus aedificatur, scis, quo sumptu, qua molestia.


Incendere, to set on fire; ardere, and flagrare (especially in figurative sense), to be on fire; comburere and cremare, to burn up, consume by fire. They took and burned the city, urbem captam incenderunt; they burned the books, libros cremarunt; the woods were burning, silvae ardebant; they were burning the woods, silvas incendebant; Carthage when set on fire was seventeen whole days in burning, Carthago incensa septem decem dies integros flagrabat.

  • Caes. 7, 15 amplius viginti urbes incenduntur.
  • Pis. 11 in Palatio mea domus ardebat.
  • L. 1, 39 puero dormienti caput arsisse multorum in conspectu.
  • Att. 5, 11 non dici potest, quam flagrem desiderio urbis.
  • Caes. 1, 5 reliqua privata aedificia incendunt, frumentum omne comburunt.
  • Caes. 1, 4 damnatum poenam sequi oportebat, ut igni cremaretur.


At opposes, sed corrects, tamen restricts, autem differentiates. You say A, but (at) it is B; it is not A, but (sed) B; it is not A, but (tamen) nevertheless it is B; A is this, but (autem) B is that.

  • Planc. 4 male iudicavit populus—at iudicavit; non debuit—at potuit; non fero—at multi clarissimi cives tulerunt.
  • Rosc. A. 33 dices; quid postea, si Romae assiduus fui? respondebo; at ego omnino non fui; fateor me sectorem esse, verum et alii multi (I confess to being a broker, but so are many other men also. Had the fact of his being a broker been expressed as the imputation of an adversary, “at,” not verum, would have been used, as in the last example—“at multi clarissimi cives tulerunt”.)
  • Mil. 6 quid porro quaerendum est, factumne sit? at constat—a quo? at patet (what further inquiry is needed? whether it was done? but it is admitted; by whom? why, it is evident).
  • Att. 4, 18, 2 (16, 10) non recordor unde ceciderim, sed unde surrexerim.
  • Or. 1, 17 memento me non de mea, sed de oratoris facultate dixisse.
  • Verr. 2, 24 est magnum argumentum, verum illud maximum.
  • Leg. 1, 1 haec iam non ex te, Quinte, quaero, verum ex ipso poeta.
  • Pomp. 6 Asia vero tam opima est ac fertilis, ut facile omnibus terris antecellat (vero = verum).
  • Att. 7, 1 quam non est facilis virtus! quam vero difficilis eius diuturna simulatio! (how far from easy is virtue! how difficult the sustained semblance of it!)
  • Arch. 8 Homerum Colophonii civem esse dicunt suum, Chii suum vindicant, Salaminii repetunt, Smyrnaei vero suum esse confirmant.
  • Phil. 12, 10 at sunt qui dicant; dure illi quidem, sed tamen dicunt.
  • L. 1, 26 atrox visum id facinus patribus plebique; sed recens meritum facto obstabat; tamen raptus in ius ad regem.
  • Brut. 47 Crasso Philippus proximus accedebat, sed longo intervallo tamen proximus.
  1. At* is the strongest adversative particle. It is especially used in objection, exclamation, or any expression of sudden emotion. In replies, at often admits an assertion, but adds a consideration which detracts from its force = yes, but. At enim (ἀλλὰ γάρ) or at alone (sometimes at vero, at credo) introduces the supposed objection of an opponent, but you will say, or some one will say = inquies, or aliquis dicet (not at inquies, at aliquis dicet). At enim is also used in replies instead of the simple at.

    * At is emotional, autem syllogistic, vero assertive (Seyffert).

    • Sen. 11 at multi ita sunt imbecilli senes, ut nullum offici aut omnino vitae munus exsequi possint. At id quidem non proprium senectutis vitium est, sed commune valetudinis (but you will say, many old men are so feeble that they are incapable of discharging any function which duty or any vocation of life requires. Yes, but that objection is applicable to all ill health as well as to old age).
    • Sen. 19 at (but you will say) senex ne quod speret quidem habet. At (true, but) est eo meliore condicione, quam adulescens, cum id, quod ille sperat, hic iam consecutus est.
    • Phil. 2, 9 at ego suasi (but you will say, I urged him on).
    • Sen. 18 at sunt morosi et difficiles senes (but you will say, old men are crabbed and difficult to please).
    • Sen. 6 at memoria minuitur (but you will tell me, the memory is impaired).
    • Planc. 35 at erat mecum senatus (but you may say, the senate was with me).
    • Phil. 2, 2 at enim te in disciplinam meam tradideras—nam ita dixisti (but you will say, you had placed yourself under my tutelage—for you did say so).
    • Off. 1, 40 bene Pericles, cum dixisset Sophocles; o puerum pulchrum, Pericle! at enim praetorem, Sophocle, decet non solum manus, sed etiam oculos abstinentes habere.
    • Pomp. 17 at enim Catulus ab hac ratione dissentit (oh, but Catulus dissents from this view).
    • Fin. 2, 24 at enim sequor utilitatem (oh, but utility is my motto).
    • L. 21, 18 at enim eo foedere, quod cum Hasdrubale ictum est, Saguntini excipiuntur (but you will say, the Saguntines are exempted by the treaty concluded with Hasdrubal).
    • Verr. 2, 10 at enim ad Verrem pecunia ista non pervenit (but that money, it is urged, never reached Verres).
    • Clu. 70 una mater Cluentium oppugnat. At quae mater? (but what kind of a mother?)
    • Tus. 3, 26 Æschines in Demosthenem invehitur. At quam rhetorice, quam copiose!
    • Ter. Ph. 2, 3, 19 narrabat se hunc neglegere cognatum suom. At quem virum! (he often told me that this relative of his took no notice of him; and yet what a charming fellow he was!).
    • Plaut. Pers. 4, 3, 19 (488) at tibi di bene faciant omnes.
    • Ter. Hec. 1, 2, 59 at te di deaeque perduint (may the gods and goddesses destroy thee!)
  2. At vero anticipates a fresh objection, or strengthens a rejoinder. Phil. 2, 15 at vero Pompei voluntatem a me alienabat oratio mea (a fresh charge following the disposal of the general objection “castra mihi Pompei atque omne illud tempus obiecisti”—Seyffert’s Schol. Lat. §60). Verr. 5, 17 at vero contra bellum praedonum classem habuit ornatam. Sen. 6 senectus non facit ea, quae iuvenes, at vero (but in fact) maiora et meliora facit.

  3. At credo introduces an absurd or ironical objection = but I shall be told forsooth.

    • Rab. 10 at credo, cum innumerabiles hostium copias in Italia fudisset atque obsidione rem publicam liberasset, omnia sua secum una moritura arbitrabatur.
  4. At often appears in the apodosis of a conditional sentence = at tamen,* at least, at any rate, yet, still, i.e., it meets or modifies an objection by a contrasted compensation. If not A, yet at any rate it is B. Si non dives, at doctus est, if not rich, at any rate he is learned.

    * “Uno modo recte dicitur at tamen, ubi at in descensu ad minus post si, si non, etsi, quamvis posito superadditur tamen” (Madvig Fin. 2, 27).

    • Tus. 1, 25 si, quid sit, hoc non vides, at, quale sit, vides; si, ne id quidem, at quantum sit profecto vides.
    • Verr. 5, 27 si minus supplicio affici, at custodiri oportebat.
    • Verr. 3, 85 si non bonam, at aliquam rationem afferre solent.
    • Brut. 4 si non pari, at grato tamen munere.
    • Phil. 13, 8 Caesare dominante veniebamus in senatum, si non libere, at tamen tuto.
    • Phil. 2, 45 res bello gesserat quamvis rei publicae calamitosas, at tamen magnas.
  5. At is sometimes used as a particle of transition, but only when surprise or emotion is indicated. At etiam is the impassioned form of atque etiam.

    • N. D. 2, 39 at vero quanta maris est pulchritudo! quae species universi! (but how exquisite is the beauty of the sea! What a glorious spectacle when viewed as a whole!).
    • Phil. 2, 41 at quam multos dies in ea villa turpissime est perbacchatus!
    • Phil. 2, 17 at quanta merces rhetori data est!
    • Phil. 2, 38 at quam caeca avaritia est!
    • Phil. 2, 31 at videte levitatem hominis.
    • Phil. 2, 8 at etiam quodam loco facetus esse voluisti (but you even on one occasion tried to be funny).
    • Phil. 2, 4 at etiam litteras, quas me sibi misisse diceret, recitavit homo et humanitatis expers et vitae communis ignarus (but he even read out a letter which he said I had sent him, the man being both destitute of good breeding and ignorant of the common civilities of life—diceret subjunctive by attraction, as if “he said” was part of what he said).
    • Phil. 2, 34 at etiam misericordiam captabas; supplex te ad pedes abiciebas (but you were even courting pity; you cast yourself as a suppliant at his feet).
  6. Sed introduces a corrective notion, excluding, limiting, or otherwise qualifying what precedes; or it expresses a transition to a new subject, or a recurrence to a previous one.

    • Pis. 30 non opus est verbis sed fustibus.
    • Mil. 4 est haec non scripta sed nata lex.
    • Off. 1, 29 ludo et ioco uti illo quidem licet, sed sicut somno et quietibus ceteris.
    • R. P. 1, 13 sed ista mox: nunc audiamus Philum.
    • Brut. 88 sed iam ad id unde digressi sumus revertamur.
    • Tus. 5, 23 sed redeat unde aberravit oratio.

    Sed after a negative clause or phrase rejects, after a positive restricts or weakens. Otii fructus est non contentio animi, sed relaxatio; saepe ab amico tuo dissensi, sed sine ulla ira. Hence the stronger conception is expressed in the positive clause. The sentence, “Marius was brave it is true, but harsh,” must not be made “manu fortissimus quidem, sed ingenio aspero fuit,” but “Marius manu fortissimus, sed ingenio aspero fuit”. If quidem is retained, the pronoun ille must be inserted; manu ille quidem fortissimus, sed ingenio aspero fuit—(Ellendt, Lat. Gramm., § 345).

    Certain authors (Sallust, Livy, Tacitus, not Cicero (except once) or Caesar) employ ceterum in the sense of sed.—[Gildersleeve-Lodge, § 491 note.]

  7. Verum emphasises what follows = but in truth, but rather. Though strictly more a confirmatory than a corrective particle, it resembles in its general use a strengthened sed.

    • Sall. I. 31 utriusque cladis non lex verum lubido eorum finem fecit (in neither case was it the law but the caprice of the nobility which put an end to executions, i.e., the legal proceedings did not go far enough to satisfy the caprice of the nobility).
    • Sall. I. 10 non exercitus neque thesauri praesidia regni sunt, verum amici, quos neque armis cogere neque auro parare queas (“verum” does not denote opposition; it confirms what has been said by adding an affirmative to the negative”—Long’s note).
    • Or. 1, 60 non quid nobis utile verum quid oratori necessarium sit quaerimus (but rather what is necessary for an orator).
  8. Vero heightens a previous notion and gives special emphasis to the word after which it is placed = as for, or as to. It stands in the same relation to autem as verum does to sed.

    • Planc. 12 parentem veretur ut deum, amat vero ut sodalem, ut fratrem, ut aequalem.
    • Q. F. 1, 1, 5 frons, oculi, vultus persaepe mentiuntur, oratio vero saepissime.
    • Mur. 13 magnus dicendi labor, magna res, magna dignitas, summa autem gratia.
    • Or. 8 quod Rhodii numquam probaverunt, Athenienses (as for the Athenians) vero funditus repudiaverunt.
  9. Tamen* (but yet, however, nevertheless) restricts a concession either expressed or implied. It is often combined with other conjunctions, e.g., at tamen, verum tamen, sed tamen, et tamen, even with its correlative etsi = tametsi, but never tamen vero, tamen autem.

    * Tamen stands in any part of the sentence where it may be most emphatic—Kennedy.

    • Fin. 4, 12 nummus in Croesi divitiis obscuratur, pars est tamen divitiarum (in the wealth of Croesus a single coin is lost sight of, but yet it is a part of his wealth).
    • Rosc. A. 20 canes fures internoscere non possunt; significant tamen si quis noctu in Capitolium venerit.
    • Phil. 12, 10 nemo me minus timidus, nemo tamen cautior.
    • Fin. 2, 4 etsi satis clemens sum in disputando, tamen interdum soleo subirasci.
  10. Autem is the weakest adversative particle, being intermediate between sed and et. It is used of parallel things (= μέν—δέ); and in the minor premiss in a syllogism. If A is B, C is D; but (autem) A is B; therefore (ergo) C is D.

    • Div. 1, 30 iacet enim corpus dormientis ut mortui, viget autem et vivit animus.
    • Verr. 13 erit tum consul Hortensius, ego autem aedilis.
    • Fin. 1, 17 corpore nihil nisi praesens sentire possumus, animo autem et praeterita et futura.
    • Tus. 4, 22 cuius (Aiacis) ingressio laetitiam attulit sociis, terrorem autem hostibus.
    • Off. 3, 9 Gyges a nullo videbatur; ipse autem omnia videbat (Gyges was seen by no one, but he himself saw all things).
    • Fam. 9, 15 sedebamus in puppi et clavum tenebamus; nunc autem vix est in sentina locus.
    • Div. 2, 17 si di sunt, est divinatio; sunt autem di; est ergo divinatio.
  11. Autem is also used to introduce a parenthesis; or to catch up and explain or correct a preceding word or statement.

    • L. 21, 5 in ripa elephantos—quadraginta autem erant—disponit.
    • N. D. 1, 5 ipse dixit: ipse autem erat Pythagoras.
    • Phil. 11, 10 nunc quod agitur, agamus; agitur autem liberine vivamus an mortem obeamus.
    • Att. 6, 2 quid tandem isti mali non fecissent? non fecissent autem? immo quid ante adventum meum non fecerunt? (what mischief, let me ask, would the vagabonds not have done? do I say “would not have done”? what did they not actually do before my arrival?).
    • Rab. 5 num quis testis Postumum appellavit? testis autem? num accusator? (did any witness name Postumus? witness did I say? did even the prosecutor name him?).

    When the verb is repeated in the parenthesis, autem resembles its use in the second premiss of a syllogism—(Hofm. Fam. 9, 14).

    • Fam. 6, 5 quotiescumque filium tuum video—video autem fere cotidie.
    • Fam. 13, 41 quotiescumque me videt—videt autem saepe.
    • Fam. 3, 2 quibuscumque rebus poteris—poteris autem plurimis.
    • Att. 16, 7 Brutus et qui una erant—multi autem erant.
    • Fam. 10, 6 quos adhuc gradus dignitatis consecutus sis—es autem adeptus (= consecutus) amplissimos.
  12. Quod, but (used especially before si, nisi, but also before etsi, quia, quoniam), is a general connective particle = as to that, as to which if. Si accompanied by any connective whatever may be replaced by quod si = et si, si enim, si autem, si igitur. Hence quod si enim, quod si autem, quod si igitur would be barbarous.

    • Am. 15 coluntur tyranni simulatione dumtaxat ad tempus; quod si forte ceciderunt, tum intellegitur quam fuerint inopes amicorum (but if they chance to fall, their lack of friends is then discovered).
    • Arch. 8 quod si ipsi haec neque attingere neque sensu nostro gustare possemus, tamen ea mirari deberemus, etiam cum in aliis videremus.
    • Am. 20 quod si etiam possis quidvis deferre ad alterum, videndum est tamen quid ille possit sustinere.
    • Am. 13 quod si curam fugimus, virtus fugienda est.
    • Verr. 2, 66 quod nisi Metellus hoc tam graviter egisset atque illam rem imperio prohibuisset, vestigium statuarum Verris in tota Sicilia nullum esset relictum.
  13. Atqui,* but, introduces an explanation = true but; or like autem marks the minor premiss of a syllogism.

    * “In Cicero atqui is never a mere particle of transition like sed, at, ceterum, but always introduces a distinct stage in the development of an argument”—Reid: see Sen. 2, 6.

    • Att. 8, 3 o rem, inquis, difficilem atque inexplicabilem: atqui explicanda est (oh, what a hard and insoluble problem, you say; yes, but it must be solved).
    • Mil. 4 atqui si tempus est ullum iure hominis necandi, quae multa sunt, certe illud est.
    • Par. 3, 1 quod si virtutes sunt pares, paria etiam vitia esse necesse est: atqui pares esse virtutes facillime perspici potest.
  14. The copulatives et, atque (ac), que appending an affirmative to a negative statement have sometimes the force of an adversative conjunction = but on the contrary.

    • Pl. Cas. 3, 3, 13 (575) metuo, ne non sit surda atque haec audiverit.
    • Pl. Mil. 2, 5, 38 (448) an ista non sit Philocomasium atque alia eius similis sit?
    • Att. 8, 11D, 1 non exspectavi, dum mihi a te litterae redderentur, confestimque … iter ad te in Apuliam facere coepi.
    • Caes. 5, 5, 2 cognoscit naves … cursum tenere non potuisse, atque eodem, unde erant profectae, revertisse.
    • N. Alc. 7, 4 domum reverti noluit et se Pactyen contulit.
    • N. Hann. 12, 2 legatos … miserunt … qui ab rege peterent ne inimicissimum suum secum haberet sibique dederet.
    • N. Eu. 6 suasit, ne se moveret et (but) exspectaret.
    • Rosc. A. 4 animo non deficiam, et id, quod suscepi, perferam.
    • L. 26, 22, 8 cum centuria frequens succlamasset nihil se mutare sententiae eosdemque consules dicturos esse.
    • Caes. 7, 4 non destitit tamen atque habet dilectum (he did not however desist, but holds a levy).
    • Caes. 4, 35 impetum hostes ferre non potuerunt ac (but) terga verterunt.
    • Or. 2, 34 nihil te effugiet atque (but) omne, quod erit in re, occurret atque incidet.
    • Am. 9 ut nullo egeat suaque omnia in se ipso posita iudicet.
    • L. 21, 6 erant qui non temere movendam rem tantam exspectandosque ex Hispania legatos censerent (but should await the return of their envoys from Spain).
    • Sall. C. 3 studio ad rem publicam latus sum ibique mihi multa advorsa fuere (I threw myself with passion into public life, but there many things were against me).

    Similarly neque (nec) = but not, when a negative statement follows a positive.

    • Off. 3, 2, 7 se scripsit dicturum nec exsolvit id, quod promiserat.
    • Caes. 1, 32, 3 cum ab his saepius quaereret neque ullam omnino vocem exprimere posset.
    • L. 4, 30, 1 agitatum in urbe ab tribunis plebis ut tribuni militum consulari potestate crearentur; nec obtineri potuit.
    • L. 1, 27, 1 nec diu pax Albana mansit.
    • Tac. A. 6, 37 Draeger-Becher initia conatus secunda neque diuturna.
    • Tac. A. 3, 24ex. fuit posthac in urbe neque honores adeptus est.
    • Fam. 9, 2 conscripsi epistulam noctu; nec ille ad me rediit; oblitum credidi (but he did not call again; I imagined he forgot).
    • Caes. 1, 47 velle se de his rebus, quae inter eos agi coeptae neque (but not) perfectae essent, agere cum eo.
    • N. Con. 3 defecerat a rege Tissaphernes, neque id tam Artaxerxi quam ceteris erat apertum.
    • L. 23, 15 deinde praemia atque honores, qui remanserint ac militare secum voluissent, proposuit: nec ea spe quemquam tenuit (but yet with this prospect he could keep no one with him).

    In rapid narrative, particularly in Livy, que has sometimes the pregnant sense of and—but—(Nägelsbach, Lat. Stil., § 193, 1, c).

    • L. 2, 39 acceperunt relationem patres; missique de pace ad Marcium oratores atrox responsum rettulerunt = missique sunt de pace oratores, sed atrox responsum rettulerunt.


A or ab before a principal agent, per before a secondary agent or instrument. This was done by Bibulus, hoc a Bibulo factum est; I did this by Bibulus, hoc ego per Bibulum feci (passively), hoc a me per Bibulum factum est. He sent a letter by his slave, litteras per servum misit; the letter was brought by a slave, litterae a servo allatae sunt (here “servus” is the agent, not the instrument).

  • L. 5, 8 vinci ab hoste quam vincere per civem maluit.
  • Ac. 1, 4, 15 Reid rebus occultis et ab ipsa natura involutis.
  • Rosc. A. 29, 79 aut ipsum sua manu fecisse … aut per aliquos liberos aut servos.
  • Fam. 13, 64 si ea feceris, quae ille per me tecum agi voluit, gratissimum mihi feceris.
  • Rosc. A. 28 reliquum est ut per servos id (facinus) admiserit.
  • Att. 1, 16, 5 per unum servum … confecit totum negotium.
  • Balb. 15, 35 sacrosanctum enim nihil potest esse, nisi quod per populum plebemve sanctum est.
  • L. 8, 18 matronis … per viatorem accitis.

Instead of the ablative with a or ab, the dative follows the gerund or gerundive. Opus Bibulo perficiendum est, the work is to be done by Bibulus; opus mihi relinquendum est, the work is to be left by me (or to me, if mihi is governed by the verb independently of the gerundive construction).

  • N. D. 3, 1 suo cuique iudicio utendum est (each must use his own judgment).
  • Senat. 12, 32 cum mihi privato confligendum viderem cum eodem exercitu, cet.
  • Or. 1, 23 gerendus est tibi mos adulescentibus.
  • Verr. 3, 43 sentio moderandum mihi esse iam orationi meae.

Exceptions are here and there met with, especially in Cicero. In some cases the ablative is used to avoid the ambiguity of two datives. We must consult the interests of Bibulus, Bibulo a nobis consulendum est.

  • Sull. 8 sed tamen te a me pro magnis causis nostrae necessitudinis monendum esse etiam atque etiam puto. Pomp. 12 atque haec qua celeritate gesta sint, quamquam videtis, tamen a me in dicendo praetereunda non sunt. Fin. 2, 10 quae iam oratio non a philosopho aliquo sed a censore opprimenda est. Sest. 18 Crassus a consulibus meam causam suscipiendam esse dicebat (“consulibus” might have seemed the dative to “dicebat”). Pomp. 2 aguntur bona multorum civium, quibus est a vobis consulendum. Cat. 4, 9 id ne umquam posthac non modo confici sed ne cogitari quidem possit a civibus hodierno die providendum est. Mur. 26, 54 locus … perpurgatus ab his … a me … retractandus. Balb. 3, 7 Reid esset omnis eius modi reprehensio a vobis, iudices, repudianda. L. 39, 28 inter cetera pax quoque praestanda a barbaris erat.


Ambitio,* by lawful means; ambitus, by unlawful means, by bribery. Lex de ambitu (not de ambitione), the Corrupt Practices Act.

* “In Latin so early as Cicero ambitio is never the equivalent of ambitus in its sense of ‘bribery,’ ‘corrupt practices’ at elections; the only bad sense is that of ‘political jobbery’.”—Reid.

  • Tus. 2, 26 quid de nostris ambitionibus loquar?
  • L. 5, 1 Veientes taedio annuae ambitionis regem creavere (tired of the annual electioneering).
  • Sull. 4 mea me ambitio ab omni illa cogitatione abstrahebat.
  • Or. 2, 25 raro illud datur, ut possis liberalitatem ab ambitu seiungere (it is rarely possible to distinguish bribery from liberality).
  • Cael. 31 nomen amici mei de ambitu detulit.
  • L. 3, 47 ius sibi per ambitionem (political jobbery) dictum non esse.

Ambire, to canvass, does not take the accusative of the office for which votes are solicited. We say “consulatum petere,” not “ambire”; but “cives ambiuntur” (R. P. 1, 31). Cf. Planc. 4, 9 (populus) facit eos, a quibus est maxime ambitus (the burgesses elect the man who has courted them most).


Ferre, to carry anything portable, e.g., librum, litteras; portare, to carry or convey a load, transport, e.g., frumentum. In ferre and portare the relation of subject and object is simply that of a carrier to his burden, but gerere, to carry, implies a closer connexion, that of a possessor or wearer to his property, hence gerere arma implies that one has arms to carry. All capable of carrying arms assemble at one place, omnes, qui arma ferre (not gerere) possunt, in unum locum conveniunt; he carried a helmet on his head and a club in his right hand, gessit in capite galeam dextra manu clavam.

  • Caes. 4, 25 qui decimae legionis aquilam ferebat.
  • Caes. 7, 71 omnes, qui per aetatem arma ferre possunt, ad bellum cogunt.
  • Caes. C. 1, 78, 1 corpora insueta ad onera portanda.
  • Caes. 5, 23, 3 navis quae milites portaret.
  • L. 22, 11, 6 naves onerariae commeatum ab Ostia in Hispaniam ad exercitum portantes.
  • Div. 1, 26 servus per circum furcam ferens ductus est.
  • Phil. 2, 41 lectica latus per oppidum est ut mortuus.
  • Caes. 1, 5 frumentum omne, praeter quod secum portaturi erant, comburunt.
  • N. Dat. 3 Thuyn optima veste texit, quam satrapae regii gerere consuerant.
  • L. 45, 12 virga, quam in manu gerebat, circumscripsit regem.
  • L. 1, 26 princeps Horatius ibat trigemina spolia prae se gerens.
  • L. 4, 38 vadit alte cuspidem gerens.
  • L. 4, 19 caput abscisum victor spiculo gerens terrore caesi regis hostes fudit.
  1. Ferre and gerere can be used metaphorically, e.g., ferre nomen alicuius, praemium, dolorem; gerere morem alicui, animum invictum, personam. Quanto superiores sumus, tanto nos geramus summissius (Off. 1, 26).

    Portare is properly used of carrying material objects only; but the vulgar used it also of carrying immaterial objects where they should have used ferre. This use of portare is to be found, as was to be expected, in Plautus and Terence. In process of time, the vulgar speech as usual got the better of the educated, and in the Romance languages portare has outlived ferre. In Italian it is portare, in Spanish and Portuguese portar, in French porter” (Long, Sall. C. 6).

  2. To carry coals to NewcastleLatiné, to carry owls to Athens, or sticks to the wood; Graecé, to carry corn to Egypt (σῖτον εἰς Αἴγυπτον), or fish to the Hellespont (ἰχθῦς εἰς Ἑλλήσποντον). The owl was so common at Athens that its image was stamped on coins, and the patron goddess was γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη.

    • Q. F. 2, 15 (16) hoc est, “Athenis noctuam” mittam.
    • Hor. S. 1, 10, 34 in silvam non ligna feras.


Pecus, pecoris, cattle collectively, a herd; pecus, pecudis, a single head of cattle, one of a herd; in a restricted sense, sheep, hence a nickname for a blockhead.

  • Tus. 1, 28, 69 multitudinem pecudum partim ad vescendum, partim ad cultus agrorum, partim ad vehendum, partim ad corpora vestienda.
  • Sall. I. 54, 3 exercitum numero hominum ampliorem, sed … agri ac pecoris magis quam belli cultorem.
  • Verr. 5, 7 nominat iste servum, quem magistrum pecoris esse diceret.
  • Phil. 8, 3 homines agrestes, si homines illi ac non pecudes potius.
  • Caes. 4, 1 lacte atque pecore vivunt.
  • Phil. 2, 12 stuporem hominis vel dicam (or rather) pecudis attendite.
  • Pis. 9 ego istius pecudis (= Pisonis) praesidio volebam niti.
  • Tac. A. 13, 1 Gaius Caesar pecudem auream eum appellare solitus est.


Causa (from cavere) = the guarded or protected thing, in a juridical sense, the defence of an assailed right, hence causam dicere, to plead one’s cause, to answer for one’s self, indicta causa, without hearing one’s defence. Res is a general expression for a case or cause in all its bearings, or in any of its phases. Lis, the process, an action or law-suit, hence we say litem alicui intendere, or in aliquem inferre, amittere, perdere, but causam suscipere, defendere, dicere, not causam intendere, or litem dicere (See Tegge, Lat. Syms.).

  • Fam. 1, 5a de Alexandrina re causaque regia.
  • Caecin. 4 multa enim, quae sunt in re, quia remota sunt a causa, praetermittam.
  • Fam. 2, 6 nunc tibi omnem rem atque causam commendo (rem = the whole case; causam = the cause of Milo).
  • Mil. 6 de re et de causa iudicavit (the question of fact and the question of justice).
  • Or. 1, 36 neque intellegebat, si ita esset actum, litem adversarium perditurum.


Desino loqui, I cease speaking = I have finished; desisto loqui, I cease speaking = I break off before I have finished (applicable only to persons). In the best Latin cessare is a verb of rest, not of motion; not to come to a stand still, but to be at a stand still (Reid, Ac. 1, 1).

  • Off. 1, 37 ut incipiendi ratio fuerit, ita sit desinendi modus.
  • Att. 7, 9 tum igitur cum venero, desinam.
  • Brut. 91 et amici et medici me hortabantur, ut causas agere desisterem.
  • Caes. 2, 11 sub occasum solis sequi destiterunt seque in castra receperunt.
  • Phil. 2, 35 simul ac timere desisses, similem te futurum tui.
  • Or. 2, 6 hoc ipsum nihil agere et plane cessare delectat.
  • Ac. 1, 1 nec tamen istum cessare, sed celare quae scribat existimo (my impression is, not that your friend is idle, but that he is reticent about his literary work).
  • Fam. 16, 22 ego hic cesso, quia ipse nihil scribo.
  • Q. F. 3, 5 quod quaeris quid de illis libris egerim, quos scribere institui, non cessavi neque cesso.
  • Phil. 2, 43 quid igitur cessas? (why are you at a standstill?).
  • Sen. 6 nisi forte ego vobis cessare nunc videor cum bella non gero (unless perchance you think I am idle, now that I am not serving in the army).
  • L. 28, 15, 13 metus et periculum cessandi non dabat tempus.

Desino, like coepi, when followed by a passive infinitive, is itself put in the passive (see Begin). Censors ceased to be appointed, censores creari desiti sunt. People have ceased to argue, desitum est disputari (Fin. 2, 13).

  • L. 5, 17, 5 numquam desitum (est) interim turbari.
  • Off. 2, 8, 27 desitum est enim videri quicquam in socios iniquum.

It is therefore only bodies that are self-moved that never cease to move, solum igitur, quod se ipsum movet, numquam ne moveri (= se movere) quidem desinit (Tus. 1, 23).

The year ends in December, annus in Decembri desinit; the tail ends in a fish, cauda in piscem desinit; summer ends in September, aestas in Septembri desinit; summer ends in autumn, aestas in autumnum desinit. The accusative is used “cum res exeunt in aliam formam aut transferuntur in aliam condicionem”. Desinit in lacrimas, she finished by bursting into tears (Ov. F. 2, 753).

The pestilence ceased, pestilentia abiit (not cessavit). De loco, nunc quidem iam abiit pestilentia, as to the state of this place, the epidemic, it is true, has now at last ceased (Fam. 14, 1).


Certus, certain, sure, well known, [fixed, reliable]; quidam, certain, simply known or knowable. Certi homines, sure or well-known men; quidam homines, certain men who could be named if need be. Certo die, on a certain day fixed beforehand; quodam die, on a certain day past.

  • Caes. C. 1, 17 certas cuique partes ad custodiam urbis attribuit.
  • Att. 6, 2, 9 itaque statim dedi litteras, ut ex Cypro equites ante certam diem decederent.
  • Att. 8, 1, 2 hominem certum misi de comitibus meis.
  • Enn. ap. Am. 17, 64 amicus certus in re incerta cernitur (a faithful, true friend …).
  • Fam. 1, 7, 1 quotiens mihi certorum hominum potestas erit.
  • Verg. A. 1, 576 equidem per litora certos dimittam.
  • Cat. 1, 3 meministine me dicere in senatu fore in armis certo die Manlium?
  • Inv. 2, 45 quaerere ab iudicibus, cur in certa verba iurent, cur certo tempore conveniant, certo discedant.
  • Caes. 5, 57 his certam diem conveniendi dicit.
  • Verr. 8 unum illud ex hominibus certis (trusty men), ex quibus omnia comperi, reperiebam.
  • Balb. 27 certorum hominum mentes nulla ratione placare possumus.
  • Att. 5, 21 Volusium, certum hominem, misi in Cyprum, ut ibi pauculos dies esset (I have sent Volusius, a safe man, to Cyprus just to stay for a day or two).

Certo scio (certum or pro certo habeo), I know for certain = certum est quod scio = sure knowledge; certe scio, I know that I know, I assure you I know = certum est me scire = sure conviction. “Certo” is used only with “scire,” “certe” with all kinds of verbs.


Persona was the mask used by actors on the ancient stage. For each typical character there was a distinctive mask, hence “persona” came to mean (1) the character or rôle supported by any one, and (2) the person who acts the part. It is never used in good Latin of an individual man, like “person” in English or in German. Brutus assumed the character of a fool, Brutus stulti personam sumpsit. Brutus played the rôle (character) of a fool, Brutus stulti partes (not partem) egit = he not merely assumed but carried out the character (stulti personam sustinuit).

  • Off. 3, 10 ponit enim personam amici cum induit iudicis.
  • Verr. 2, 17, 43 imponatur honestae civitati turpissima persona calumniae?
  • Serv. ap. Fam. 4, 5, 5 ea potius reminiscere, quae tua persona digna sunt.
  • L. 3, 36, 1 ille finis Appio alienae personae ferendae fuit (Appius now threw off the mask).
  • Mur. 3 illam vero gravitatis severitatisque personam non appetivi.
  • Rosc. C. 7 praeclare hunc imitari se in persona leonis animadvertit.
  • Off. 1, 28 nobis autem personam imposuit ipsa natura (but nature herself has assigned us a part to play).
  • N. Praef. non satis dignum summorum virorum personis (not sufficiently worthy of the characters of men of the greatest eminence).
  • Am. 1 Catonem induxi senem disputantem, quia nulla videbatur aptior persona.
  • Pis. 29 quam (disciplinam) qui profitetur, gravissimam mihi sustinere personam videtur.
  • Clu. 29 huius Staieni persona ab nulla turpi suspicione abhorrebat (Staieni persona, the character of Staienus = the part he had played on the stage of life).
  • Or. 2, 24 tres personas unus sustineo, meam, adversarii, iudicis.
  • N. Dion 8 tali consilio probato excepit has partes ipse Callicrates (undertook (= suscepit) to play this part).
  • Verr. 4, 36 cur ego tuas partes suscipio?
  • Sull. 3 istam ipsam personam vehementem et acrem quam mihi tum tempus et res publica imposuit, iam voluntas et natura ipsa detraxit.

Ramsay (Cluent. 29) quotes Milton’s vehement castigation of Salmasius for having characterised the execution of Charles the First as “parricidium in persona regis admissum,” an expression which he (Milton) denounces as a “multiplex barbarismus,” and declares that Salmasius deserved to be hooted and flogged for his bad Latinity. “On the whole,” Ramsay adds, “Milton seems to be right in so far as the purest writers of Latinity are concerned, but the rule does not apply to the period of the decline.” But “persona regis” is good Latin for the representative of kingly power = the person who on the stage of public life plays the rôle of king. “In persona regis” = in the case of a king as one of a class; not in the case of the king as an individual.

  • Fam. 6, 6 numquam nisi honorificentissime Pompeium appellat; At in eius persona multa fecit asperius (he never speaks of Pompey in other than most complimentary terms; true, but in his dealings with him as a public man he often acted somewhat roughly).
  • Arch. 2 in eius modi persona uti novo genere dicendi (in dealing with this type, i.e., the literary man).
  • Or. 2, 75, 304 quom personarum quas defendunt rationem non habent.
  1. Moral character = mores. A man of good moral character = vir probis moribus. Herodias was an odious character, Herodias detestabilis fuit.

    • Sall. C. 51 eos mores eamque modestiam cognovi (such I know to be the man’s character and moderation).
  2. It was the character of the Romans to be just, fuit Romanorum iustos esse. Love of riches is characteristic of a small mind, est parvi animi amare divitias.

    • Or. 2, 40 barbarorum est in diem vivere.
    • L. 2, 12 et facere et pati fortia Romanum est.
    • Phil. 12, 2 cuiusvis hominis est errare, nullius nisi insipientis in errore perseverare (it is the character of any man to make a mistake, of none but a fool to persist in a mistake).
  3. Cicero’s character of Caesar, Ciceronis iudicium de Caesare. Habes meum de oratore, Brute, iudicium (Or. 71).

  4. The Greek characters, Graecae litterae. Litteris Latinis Graecisque utraque arca inscripta est (L. 40, 29). In castris Helvetiorum tabulae repertae sunt litteris Graecis confectae (Caes. 1, 29, 1).

    This procured him a high character, hoc magnam ei famam (or magnum ei nomen) peperit. He had a high character for justice, magnam opinionem iustitiae habuit.


Pueri, children in years; liberi, children with reference to their parents, irrespective of age, a second generation. Men cease to be “pueri,” but continue “liberi” of parents. Women and children, pueri mulieresque; wives and children, coniuges liberique; neither women nor children were spared, nec pueris nec mulieribus parcitum est; look to your wives and children, coniugibus liberisque vestris prospicite; he wrote a book on the right method of educating children, librum de pueris recte instituendis scripsit; he wrote a book on the right method of educating his children, librum de liberis recte instituendis scripsit. “Pueri” and “liberi” are used of children of either sex.

  • Caes. 1, 29 item separatim pueri, senes, mulieresque.
  • Caes. 2, 13 pueri mulieresque passis manibus pacem ab Romanis petierunt.
  • L. 6, 33 in arcem oppidani refugere cum coniugibus ac liberis.
  • Cat. 1, 2 occisus est cum liberis M. Fulvius consularis.
  • Caes. 2, 5 principum liberos obsides ad se adduci iussit.
  • Sall. I. 41 interea parentes aut parvi liberi militum sedibus pellebantur.
  • N. D. 2, 28, 72 totos dies precabantur ut sibi sui liberi superstites essent.
  • Caes. 6, 18 suos liberos nisi cum adoleverunt palam ad se adire non patiuntur.
  • L. 5, 27 mos erat Faliscis eodem magistro liberorum et comite uti.

Liberi is sometimes used of one child in the indefinite sense of family. The plural generalises.

  • Rosc. 34, 96 cum Ameriae Sex. Rosci domus, uxor liberique essent.
  • L. 45, 41, 7 rex ipse, tradentibus prope ipsis diis, in templo Samothracum cum liberis est captus.
  • Phil. 1, 1 pax denique per eum et per liberos eius confirmata est (here liberos = filium, Antony’s hostage being one of his sons by Fulvia).
  • Verr. 1, 30 grandis natu parens adductus ad supplicium, ex altera parte filius; ille quod pudicitiam liberorum (= filiae), hic quod vitam patris famamque sororis defenderat.
  • Fam. 4, 5 licitum est tibi, credo, pro tua dignitate ex hac iuventute generum deligere cuius fidei liberos tuos (your daughter) te tuto committere putares.
  • Tac. A. 1, 42 coniugem et liberos meos (= Caligulam) nunc procul a furentibus summoveo.
  • Or. 2, 49 pro meo sodali, qui mihi in liberum loco esse deberet.

So (Tus. 1, 21) in qua (oratione) obiecit ut probrum M. Nobiliori, quod is in provinciam poetas duxisset; duxerat autem consul ille in Aetoliam, ut scimus, Ennium.


Frigus, cold; frigora, cold climate, or cold seasons. Capable of enduring cold, patiens frigoris (not frigorum).

  • Caes. C. 3, 18 graviore morbo ex frigore ac labore implicitus.
  • Caes. 7, 24 cum toto tempore frigore et assiduis imbribus tardarentur.
  • Caes. 1, 16 propter frigora, quod Gallia sub septentrionibus posita est, frumenta in agris matura non erant.
  • Caes. 5, 12 loca sunt temperatiora quam in Gallia remissioribus frigoribus.


Imperare, to command, bv virtue of higher authority and rank; iubere, to bid, simply expresses one’s wish or will, whether as superior or equal. Iubeo te salvum esse = salvus esto or sis.

  • Ter. Eu. 389 iubesne? iubeam? cogo, atque impero.
  • Verr. 4, 12, 28 hic tibi in mentem non venit iubere ut haec quoque referret … .
  • L. 1, 27 idem imperat, ut hastas equites erigerent.
  • Verr. 2, 17 his, ut absentem Heraclium condemnent, imperat.
  • Cat. 1, 5 exire ex urbe iubet consul hostem: Interrogas me, num in exsilium; non iubeo, sed, si me consulis, suadeo.
  1. Imperare means to command, rule, as well as to give a command or order. Impero militibus = I command soldiers, or I give a command to soldiers.

    • Phil. 6, 7 quem (populum) di immortales omnibus gentibus imperare voluerunt.
    • Caes. 1, 36 ius esse belli, ut, qui vicissent, iis, quos vicissent, quem ad modum vellent, imperarent.
  2. Imperare (alicui) aliquid = to demand, make requisition for. Impero milites civitati = I command the state to furnish soldiers.

    • Caes. 7, 64 ille imperat reliquis civitatibus obsides.
    • Verr. 2, 55 denarii treceni ad statuam praetoris imperati sunt.
  3. Imperare in construction with a passive verb is regularly followed by the acc. and infin., never in good prose by ut and subj. He ordered a bridge to be made, pontem imperavit fieri; he ordered the soldiers to make a bridge, militibus imperavit, ut pontem facerent (not pontem facere).

    • Caes. 5, 1 has omnes actuarias imperat fieri (he orders that all these be made swift sailers).
    • Verr. 5, 34 praecidi ancoras imperavit.
    • Verr. 1, 25 Rubrium deduci imperavit.
  4. Iubere in the active is ordinarily followed by the acc. and infin., but the subject of the infin. is omitted, where the order is general, or where no doubt exists as to the person or persons for whom it is intended, e.g., imperator pronuntiare (or pronuntiari) iubet = Fr., le général fait proclamer; iubet castra munire (more commonly muniri). Vetare, to forbid, is similarly constructed. Iubere non is a barbarism.

    • Brut. 4 Hesiodus eadem mensura reddere iubet qua acceperis.
    • Att. 16, 15 desperatis etiam Hippocrates vetat adhibere medicinam.
    • Caes. C. 3, 65 iuxta Pompeium muniri iussit.
  5. Iubere used of the sovereign will of the people is regularly followed by ut, e.g., Dom. 18 velitis iubeatis ut M. Tullio aqua et igni interdicatur? but L. 22, 10, 2 rogatus (est) in haec verba populus: “Velitis iubeatisne haec sic fieri?”


Committere, used of an offence, is distinguished from admittere in that the former expresses rather the overt act, the latter the moral liability, hence we say admittere (not committere) in se, to sin against oneself.

  • Fam. 3, 10 si quid a me praetermissum erit, commissum facinus et admissum dedecus confitebor.
  1. Committere, to commit to one’s care, is distinguished from such general expressions as mandare, (negotium) dare, in that it implies the idea of confidence in the person to whom the commission is given.—Krebs. Schmalz, Anti barbarus, s. v.

    • Verr. 5, 14 ita quaestor sum factus, ut mihi illum honorem tum non solum datum, sed etiam creditum et commissum putarem.
    • Fam. 1, 9, 23 quos tamen ipsos libros, si quem, cui recte committam, invenero, curabo ad te perferendos.
    • Verr. 4, 45 dat hospiti suo cuidam negotium, ut aliquem reperiret.
    • Caes. 1, 47 his mandavit, ut, quae diceret Ariovistus, cognoscerent.
    • Att. 11, 25 scribas ad me, cum habebis, cui des, et dum erit, ad quem des.
    • Cat. 3, 9 ignotis et barbaris commissae litterae numquam essent profecto (the letters would certainly never have been put into the hands of strangers and barbarians).
    • Sest. 28 nec illi committendum illud negotium, sed inponendum putaverunt.
  2. Se in aliquid (sometimes alicui rei) committere = to let oneself in for something, risk, venture, appear before. Similarly committere ut, to act so that, bring it to pass that.

    • L. 23, 11 dictatorem, quia se in aciem numquam commiserit, unicum haberi imperatorem.
    • Verr. 4, 11 in populi Romani quidem conspectum quo ore vos commisistis?
    • Q. F. 3, 2, 2 in senatum se non committebat.
    • Sest. 54 ecquis se theatro populoque Romano commiserit.
    • Att. 1, 6, 1 non committam posthac, ut me accusare de epistularum neglegentia possis.
    • Caes. C. 3, 64 nolite committere, ut dedecus admittatur (do not so act that disgrace may be incurred).


Communis, that in which several or all participate alike, opposed to proprius, belonging to one. Salus communis, the common weal. Volgaris, commonplace, vulgar; proverbium volgare, a common or vulgar saying. Communis is constructed with the genitive as well as the dative, but the dative is always employed, (1) when the second of two things is put in the ablative with cum, (2) when the complement of communis is a personal pronoun. This fault is common to you and me, hoc vitium mihi tecum commune est.

  • Brut. 13 hoc autem studium non erat commune Graeciae, sed proprium Athenarum.
  • Fam. 14, 3 ipsa calamitas communis est utriusque nostrum, sed culpa mea propria est.
  • Ac. 1, 7 id quidem commune omnium fere est artium.
  • Sall. C. 1 alterum nobis cum dis, alterum cum beluis commune est.
  • Sen. 19 mors omni aetati est communis.
  • Att. 7, 1 hoc malum mihi commune est cum omnibus.
  • Rosc. A. 26 nihil tam vile neque tam volgare est cuius partem ullam reliquerint.
  • Rosc. A. 46 mitto hasce artes volgares.
  • Brut. 11 illa mors volgaris nullam praebebat materiem ad ornatum.
  • Fam. 5, 2 misi ad Metellum communes amicos qui agerent cum eo (mutual friends; “common” is more correct, but “Our Mutual Friend” has stamped the expression).


Celare, to conceal purposely, not to disclose, to keep a person in ignorance; occultare, to conceal studiously, to take pains to prevent something being seen; abdere and condere, to conceal something by putting it away, abdere, in any place, condere, and the stronger recondere (seldomer abscondere), in a place of safe keeping.

  • Off. 3, 13 neque enim id est celare, quicquid reticeas, sed cum, quod tu scias, id ignorare emolumenti tui causa velis eos, quorum intersit id scire.
  • Off. 3, 12 aliud est celare, aliud tacere; neque te celo, si tibi non dico, quae natura deorum sit.
  • L. 9, 23, 8 de magistro equitum novoque exercitu militem celavit.
  • Verr. 8, 21 cupiebam animi dolorem vultu tegere et taciturnitate celare.
  • Sall. I. 12 Hiempsal reperitur occultans se tugurio.
  • Ac. 1, 1 intemperantis enim arbitror esse scribere, quod occultari velit.
  • Verr. 4, 10 quod celari opus erat, habebant sepositum et reconditum.
  • Fam. 7, 28 abdo me in bibliothecam.
  • Pis. 38 domum se abdidit.
  • L. 2, 12 abdito intra vestem ferro proficiscitur.
  • Tus. 1, 45 condiunt Aegyptii mortuos et eos servant domi.
  • Verr. 4, 63 primum mihi litteras publicas, quas in aerario sanctiore conditas habebant, proferunt.
  • Verr. 2, 75 his inventis libellis ceteri remoti et diligentius sunt reconditi.
  1. They concealed themselves in the woods, se in silvas abdiderunt = they went into the woods and concealed themselves; se in silvis abdiderunt = they were in the woods and concealed themselves there. The ablative, however, is rarely found except in connexion with the participle abditus.

    • Fam. 13, 29 abdidit se in intimam Macedoniam.
    • Caes. C. 2, 19 in silvis abditi latebant.
    • L. 9, 7 ingressi sero in urbem, ita se in suis quisque tectis abdiderunt, ut nemo eorum forum aut publicum aspicere vellet.
    • L. 31, 36 nocte caetratos loco opportuno inter bina castra in insidiis abdiderat.
  2. We say celare aliquem aliquid or aliquem de aliqua re, but in the passive the double accusative is only used with neuter pronouns.

    • Fam. 2, 16, 3 non enim te celavi sermonem T. Ampi.
    • Pl. Bacch. 375-6 (egone) ut celem patrem, Pistoclere, tua flagitia aut damna aut desidiabula.
    • Fam. 7, 20 Bassus noster me de hoc libro celavit.
    • Clu. 66 non est profecto de illo veneno celata mater.
    • Sull. 13 credo celatum esse Cassium de Sulla uno.
    • N. Alc. 5 id Alcibiades diutius celari non potuit.
    • Q. F. 3, 5 sed tamen indicabo tibi, quod mehercule in primis te celatum volebam.

To conceal in the sense of dissemble = dissimulare. He concealed that he was poor, dissimulavit se esse pauperem.


Fateri, to confess, is a colourless word, simply = to admit or acknowledge; confiteri is stronger, usually implying a sacrifice of will; profiteri, to confess voluntarily, to court an avowal.

  • Arch. 6 ego fateor me his studiis esse deditum.
  • Att. 2, 8 perterriti voce et vultu confessi sunt se (litteras) accepisse, sed excidisse in via.
  • Tus. 1, 8 haec enim spinosiora, prius (= potius) ut confitear, me cogunt, quam ut adsentiar (confitear = I consent against my will, I admit what I can’t parry; adsentiar = with free consent and conviction).
  • Caecin. 9 confitetur, atque ita libenter confitetur, ut non solum fateri, sed etiam profiteri videatur.


Conscientia = knowledge on the part of two or more persons of something in which they are concerned, hence by a common assumption of two personalities (e.g., I talked to myself) knowledge one has with one’s self, especially as having acted well or ill, never = conscience in an absolute sense. Religio = conscience as a restraining force. I make it a matter of conscience, est mihi religio, habeo rem religioni, in religionem traho (verto). Conscientia is retrospective; it reviews rather than dictates. Sometimes fides and officium are applicable. He did this with a safe conscience, hoc salva fide (salvo officio) fecit.

  • Clu. 13 recentis maleficii conscientia perterritus omnia exponit.
  • Par. 5, 3 alius est dominus exortus ex conscientia peccatorum, timor.
  • Mil. 23 magna vis est conscientiae, et magna in utramque partem (great is the power of conscience on both sides, i.e., alike in the case of the innocent and the guilty).
  • Att. 13, 20 a recta conscientia traversum unguem non oportet discedere (one should not swerve a nail’s breadth from the course which preserves a good conscience).
  • Att. 12, 28 mea mihi conscientia pluris est quam omnium sermo (the approval of my own conscience is more than all the chatter of men).
  • Verr. 2, 16 tibi nulla lex fuit? nulla religio?
  • Div. 1, 35 nec eam rem habuit religioni.
  • Fam . 13, 17 faciam id, quod debent facere ii, qui religiose (conscientiously) et sine ambitione commendant.
  • L. 9, 9 dedite profanos nos, quos salva religione potestis.
  • Rosc. A. 34 cupio tibi aliqua ex parte, quod salva fide (with a clear conscience) possim, parcere.
  • Clu. 46, 129 fidem suam et religionem pecunia commutare.
  • Phil. 2, 44, 114 satis in ipsa conscientia pulcherrimi facti fructus erat.

I swear on soul and conscience, ex animi mei sententia iuro.


Conscius, knowing something with another, privy to, either as witness or accomplice; conscius sibi, knowing something in oneself = self-knowledge. Mens conscia sibi recti, a mind conscious of rectitude. The thing of which one is conscious is put in gen. or dat. (gen. usually), or in a dependent clause. He was privy to the conspiracy, coniurationis or coniurationi conscius fuit; I am conscious of no fault, conscius mihi sum nullius culpae; I am conscious of having done my duty, conscius mihi sum me officium praestitisse; I am conscious of my great indebtedness to you in this matter, mihi conscius sum quantum hac in re tibi debeam.

  • Sall. C. 37 qui conscii coniurationis fuerant.
  • Caes. 1, 14, 2 si alicuius iniuriae sibi conscius fuisset.
  • Clu. 22 Fabricium conscium malefici condemnarant.
  • Cael. 22 nemo testis, nemo conscius nominatur.
  • Cael. 21 huic facinori tanto tua mens liberalis conscia esse non debuit.
  • Clu. 20 Fabricium quem conscium illi facinori fuisse arbitrabatur reum statim fecit.
  • Fam. 11, 28 conscius mihi eram nihil a me commissum esse quod boni cuiusquam offenderet animum (which could offend the susceptibilities of a loyal citizen).
  • L. 42, 42 conscius mihi sum nihil me scientem deliquisse.


Consul, a consul; vir consularis, a man of consular rank (i.e., one who has been consul); consul designatus, a consul designate, i.e., a consul during the interval between his election and his entering on office.

  • Sall. C. 18 Tullo et Lepido consulibus, Autronius et Sulla designati consules legibus ambitus interrogati poenas dederunt (in the consulship of Tullus and Lepidus, Autronius and Sulla, the consuls-elect, were tried and punished under the bribery laws).
  • L. 22, 53, 4 P. Furius Philus, consularis viri filius.
  • L. 5, 39 senes triumphales consularesque (old men who had been honoured with triumphs, and consulares).


Consulo te, I consult you; consulo tibi, I consult (safeguard) your interests (not I give advice to you); consulo de aliquo or in aliquem, I take measures in behalf of, or against one. He consulted the senate, senatum consuluit; he provided for the safety of the senate, senatui consuluit; the king was consulted, rex consultus est; the king’s wishes were consulted, regis voluntati consultum est; I was never consulted, numquam consultus sum; my interests were never consulted, numquam mihi consultum est.

  • L. 8, 13, 18 nostrum fuit efficere, ut omnium rerum vobis ad consulendum potestas esset.
  • Fam. 9, 26 te consulo qui philosophum audis (I ask advice of you who are attending a philosopher’s lectures).
  • Fam. 7, 13 puto te malle a Caesare consuli quam inaurari (I think you would rather be consulted by Caesar than gilded with gold).
  • Caes. 7, 50 vos, data facultate, vobis consulite.
  • Att. 7, 13 aliter mihi de illis ac de me ipso consulendum est.

Consult (intransitive) = consultare or deliberare, rarely consulere.

  • L. 3, 38 decemviri consultant quid opus facto sit.
  • Caes. 5, 53 omnes fere Galliae civitates de bello consultabant.
  • Fin. 2, 34 cum cupiditate, id est, cum animi levissima parte deliberat (he takes counsel with his passions, that is, with the most irrational part of his soul).

To consult the Sibylline books, libros Sibyllinos adire or inspicere.

  • L. 5, 13 libri Sibyllini ex senatus consulto aditi sunt.
  • L. 7, 27 pestilentia coegit senatum imperare decemviris ut libros Sibyllinos inspicerent.


Satis habere is constructed with an infinitive, contentum esse with an ablative. He was content with saying, satis habuit dicere; he was content with the book, libro contentus fuit.

  • Caes. 1, 15 Caesar satis habebat hostem rapinis prohibere.
  • Rosc. A. 52 si non satis habet avaritiam suam pecunia explere.
  • Att. 12, 19 parvo contentus esse possum.
  • N. Ag. 7 domo eadem fuit contentus, qua Eurysthenes fuerat usus (fuerat usus = antecedent state in past time).


Continuare implies unbroken continuity = not to interrupt. Continue in the sense of pursue or persevere in = persequi, pergere, perseverare. He continued his journey, iter continuavit, i.e., without halting; he continued the war, bellum continuavit, i.e., without cessation; he continued the (interrupted) war, bellum persecutus est; continue to act as you have begun, perge facere, ut coepisti.

  • Caes. C. 3, 36 Cassius diem ac noctem continuato itinere ad eum pervenit.
  • Sall. I. 37, 2 P. Lucullus et L. Annius tribuni plebis resistentibus conlegis continuare magistratum nitebantur.
  • Fin. 1, 21 eas ergo artes persequeretur? (was he, then, to continue those studies?).
  • Caes. C. 3, 37 ille a vallo non discedere perseveravit.

Similarly continens, continenter, continuatio, but continuo = forthwith, immediately, i.e., one does a thing without letting any time intervene, and continuus = continens, except that it does not necessarily imply coherence.

  • L. 4, 22 continenti die ac nocte proelio ab sensu operis hostes avertebat.
  • Caes. 1, 26 ea tota nocte continenter ierunt (continuously all that night).
  • Caes. 3, 29 continuatione imbrium (by reason of the unbroken succession of showers).
  • Caes. 1, 48 dies continuos (not continentes) quinque suas copias traduxit (for five days running).
  • Rosc. A. 37, 105 soletis, cum aliquid huiusce modi audistis, continuo dicere (you are wont, when you hear anything of this sort, to say at once).
  • Att. 7, 15, 3 Formias me continuo recipere cogitabam.
  • Catull. 14, 14 libellum … misti, continuo ut die periret Saturnalibus optimo dierum.
  • Fin. 2, 8, 24 ex quo illud efficitur, qui bene cenent, omnis libenter cenare, qui libenter, non continuo bene.
  • Or. 1, 26 continuo consilium dimisit (at once dismissed the jury), simul ac me fractum ac debilitatum metu vidit.


Locare, to give a contract for, to hire or farm out; conducere or redimere, to take a contract for, to hire or farm. He gave a contract for a bridge over the Clyde, pontem in Clutha faciendum locavit; he undertook a contract for a bridge over the Clyde, pontem in Clutha faciendum conduxit.

  • L. 10, 46 reliquo aere aedem Fortis Fortunae faciendam locavit.
  • Att. 4, 2, 5 consules porticum Catuli restituendam locarunt.
  • Rosc. A. 20 anseribus cibaria publice locantur (the feeding of the (sacred) geese is farmed out at the public expense).
  • Inv. 1, 30 si Rhodiis turpe non est portorium locare, ne Hermocreonti quidem turpe est conducere (if it is not unbecoming in the Rhodians to let the port dues, neither is it unbecoming in Hermocreon to farm them).
  • L. 27, 10 cetero auro usi sunt ad vestimenta praesenti pecunia locanda exercitui (they employed the balance towards providing ready money for clothing the army).
  • Div. 2, 21 columnam conduxerat faciendam (he had taken a contract for the erection of a pillar).
  • Cael. 7 conduxit in Palatio non magno domum (he rented a cheap house on the Palatine).
  • Verr. 3, 40 arabat is agrum conductum in Segestano.
  • Hor. Ep. 1, 1, 77 pars hominum gestit conducere publica.
  • L. 23, 48, 11 cohortandosque, qui redempturis auxissent patrimonia, ut … conducerent … praebenda, quae ad exercitum Hispaniensem opus essent.


Temperare and moderari signify with the dative to control, check, e.g., irae, linguae, animo; with the accusative to regulate, govern.

  • L. 5, 45 vix temperavere animis quin extemplo impetum facerent.
  • L. 30, 20 vix lacrimis temperans dicitur legatorum verba audisse.
  • Q. F. 1, 1, 13 moderari vero et animo et orationi, cum sis iratus, aut etiam tacere, est non mediocris ingeni.
  • Part. Or. 5, 15 auditoris aures moderantur oratori prudenti et provido.
  • Tus. 1, 1 rem publicam melioribus temperaverunt et institutis et legibus.
  • Or. 2, 60 tempus dicendi prudentia et gravitate moderabimur.
  1. Moderari is sometimes found with the dative in the sense of “dominate,” “sway”.

    • Or. 16 quid tandem in causis existimandum est, quibus totis moderatur oratio? (which are wholly swayed by oratorical effect).
    • Sall. C. 51 tempus dies fortuna, cuius lubido gentibus moderatur (whose caprice rules the world).
  2. Temperare is construed with the dative in the sense of “to spare or deal gently with”. The ablative with “a” occurs in Caesar and Livy (not in Cicero).

    • Verr. 1, 59 te putet quisquam, cum ab Italia freto disiunctus esses, sociis temperasse?
    • Verr. 2, 6 si cuiquam ulla in re temperavit, ut vos quoque ei temperetis.
    • L. 6, 17 in quo ab sociis tamen temperaverant (and yet it was a point they had waived in the case of allies).


Frumentum, corn in grain, harvested corn; frumenta (pl.), corn in stalk, growing corn. Annona (from annus) denotes both the annual supply of corn (or other produce) and its regulated price.

  • Att. 5, 18 frumentum ex agris in loca tuta comportatur.
  • Caes. 1, 16 frumenta in agris matura non erant.
  • Caes. 1, 40 frumentum Sequanos subministrare, iamque esse in agris frumenta matura.
  • Caes. C. 3, 49 commeatus omni genere praeter frumentum abundabat; … cottidie maiorem spem maturitate frumentorum proponi videbant.
  • L. 25, 15 ad frumenta, quae iam in herbis erant, corrumpenda.
  • Div. 2, 27 annona cara est (the price of corn is high).
  • L. 2, 9 annonae in primis habita cura, et ad frumentum conparandum missi alii in Volscos alii Cumas.
  • Verr. 3, 92 sacerdos frumentum in cellam imperavit … Remissior aliquanto eius fuit aestimatio quam annona.


Patria, one’s native country [or town]; regio, a district or tract of country, including fields and cities; rus, the country, opposed to the town, used especially of the amenities of country life; cum homines rus eunt, when men retire to their country seats; agri, the country, like rus, in opposition to the town or (sometimes) village, the open country, the fields; rure meo, at my country house (Hor. ep. 1, 1 5, 17).

  • Tus. 5, 37 abesse patria miserum est.
  • Att. 3, 26 potius vita quam patria carebo.
  • Cat. 1, 7 patria, quae communis est omnium nostrum parens.
  • Caes. C. 3, 44 relinquebatur, ut quam latissimas regiones praesidiis teneret (his only alternative was to hold by garrisons as large an extent of country as he could).
  • L. 27, 42 Fulvium in Lucanos, ne regio ea sine praesidio esset, arcessierat.
  • Caes. C. 1, 17 Domitius ad Pompeium peritos regionum cum litteris mittit.
  • Or. 2, 6 Laelius et Scipio saepe rus ex urbe tamquam e vinculis evolaverunt.
  • Rosc. A. 46 habet animi relaxandi causa rus amoenum et suburbanum.
  • Q. F. 2, 3 homines ex agris arcessit.
  • L. 30, 7 inde delectus in urbe agrisque haberi coeptus.

Nostras, belonging to our country; vestras, belonging to your (or thy) country; cuias, belonging to what country.

  • Tus. 5, 32 an Scythes Anacharsis potuit pro nihilo pecuniam ducere; nostrates philosophi facere non potuerunt?
  • Tus. 5, 37 Socrates quidem cum rogaretur, cuiatem se esse diceret, mundanum, inquit (mundanum = acc. before infin.).


Popularis, but, in speaking of Romans, civis is generally used, popularis being applied to the popular or democratic party, opposed to the optimates, the aristocratic or conservative party; municeps, of the same municipium or free town.

  • Am. 5 cives potiores quam peregrini, propinqui quam alieni (fellow-countrymen are preferable to foreigners, relatives to strangers).
  • Sen. 7 Themistocles omnium civium perceperat nomina.
  • Cat. 1, 7 te metuunt omnes cives tui.
  • Att. 10, 1 ego vero Solonis, popularis tui, ut puto etiam mei, legem neglegam (Cicero had also lived at Athens).
  • L. 28, 15, 14 is cum magna popularium manu transfugit.
  • L. 2, 43 Fabio aliquanto plus negotii cum civibus quam cum hostibus fuit (Fabius had much more trouble with his countrymen than with the enemy).
  • Ac. 2, 37 at hoc Anaximandro, populari et sodali suo, non persuasit.
  • L. 27, 19 Numidam esse ait, Massivam populares vocare.
  • Brut. 70 Pontidius municeps noster multas privatas causas actitavit.


Consobrini (ae) = consororini (ae), strictly refers to children of two sisters, but is often used like our word “cousin”; patrueles, children of two brothers; amitini (ae), children of a brother and a sister; sobrini, children of consobrini, second cousins.

  • Clu. 5 post patris mortem nupsit A. Aurio Melino, consobrino suo (her mother’s sister’s son).
  • Or. 2, 1 cumque nos cum consobrinis nostris (mother’s sister’s sons), Aculeonis filiis, ea disceremus, quae Crasso placerent.
  • Off. 1, 17 sequuntur fratrum coniunctiones, post consobrinorum sobrinorumque (first and second cousins).
  • N. Att. 2, 1 Anicia, Pomponi consobrina, nupserat Servio.


Scelus, against law, a punishable offence; flagitium, against society, scandalous behaviour; facinus, a daring deed, if without an epithet, always used in a bad sense. Cf., Pl. Am. 161 Palmer. Crimen in classical Latin is not a crime, but a charge, or a foundation for a charge. Falsum crimen, a false charge; ubi est crimen? where is the foundation for a charge?

  • Verr. 5, 66 facinus est vincire civem Romanum, scelus verberare, prope parricidium necare (it is a daring act to bind a Roman citizen, a crime to beat him, almost a parricide to kill him).
  • Verr. 5, 44 id agit, ut semper superius suum facinus novo scelere vincat.
  • Cat. 1, 7 nullum aliquot iam annis facinus exstitit nisi per te, nullum flagitium sine te.
  • Cat. 1, 6 quod facinus a manibus umquam tuis, quod flagitium a toto corpore abfuit?
  • Fin. 2, 29, 95 vide, ne facinus facias, cum mori suadeas.
  • Sall. C. 2 praeclari facinoris famam quaerit (seeks the fame of some heroic deed).
  • Sall. C. 23 flagitiis atque facinoribus coopertus (covered with infamy and crime).
  • L. 40, 15 ea quae gloriae esse debent, in crimen vertis (a foundation for a charge).
  • L. 1, 51, 2 Tarquinius Turnum oblato falso crimine insontem oppressit (Tarquinius crushed Turnus, innocent as he was, by imputing a false charge).
  • Sest. 38 ubi est crimen? quid reprehenditis?
  • Verr. 5, 9 crimen sine accusatore, sententia sine consilio, damnatio sine defensione.

Peccatum is a general expression for any kind of wrongdoing; delictum is used of lighter offences, strictly a falling short of the standard of the law.

  • Mur. 30 at leve delictum est; omnia peccata sunt paria (but is only a light offence; all offences are equally heinous).
  • Mur. 30 fatetur aliquis se peccasse et eius delicti veniam petit?


The crown, literally = diadema or insigne regium; the crown, figuratively, sovereign power = regnum. He aspired to the crown, regnum appetebat.

  • Phil. 2, 34 tu diadema imponebas cum plangore populi (you attempted to place the crown on him amid the expressed indignation of the people).
  • Sest. 27 hunc Pompeius erexit atque insigne regium, quod ille de suo capite abiecerat, reposuit.
  • Am. 12 Gracchus regnum occupare conatus est, vel regnavit is quidem paucos menses.

Corona is seldom used in this sense. Ipse oratores ad me regnique coronam cum sceptro misit, he himself has sent me ambassadors with the royal crown and sceptre (Verg. A. 8, 505).


“Cui bono?” is the well-known test of Cassius Longinus (Consul, b.c. 127) for discovering the author of a secret crime, = to whom is it for a benefit? who is the gainer by it? cui being the person, and bono the thing. The phrase is often misquoted, as if cui agreed with bono = to what good end? what purpose does it serve?

  • Rosc. A. 30 L. Cassius ille identidem in causis quaerere solebat, cui bono fuisset.
  • Rosc. A. 5 accusant ii quibus occidi patrem Sex. Rosci bono fuit.


Consuetudo, custom, habit; mos, custom, regulation. Consuetudo has its foundation in unconscious inclination, mos in the conscious will. Custom is second nature, consuetudo (not mos) est altera natura; it was the custom (regulation) of this nation to burn the dead, huic genti mos erat mortuos cremare.

  • Tus. 2, 17 consuetudinis (not moris) magna vis est.
  • Fin. 5, 25 deinde consuetudine quasi alteram quandam naturam effici (that afterwards habit becomes a sort of second nature).
  • Brut. 60 ut est consuetudo dialogorum (as is natural in dialogues).
  • Rosc. A. 15 quod consuetudine patres faciunt, id quasi novum reprehendis (what fathers do from habit, you stigmatise as if it were a novelty).
  • Caes. 5, 41 non esse consuetudinem populi Romani ullam accipere ab hoste armato condicionem.
  • L. 5, 27 mos erat Faliscis eodem magistro liberorum et comite uti.
  • L. 26, 26, 5 M. Marcellus, cum Idibus Martiis consulatum iniisset, senatum eo die moris modo causa habuit.
  • Tus. 1, 45 magorum mos est non humare corpora suorum, nisi a feris sint ante laniata.
  • L. 5, 28 mos erat civitatis partam praedam dividere.

Consuetudo and mos or moris est are sometimes constructed with ut instead of the infinitive.

  • Caes. C. 1, 48 consuetudo eorum omnium est, ut sine utribus ad exercitum non eant.
  • Verr. 1, 26 negavit moris esse Graecorum, ut in convivio virorum accumberent mulieres (he said it was not the custom of the Greeks for women to be present as guests at a dinner-party of men).
  • Brut. 21 mos est hominum, ut nolint eundem pluribus rebus excellere.

Gerere morem alicui, to humour or oblige another, opposed to imponere (ponere) morem alicui, to lay down the law to another.

DAILY (adjective).

Diurnus, belonging to the day time, opposed to nocturnus, belonging to the night; cottidianus, repeated day by day. Diurnus metus, fear by day; cottidianus victus, daily bread.

  • Caes. 1, 38 huc Caesar magnis nocturnis diurnisque itineribus contendit.
  • Caes. 3, 17 quos spes praedandi ab agri cultura et cottidiano labore revocabat.
  • Att. 8, 14 non dubito quin tibi odiosae sint epistulae cottidianae.
  • Pl. Capt. 4, 2, 75 (855) proin tu tui cottidiani victi ventrem ad me adferas.

DAILY (adverb).

Cottidie, daily, in reference to the daily occurrence of the same thing. The sun rises daily, sol cottidie oritur. In dies, or in singulos dies, daily, when the thing referred to undergoes increase or diminution. He becomes stronger daily, validior in dies fit.

  • Att. 5, 7 cottidie vel potius in dies singulos breviores litteras ad te mitto.
  • Or. 3, 23 Valerius cottidie cantabat.
  • Sen. 13 omnia fiunt in dies mitiora.
  • Cat. 1, 2 crescit in dies singulos hostium numerus.
  • Top. 16, 62 vitium in dies crescit (vice increases every day).
  • L. 21, 11 interiora tuendo minorem in dies urbem Saguntini faciunt.


Dies is masculine when it is used of an actual day of twelve or of twenty-four hours, masculine or feminine (oftener feminine) in the sense of date or limit or point of time.

  • Caes. 1, 6 diem dicunt qua die (by which time) ad ripam Rhodani omnes conveniant; is dies erat a.d. v. Kal. Apr. [here “is” is attracted into the masculine from the later “diem” to avoid the absurdity of two genders in one sentence].
  • Fam. 13, 57, 1 ego in Ciliciam proficisci cogito circiter K. Mai. Ante eam diem M. Anneius ad me redeat oportet.
  • Att. 2, 11, 2 nos in Formiano esse volumus usque ad prid. Nonas Maias. Eo si ante eam diem non veneris, Romae te fortasse videbo.
  • L. 8, 7, 7 “visne igitur, dum dies ista venit, qua magno conatu exercitus moveatis, interea tu ipse congredi mecum?”
  • Verr. 4, 58, 130 id usque ad hanc diem integrum inviolatumque servatum est.
  • Att. 9, 6 ex ea die septentriones venti fuere (from that day the wind was from the north).
  • Caes. 7, 3 ubi ea dies venit (when the time came).
  • Att. 5, 5 ibi enim Pomptinum ad eam diem, quam tu scripsisti, exspectare consilium est.
  1. Days = time is tempus, not dies. In days of yore, antiquis temporibus. In our days, his temporibus, nostra memoria. Since the days of Augustus no emperor had been so good, post Augusti tempora nemo princeps tam bonus fuerat.

    • Brut. 7 Clisthenes multum ut temporibus illis valuit dicendo (Clisthenes had great powers of speaking for those days).
  2. Day after day, or from day to day, diem ex or de die, not ex or de die diem.

    • Caes. 1, 16 diem ex die ducere Aedui (diem = an adverbial accusative of time).
    • Att. 7, 26 diem ex die exspectabam, ut statuerem quid esset faciendum.
    • L. 25, 25 cum is diem de die differret.

Prima luce, at daybreak; ante lucem, before day or daybreak; lucet, it is day or daylight; lucebat, it was day. Si lucet, lucet; lucet autem; lucem igitur (if it is daylight, it is daylight; it is daylight, however; therefore it is daylight)—(Ac. 2, 30).


Biduum, not duo dies. A journey of two days, bidui iter. But alter follows unus in an enumeration. One day, two days, still more days, dies unus, alter, plures.

  • Quinct. 25 nemo est qui possit biduo aut summum triduo septingenta milia passuum ambulare.
  • Fam. 15, 4, 2 biduum Laodiciae fui.
  • Clu. 26 unus et alter dies intercesserat, cum res parum certa videbatur.
  • Verr. 2, 52 nonnumquam uno die longiorem mensem faciunt aut biduo (not altero).

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