Horae Latinae

Studies In Synonyms and Syntax, by Robert Ogelvie

For everybody eager to learn Latin, we proudly present Latinitium’s digital edition of Horae Latinae by Robert Ogelvie, originally published posthumously in 1901.

Here you will find almost 500 English words and expressions with detailed descriptions of how to best render them in Latin, and with copious quotes from classical authors illustrating the usage. It is thus an excellent complement to the English–Latin dictionary by Smith & Hall.

For more resources on Latin synonyms, see our blog post A guide to Dictionaries of Latin synonyms!

Tips, updates, and learning material.


a or an first (adverb) play
abandon first who if you please
about flee poet
abroad flow poetry
access to forget poisoned
accompany former—latter politics
of one’s own accord freedman as—as possible
accurate great friend poverty
accuse on the front power
accuser fruitful prejudice
across garden present
advocate general pretend
affirm grateful prevail on
African gratification prevent
after Greeks pride
afterwards grief priest
again happen prithee
age happiness promise
ago hasten proof
all but health prove
along the river hear province
also hear well publicly
altar heart quarrel
although high rather than
angry hither and thither really
animal hitherto refer
annual hold refuse
any one honour reign
Apennines hope relations
appeal horse remember
appear on horseback remove
apple host report
appoint a dictator hour represent
arm how resign office
arms however rest
army hunger the rest
as if return
as far as if not reward
as to ignorant rightly
as well as immortal river
assemble with impunity robber
assembly in an author Roman
assuredly indeed rose
attain influence royal
audience inhabit rule
author inhabitants rustic
baggage insanity safe
banker instead of same as
bargain international law I say
because invade I will not say
become inveigh against as they say
before is to be scarcely
before (adverb) joy sculpture
before (of place) judge seat
begin justice second
belief kill secretly
believe know seize
besides we know self
beware of know how sell
beyond Lacedaemonian serious
blame land services
blood last ship
bloodless too late shore
bloody lately shortly
in a book Latin show
books laugh sickness
both learn siege
both—and at least sight
bridge legislator silent
bring leisure sing
build lend six hundred
burn much less sloping
but letter smell
by in a letter soldier
canvassing liberty some
carry life some one
cattle light sometimes
cause lightning soul
cease like speak
certain likely speak against
character little staff
children how little statue
cold live stay
command long (adjective) step
commit long (adverb) storm (verb)
common for a long while strength
conceal no longer style
confess lose subjects
conscience love such
conscious lungs suitable
consul Macedonian sustain
consult magnanimity sword
content majesty take away
continue make a speech take up arms
contract man tempest
control how many territory
corn forced march than
country marriage thankfulness
fellow-countryman marry that of
cousin master the
crime mean theory
crown from memory this (that)
cui bono? in memory of three
custom mind throne
daily (adjective) modesty time
daily (adverb) money one time
day more at the same time
two days more than title
the dead more than once too
deal with many more towards
death morning trade
debt the morrow trader
defend mortal travel
deny most tributary
deserve multitude in triumph
despise name troops
despoil namely trust
die nation truth
different natural uncle
diligence necessity undertake
dislodge neck unjustly
divide new of us
doubt by night in vain
dream noble vote
dress nor wall
drink and not wander about
drunk do not want
drunkenness not even wanting
each not one water
each other not so very way
earthly not to say on the way
either—or nothing when (interrogative)
embark nothing but whenever
employed now where
enemy oath whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
enjoy obey whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
enough obstructionist which?
entreat obtain while
envy oh that! for a while
epidemic old age white
especially omit whoever
estate one why not?
even one of wisdom
ever one more with
everywhere only with one
for example not only not within
exception open without
exile openly witness
expect opinion word
expense or work at
express or not workman
extend orator world
face otherwise worse
fail our would be
famous own wound
fault palace wretch
favour passenger a year after
for fear paternal yes and no
feast people yesterday
few perhaps yield
how few persuade you
first (adjective) places younger
a or an how little
abandon live
about long (adjective)
abroad long (adverb)
access to for a long while
accompany no longer
of one’s own accord lose
accurate love
accuse lungs
accuser Macedonian
across magnanimity
advocate majesty
affirm make a speech
African man
after how many
afterwards forced march
again marriage
age marry
ago master
all but mean
along the river from memory
also in memory of
altar mind
although modesty
angry money
animal more
annual more than
any one more than once
Apennines many more
appeal morning
appear the morrow
apple mortal
appoint a dictator most
arm multitude
arms name
army namely
as nation
as far as natural
as to necessity
as well as neck
assemble new
assembly by night
assuredly noble
attain nor
audience and not
author do not
baggage not even
banker not one
bargain not so very
because not to say
become nothing
before nothing but
before (adverb) now
before (of place) oath
begin obey
belief obstructionist
believe obtain
besides oh that!
beware of old age
beyond omit
blame one
blood one of
bloodless one more
bloody only
in a book not only not
books open
both openly
both—and opinion
bridge or
bring or not
build orator
burn otherwise
but our
by own
canvassing palace
carry passenger
cattle paternal
cause people
cease perhaps
certain persuade
character places
children play
cold if you please
command poet
commit poetry
common poisoned
conceal politics
confess as—as possible
conscience poverty
conscious power
consul prejudice
consult present
content pretend
continue prevail on
contract prevent
control pride
corn priest
country prithee
fellow-countryman promise
cousin proof
crime prove
crown province
cui bono? publicly
custom quarrel
daily (adjective) rather than
daily (adverb) really
day refer
two days refuse
the dead reign
deal with relations
death remember
debt remove
defend report
deny represent
deserve resign office
despise rest
despoil the rest
die return
different reward
diligence rightly
dislodge river
divide robber
doubt Roman
dream rose
dress royal
drink rule
drunk rustic
drunkenness safe
each same as
each other I say
earthly I will not say
either—or as they say
embark scarcely
employed sculpture
enemy seat
enjoy second
enough secretly
entreat seize
envy self
epidemic sell
especially serious
estate services
even ship
ever shore
everywhere shortly
for example show
exception sickness
exile siege
expect sight
expense silent
express sing
extend six hundred
face sloping
fail smell
famous soldier
fault some
favour some one
for fear sometimes
feast soul
few speak
how few speak against
first (adjective) staff
first (adverb) statue
first who stay
flee step
flow storm (verb)
forget strength
former—latter style
freedman subjects
great friend such
on the front suitable
fruitful sustain
garden sword
general take away
grateful take up arms
gratification tempest
Greeks territory
grief than
happen thankfulness
happiness that of
hasten the
health theory
hear this (that)
hear well three
heart throne
high time
hither and thither one time
hitherto at the same time
hold title
honour too
hope towards
horse trade
on horseback trader
host travel
hour tributary
how in triumph
however troops
hunger trust
if truth
if not uncle
ignorant undertake
immortal unjustly
with impunity of us
in an author in vain
indeed vote
influence wall
inhabit wander about
inhabitants want
insanity wanting
instead of water
international law way
invade on the way
inveigh against when (interrogative)
is to be whenever
joy where
judge whether—or (disjunctive interrogation)
justice whether—or (disjunctive hypothesis)
kill which?
know while
we know for a while
know how white
Lacedaemonian whoever
land why not?
last wisdom
too late with
lately with one
Latin within
laugh without
learn witness
at least word
legislator work at
leisure workman
lend world
much less worse
letter would be
in a letter wound
liberty wretch
life a year after
light yes and no
lightning yesterday
like yield
likely you
little younger

A or AN.

When the indefinite article is toneless, it is usually untranslated in Latin. I bought a book, emi librum, i.e., an object of the class “book”; he was a good man, vir bonus fuit; he gave notice of a day for my trial, diem mihi dixit; a nobody, nemo (cf. quem tu neminem putas, Att. 7, 3, 8).

But there are many instances in which a or an must be translated by some Latin equivalent.

  1. By unus = one, as opposed to two, three, or more. He sold the book for a denar, librum uno denario vendidit; he drained the cup at a draught, poculum uno haustu ebibit; his head was cut off at a blow, caput ei uno ictu abscissum est; they were massacred to a man, omnes ad unum trucidati sunt.

    • Sull. 26 haec diu multumque quaesita una eripuit hora (these laborious acquisitions of many years were wrested from him in an hour).
    • Verr. 5, 45 ut uno ictu securis adferam mortem filio tuo, quid dabis?
    • L. 25, 39 circumventi caesique ad unum omnes sunt.

    The Latin numeral, rare with “annus,” must in certain constructions be attached to “dies” and “nox,” because dies is not only a day, but day or a period, and “nox” is night as well as a night. A day (a night) intervened, unus dies (una nox) intercessit. A day’s thanksgiving was decreed, supplicatio in unum diem decreta est (L. 40, 16). In diem = from day to day, regardless of the morrow. It is the characteristic of barbarians to live regardless of the future, barbarorum est in diem vivere (Or. 2, 40). But “in annum” can be employed without ambiguity. Consulibus prorogatum in annum imperium est (L. 25, 41). Here “in annum” as being the usual period is not opposed to two or more years. There are certain insects whose life consists of a day, quædam bestiolæ unum diem vivunt. Cf. Nemo est tam senex qui se annum non putet posse vivere (Sen. 7).

    So in or by a day, a night = uno die, una nocte, because die, nocte = by day, by night. The bridge was built in a day, pons uno die factus est. This long journey was accomplished in a night, hoc longum iter una nocte confectum est. Credibile non est quantum scribam die (in the day time) quin etiam noctibus (Att. 13, 26). But if dies and nox are conjoined the numeral is dispensed with. Negat ullum esse cibum tam gravem, quin is die ac nocte (in a day and a night) concoquatur (N. D. 2, 9). Incendio a foro Bovario orto, diem noctemque (a day and a night)* ædificia in Tiberim versa arsere (L. 35, 40). Not so, however, with a disjunctive conjunction; neque postea in ullo loco amplius uno die aut una nocte moratus (henceforth never staying in a place longer than a day or a night (Sall. I. 76)

    * Diem noctemque sometimes = dies noctesque, night and day, incessantly. Eandem incudem diem noctemque tundere, to hammer the same anvil night and day (Or. 2, 39).

    • L. 40, 22 ibi unum moratus diem ad deligendos quos duceret secum, tertio die iter est ingressus.
    • Cat. 1, 2 num unum diem postea L. Saturninum poena remorata est?
    • Caes. C. 3, 82, 2 unius esse negotium diei.
    • L. 25, 7, 9 horum prodigiorum causa diem unum supplicatio fuit: et per aliquot dies … .
    • Att. 13, 52, 2 Puteolis se aiebat unum diem fore, alterum ad Baias.
    • L. 27, 4, 15 supplicatio diem unum Romae ad omnia pulvinaria, alterum in Capenati agro ad Feroniae lucum indicta.
    • Verr. 3, 44, 106 tantum de quaestu ac lucro dicam unius anni et unius agri.
    • Verr. 2, 20 gener, lectus adulescens, unum annum tecum fuit (i.e., one year as opposed to two or three years).
    • L. 2, 7 matronæ annum Brutum luxerunt (the matrons mourned Brutus for a year = a whole year).
    • Div. 2, 43, 91 anno Procli vita brevior fuit.
    • L. 41, 28 exitu prope anni diem supplicatio fuit.
    • Fam. 10, 15 ponte uno die facto exercitum traduxi.
    • Verr. 2, 52 nonnumquam uno die longiorem mensem faciunt aut biduo (occasionally they make a month a day or two longer).
    • Verr. 2, 52 eximi iubet non diem ex mense, sed ex anno unum dimidiatumque mensem (here diem is sufficiently defined by the context; besides, non unum diem would mean more than one day).
    • L. 25, 39 ita nocte ac die bina castra hostium expugnata ductu L. Marci (thus in a day and a night two of the enemy’s camps were taken by storm under the leadership of Lucius Marcius).

    Alter is used instead of unus in reference to one of a pair; he was lame of a foot, altero pede claudus fuit; the horse was lame of a foot, equus uno pede claudus fuit; he was blind of an eye, altero oculo captus est; he lost a hand, alteram manum amisit.

    • N. Ag. 8 Agesilaus fuit claudus altero pede.
    • L. 22, 2 ipse Hannibal altero oculo capitur.
  2. By is = such. He was of an age that he could be trusted, ea ætate fuit ut ei credi posset. Alexander was of an ambition that nothing could satisfy, Alexander eius ambitionis fuit, quam nihil explere posset.

    • N. Alc. 5 Alcibiades erat ea sagacitate, ut decipi non posset.
    • Flacc. 26 Athenæ urbs vetustate ea est ut ipsa ex sese suos cives genuisse dicatur (the city of Athens is of an antiquity that it is said to have given birth to its citizens itself).
    • Phil. 1, 4 turpe mihi ipsi videbatur in eam urbem me audere reverti, ex qua Brutus cederet (I even thought it a shame that I should venture to return to a city from which Brutus was retiring). Cf. Fam. 16, 12, 1.
    • Mil. 25, 67 te iam appello et ea voce ut me exaudire possis.
    • Cat. 4, 11, 24 habetis eum consulem, qui parere non dubitet (you have a consul who would not hesitate to obey).
  3. By quidam, a certain one, aliquis, some one, and ullus any one (negatively). An acquaintance of mine, quidam mihi notus; a relation of yours, quidam propinquus tuus. A soldier of the legion lay dying, quidam miles legionarius (or quidam ex militibus legionariis) moriens iacebat. The definition of a thing should be clear and short, definitio alicuius rei dilucida et brevis esse debet. He went away without saying a word, abiit nec verbum ullum fecit.

    • Caes. 1, 42 quidam ex militibus decimæ legionis (a soldier of the tenth legion).
    • Verr. 4, 18 respondit se illa Melitae apud quendam propinquum suum reliquisse.
    • Att. 16, 8 misit ad me Cæcinam quendam Volaterranum, familiarem suum (one Cæcina of Volaterræ, an intimate friend of his).
    • Att. 6, 3, 6 Gavius est quidam.
    • Off. 1, 27 est enim quiddam, idque intellegitur in omni virtute quod deceat (there is in fact a something which is becoming, and it is contained in the very notion of all virtue).
    • Or. 11 existimavi in omnibus rebus esse aliquid optimum (a best).
    • Inv. 2, 51 definitio est cum in scripto verbum aliquod est positum, cuius de vi quæritur.
    • Or. 2, 74 sæpe aliqui testis aut non lædit, aut minus lædit nisi lacessatur (often a witness does no damage, or does less, if he be not provoked).
    • Att. 12, 19 cogito interdum trans Tiberim hortos aliquos parare (I sometimes think of purchasing an estate on the other side of the Tiber).
    • Fam. 9, 14, 2 habere aliquem in consiliis capiendis Nestorem.
    • Verr. 5, 11, 27 cum ad aliquod oppidum venerat.
    • Verr. 4, 21, 47 simul atque in oppidum quoppiam venerat.
    • Caecil. 16 suadebit tibi, ut hinc discedas neque verbum ullum respondeas.
    • Caes. C. 2, 9 ita tuto ac sine ullo vulnere sex tabulata exstruxerunt.
  4. By a distributive numeral, = the proportion of one thing to another (in, to, or for each). He gave them a book each, singulos libros eis dedit. Three acres a man were allotted to the common people, terna iugera agri plebi dividebantur.

    • Fam. 7, 1 reliquæ sunt venationes binæ per dies quinque (wild beast baiting twice a day for five days).
    • L. 30, 30 (Scipio et Hannibal) cum singulis interpretibus congressi sunt (each with an interpreter).
    • L. 40, 34 aeris trecenos militibus divisit (three hundred asses a man).
    • Caes. 7, 4 singulis effossis oculis domum remittit, ut sint reliquis documento (he sends them home each with an eye put out, that they might be for an example to the rest).
    • N. D. 2, 40 sol binas in singulis annis reversiones facit (the sun makes two turns in the course of a year).

The article is prefixed to proper names connotatively with reference to the qualities of the individuals, or figuratively as the type of a class.

Poland had a Kosciusko, Poloni Kosciuskum habuerunt; Rome has a Hannibal of her own, Romani suum Hannibalem habent (L. 27, 16).

Not worth (they said) a place among the plate of a Verres, non dignum quod in suo argento Verres haberet (Verr. 4, 14).

A Schiller = a man like Schiller, a second Schiller, alter Schillerus; a Daniel come to judgment, aye a Daniel, ecce alter Daniel, qui iudicet, exsistit, plane alter Daniel; he boasts among his friends that he will be a Sulla, se alterum fore Sullam inter suos gloriatur (Caes. C. 1, 4).

A Cato = men like Cato, Catones; a Paulus, a Cato, a Gallus, a Scipio, a Philus, Pauli, Catones, Galli, Scipiones, Phili (Am. 6). There was at the same time a Gnaeus Piso, a young man of good birth, erat eodem tempore Cn. Piso, adulescens nobilis (Sall. C. 18); there is a Lucius Manlius Sosis, L. Manlius est Sosis (Fam. 13, 30); there was a Gaius Sulpicius Olympus, C. Sulpicius Olympus fuit (Verr. 1, 48).

  • Sen. 9, 28 oratio, quam si ipse exsequi nequeas, possis tamen Scipioni praecipere et Laelio.


Relinquere, to abandon, in the neutral sense of leaving behind; deserere and destituere, with moral reference, as a dereliction of duty; deserere, to expose to possible danger; destituere, to expose to threatening danger, to leave in the lurch.

  • Verr. 4, 28 iubet illos discedere et candelabrum relinquere.
  • L. 1, 29 prae metu obliti sunt, quid relinquerent, quid secum ferrent.
  • L. 4, 51 sublatis rebus nocte oppidum reliquerunt.
  • L. 5, 53 non enim reliquisse victores, sed amisisse victi patriam videbimur.
  • Tus. 5, 41, 118 sic iniurias fortunae, quas ferre nequeas, defugiendo relinquas.
  • N. D. 2, 51, 129 pisces, ut aiunt, ova cum genuerunt, relinquunt.
  • L. 10, 12, 5 Etrusci silentio noctis castra reliquerunt.
  • Phil. 2, 46 defendi rem publicam adulescens, non deseram senex.
  • Fin. 1, 4 non ego deseruisse videor praesidium in quo a populo Romano locatus sum.
  • Phil. 2, 38 quid? eundem in septemviratu nonne destituisti? (left in the lurch).
  • Caes. 1, 16 multo etiam gravius, quod sit destitutus, queritur.
  • L. 6, 17 deinde in ipso discrimine periculi destituat (then desert them at the critical moment).


Circiter is used with a specified number, sub with a general expression. About five o’clock, circiter hora undecima; about two years after, circiter duobus post annis; about the close of the year, sub exitum anni; about daybreak, sub lucem; about nightfall, sub noctem; about cockcrow, sub galli cantum. Sub = just before, or just after.

  • Caes. 4, 23 ipse hora diei circiter quarta cum primis navibus Britanniam attigit.
  • Sall. I. 68 circiter hora tertia pervenit in quandam planitiem.
  • Fam. 13, 57 ego in Ciliciam proficisci cogito circiter Kal. Mai. (about the first of May).
  • Fam. 3, 5 circiter Idus Sextiles puto me ad Iconium fore (about the 13th August I think I shall be in the neighbourhood of Iconium).
  • Caes. C. 1, 28 Pompeius sub noctem naves solvit.
  • Caes. 2, 33 sub vesperum Caesar portas claudi iussit.
  • L. 7, 31, 5 sub haec dicta omnes, manus ad consules tendentes, pleni lacrimarum in vestibulo curiae procubuerunt.

Circiter is chiefly used of number. Dies circiter quindecim iter fecerunt, they marched for about fifteen days (Caes. 1, 15).

Ad, about, up to the number of (= fere) is often used adverbially (not in Cicero). L. 10, 17 ad duo milia et trecenti occisi. L. 22, 41 ad mille et septingenti caesi. L. 22, 50 in maiora castra ad sescentos evaserunt. L. 10, 33 periere ad septingentos triginta. Caes, 2, 33, 5 occisis ad hominum milibus IV reliqui in oppidum reiecti sunt. [Note that unless the milia precedes, in a number, the ad is used as a preposition with the accus., not as an adverb, cf. von Wölfflin on L. 22, 41, 2.]


Foris est, he is outside; foras exiit, he has gone outside; foris venit, he came from outside. Foris (not foras) cenat, he dines out = Fr. en ville; librum foras dedit, he gave a book to the world = librum edidit or protulit. Peregre answers to all the questions of place. Peregre est, he is abroad; peregre ivit, he went abroad; peregre rediit, he returned from abroad. Cf. procul, Plaut. Mil. 357 [and the note in Brix-Niemeyer’s Pl. Capt., 173].

  • Q. F. 2, 6 foris valde plauditur (in the world outside = a populo).
  • L. 2, 31 pax foris parta est, domi impeditur.
  • L. 26, 46 porta intus forisque pariter refringi coepta.
  • Ter. Phor. 2, 1, 78 (308) DE. Antipho ubi nunc est? GE. Foris.
  • Sall. C. 20, 13 est domi inopia, foris aes alienum.
  • L. 7, 21, 9 foris tranquilla omnia fuere.
  • Pl. Mil. 5, 1 (1394) si non sequitur, rapite sublimem foras.
  • Pl. Men. 1, 2, 17 (124) aliquo ad cenam condicam foras.
  • L. 1, 40 ambo se foras eiciunt.
  • Ter. Eu. 4, 4, 1 exi foras, sceleste (get out with you, you scoundrel).
  • Att. 13, 22 scripta nostra malo tum foras dari, cum utrique nostrum videbitur.
  • Or. 2, 40 foris adsumuntur ea.
  • Tus. 3, 3 auxilium non petendum est foris.
  • Ter. Phor. 2, 1, 13 (243) peregre rediens semper cogitet.

“Foris” and “foras” are the ablative and accusative of an obsolete nominative “forae,” doors or openings. Foris = Fr. hors, deforis = Fr. dehors.


Mihi aditus est (patet), there is access to me, subjectively, i.e., I can approach; ad me aditus est (patet), there is access to me, objectively, i.e., I can be approached.

  • Caes. 2, 15 reperiebat nullum aditum esse ad eos mercatoribus.
  • Verr. 4, 45 aditus enim in id sacrarium non est viris.
  • Mur. 8 aditus ad consulatum non magis nobilitati quam virtuti patet.


Comitari, in a general sense, prosequi, deducere, and reducere, to escort “honoris causa,” deducere and reducere with accessory reference to the “terminus a quo” and “ad quem,” deducere, usually from home to the curia or elsewhere, reducere, back to home.

  • Cat. 2, 2 Catilina parum comitatus ex urbe exiit. (“Comitatus” used, like the perfect participle of several other deponent verbs, in a passive sense.)
  • Sen. 18 haec enim ipsa sunt honorabilia, salutari, appeti, decedi, assurgi, deduci, reduci, consuli (for these very things are marks of honour, to be greeted, courted, made way for, received by persons standing, escorted from and to home, consulted).
  • Fam. 10, 12 magna multitudo optimorum civium me domo deducebat.
  • Ac. 1, 1 satis eum longo intervallo ad suam villam reduximus.
  • N. D. 2, 52 tum volatus eorum matres prosequuntur.
  • Cat. 1, 8 eosdem facile adducam, ut te haec, quae iam pridem vastare studes, relinquentem, usque ad portas prosequantur (just as voluntary exiles were accompanied by relations and friends out of the city).
  • Cat. 2, 1 ipsum egredientem verbis prosecuti sumus (we have accompanied him with words, i.e., wished him God-speed).
  • Clu. 71 mater exsequias illius funeris prosecuta est.


Sua sponte, without extraneous aid or influence, used also of things; voluntate (sua), without compulsion or fear. Ultro involves the notion of going beyond = beyond or contrary to expectation, actually, even. Petere ultro = not only to act on the offensive, but to attack; compellare ultro = not only to answer, but to take the initiative and speak first. Sponte must be accompanied by a possessive pronoun, which almost always precedes, e.g., vestra sponte, rarely sponte vestra.

  • Sen. 19 sua sponte nulla adhibita vi consumptus ignis exstinguitur.
  • Pis. 15 id, nullo rogante, vos vestra sponte fecistis.
  • Att. 15, 27 gaudeo id te mihi suadere, quod ego mea sponte pridie feceram.
  • Sest. 47 ipsi etiam sponte sua contra rem publicam incitantur.
  • Fin. 2, 20 Regulus sua voluntate, nulla vi coactus praeter fidem quam dederat hosti, Carthaginem revertit.
  • Lig. 3 nulla vi coactus iudicio ac voluntate profectus sum.
  • L. 40, 49 populi alii voluntate, alii metu iugum accipiebant.
  • Fam. 4, 13 nec mihi quicquam in mentem venit optare, quod non ultro mihi Caesar detulerit.
  • Phil. 2, 1 tu ne verbo quidem violatus ultro me maledictis lacessisti.
  • Planc. 10 ultro mehercule se mihi etiam offerentes, ultro pollicentes rogavi.
  • Verg. A. 2, 145 his lacrimis vitam damus, et miserescimus ultro (at these his tears we grant him life and our pity to boot).
  • Ter. A. 100 Chremes ultro ad me venit (Chremes actually came to me).
  • Ter. Phor. 360 etiam me ultro accusatum advenit.


Accuratus is used only of things, = executed with care; an accurate or painstaking man = homo diligens, or religiosus.

  • Brut. 95 oratio accurata et polita.
  • Att. 13, 45 accuratissimae litterae (i.e., a letter in which everything was written out with the utmost care).
  • Att. 5, 11, 6 scripsi ad eum accurate.
  • Ac. 2, 63 Luculli oratio … quae est habita memoriter, accurate, copiose.
  • Brut. 15 diligentissimus investigator antiquitatis.
  • Att. 6, 1, 18 Duris Samius, homo in historia diligens.
  • Brut. 11 quem (Atticum) rerum Romanarum auctorem laudare possum religiosissimum.
  1. Accuratus is used only of what is done cum cura, hence we say, not “doctrina” or “scientia accurata,” but “exquisita,” “singularis,” “interior,” “subtilis,” or “elegans”.

  2. Similarly we say “accurate loqui, disputare, scribere”; but not “accurate scire” for “exploratum habere,” nor “accurate nosse” for “penitus,” “plane,” “recte,” or “optime,” nor “accuratius videre” for “diligentius”.


Accusare, to attribute, to lay to the charge of a person or a thing, to accuse formally before a judge, (then) generally to lay to one’s charge; arguere, to accuse whether in court or not, always implies that the arguens seeks by evidence to establish the truth of his accusation = to try to prove guilty (ἐλέγχειν); incusare, to accuse informally, to make a complaint out of court, to find fault with; insimulare, to accuse on suspicion, to accuse falsely, to slander; criminari, to accuse with malicious intention, to traduce; deferre nomen, to accuse or impeach before the praetor or other magistrate, who, if he allowed the action, appointed a “iudex,” and named a day for the trial of the “reus” or party accused. The proceedings before the praetor were said to be “in iure,” those before the iudex “in iudicio”. He got notice of a day for his trial on a charge of treachery, dies ei dicta est proditionis.

  • Mur. 32 quid accusas, Cato? quid affers in iudicium? quid arguis?
  • Caecil. 9 cognosce ex me quam multa esse oporteat in eo, qui alterum accuset (let me tell you how many qualities a man should possess who ventures to conduct a criminal charge against another).
  • L. 40, 24 Demetrium iterum ad patrem accusavit Perseus.
  • N. Mil. 7 accusatus ergo proditionis (he was therefore brought to trial on a charge of treason).
  • Rosc. A. 41 servos ipsos neque arguo neque purgo.
  • Sen. 5 nihil habeo quod incusem senectutem (I have no fault to find with old age).
  • Phil. 2, 38 probri insimulasti pudicissimam feminam.
  • Verr. 4, 45 dat hospiti suo cuidam negotium, ut aliquem reperiret, quem illud fecisse insimularet.
  • Mil. 5 tribunus plebis cotidie meam potentiam invidiose criminabatur.
  • Mur. 30 dixi in senatu me nomen consularis candidati delaturum (I said in the senate that I would impeach a consular candidate).
  • Verr. 4, 45 servi cuiusdam nomen defertur; is accusatur; ficti testes in eum dantur.
  • Or. 1, 11 in iure aut in iudiciis (before a praetor or before juries).
  • Clu. 7 ut neque accusator timere neque reus sperare debuerit (that the accuser had as little ground for fear as the accused had for hope).

Reus was originally used of both parties in a law-suit, but was afterwards restricted to the defendant. Reos appello non eos modo qui arguuntur, sed omnes, quorum de re disceptatur; sic enim olim loquebantur (Or. 2, 43).


Accusator (κατήγορος), in a criminal charge, petitor, in a civil suit (causa privata).

  • Quinct. 13 possumus petitoris personam capere, accusatoris deponere? (may we assume the character of a plaintiff and abandon that of (a criminal) accuser?)
  • Rosc. A. 20 accusatores multos esse in civitate utile est, ut metu contineatur audacia (it is an advantage to have a number of prosecutors in a state that reckless conduct may be restrained by fear).


Trans, across, on the other side; per, across, from side to side, not necessarily through the centre, but “in flumine” is used of a bridge across a river. Across (beyond) the Tiber, trans Tiberim; across the wood, per silvam, i.e., from one side to the other: he built a wall across the island, murum per insulam transversum duxit; he built a bridge across the Hellespont, pontem in Hellesponto aedificavit (fecit); the bridge across the Hellespont, pons Hellesponti.

  • L. 39, 30 trans fluvium in colle hostium castra erant.
  • Caes. 1, 13 pontem in Arari faciendum curat (he has a bridge built across the Arar).
  • Caes. 2, 5 in eo flumine pons erat.
  • Caes. C. 1, 62 pons in Ibero prope effectus erat (the bridge across the Ebro was nearly finished).
  • L. 7, 9 Galli ad tertium lapidem Salaria via trans pontem Anienis castra habuere (at the further side of the bridge across the Anio).
  • Tac. H. 4, 66 fretus loco, quia pontem Mosae fluminis anteceperat.
  • Caes. 5, 37 pauci incertis itineribus per silvas in hiberna perveniunt.

He threw a bridge across the Ebro, pontem in Ibero fecit; he threw his forces across the Ebro, Iberum copias traiecit; he leads the cavalry across the bridge, equitatum pontem transducit; the Belgae cross the Rhine, Belgae Rhenum transducuntur (or transeunt).


Patronus (originally opposed to cliens), an advocate or pleader who undertakes to manage one’s cause in a court of justice; advocatus, any one who by his presence or advice aids another in the conduct of a suit or action, especially the iuris consultus who supplied advice to the patronus or pleader on recondite points of law.

  • Fam. 2, 14 novi ego vos magnos patronos: hominem occidat oportet qui vestra opera uti velit (I know the ways of you great guns; a man must commit murder if he would wish the benefit of your assistance).
  • Rosc. A. 2 his de causis ego huic causae patronus exstiti.
  • Cluent. 40 quis eum umquam non modo in patroni, sed in laudatoris aut advocati loco viderat?
  • Brut. 27, 106 hic optimus illis temporibus est patronus habitus (he was reported to be the best advocate of his day).
  • Phil. 1, 7 vellem adesset M. Antonius, modo sine advocatis (here advocati = armed soldiers).
  • L. 3, 47 Verginius sordidatus filiam suam cum ingenti advocatione in forum deducit.
  • Or. 2, 74 orat reus, urgent advocati, ut invehamur, ut male dicamus, denique ut interrogemus (my client beseeches me, his supporters press me, to try invective or abuse or finally cross-examination).
  • L. 6, 19 ex advocatis iudices facti erunt (instead of supporters shall become judges).


Adfirmare, to afirm, to assert in words; confirmare, to strengthen a previous assertion or resolve in any way, as by oath or by law.

  • Att. 4, 18, 4 (16, 12) Cato adfirmat se vivo illum non triumphaturum.
  • Div. 2, 3 dicendum mihi est ita, nihil ut adfirmem, quaeram omnia dubitans plerumque.
  • Or. 2, 19 iubent nostra confirmare argumentis ac rationibus, deinde contraria refutare.
  • Tus. 1, 16 hanc opinionem discipulus eius Pythagoras maxime confirmavit.
  • Caes. 1, 3 in tertium annum profectionem lege confirmant.
  • Caes. 5, 27, 10 illud se polliceri et iure iurando confirmare.


Afer, an African by birth, e.g., P. Terentius Afer; Africus, belonging to Africa, e.g., Africus (ventus); Africanus, belonging to Romans or outsiders in some way connected with Africa, e.g., Scipio Africanus. Bellum Africum = a war waged between one set of Africans and another, or between Africans and Romans; bellum Africanum = a war waged in Africa between one set of Romans and another. [Both adjectives can be equally applied to that part of the civil war (between Caesar and the Pompeians), which took place in Africa, because Africans took part in the contest as well as Romans; cf. Hirt. B. G. pr. 8 with Caes. C. 2, 32, 13.]

  • L. 27, 19 Afros vendere quaestorem iussit.
  • L. 21, 1 perfecto Africo bello (= risings in Africa).
  • Deiot. 9 secutum bellum est Africanum (= the war of Caesar with the partisans of Pompey).
  • Q. F. 1, 1, 27 quodsi te sors Afris aut Hispanis aut Gallis praefecisset (but if fortune had placed you over Africa or Spain or Gaul).


Post quam and postea quam (the latter commoner in Cicero) always take the indicative, usually the perfect and historic present; when they go with the subjunctive, it is for some collateral reason.

  • Verr. 2, 38 quem postea quam videt non adesse, dolore ardere coepit.
  • Att. 2, 11 plane relegatus mihi videor, postea quam (since) in Formiano sum.
  • N. Them. 6 post quam audierunt muros strui, legatos Athenas miserunt.
  • Caes. 1, 27 eo post quam Caesar pervenit, obsides poposcit (after Caesar had arrived there, he demanded hostages).
  • R. P. 2, 10 centum et octo annis post quam Lycurgus leges scribere instituit.
  • Sen. 12 invitus feci ut Flamininum e senatu eicerem septem annis post quam consul fuisset (fuisset instead of fuerat by the attraction of eicerem).
  1. The imperfect and pluperfect are less common, the former denoting a continued, the latter a resulting, state. The pluperfect is the regular (not the invariable) tense where the exact measure of time is given; it is not found in Caesar or Horace, and is limited to one example in Vergil.

    The imperfect and pluperfect are almost unknown in archaic Latin.

    • L. 1, 23 post quam structi utrimque stabant, in medium duces procedunt.
    • L. 25, 10, 6 postquam lux certior erat, tum Hannibal … iubet.
    • L. 25, 33 postquam socii … poterant, … cedere statuit.
    • Caes. C. 3, 60 post quam id difficilius visum est neque facultas perficiendi dabatur, ad Pompeium transierunt.
    • Verr. 4, 24 postea quam tantam multitudinem collegerat (= collectam habuit) emblematum, instituit officinam (after he had got together such a number of figures, he set up shop).
    • Caecil. 21 Africanus, postea quam bis consul fuerat (= consularis fuit), Cottam in iudicium vocabat (Africanus, after he had been twice consul (i.e., was a man of consular rank), proceeded to impeach Cotta).
    • Mil. 16 post diem tertium gesta res est, quam dixerat.
    • L. 25, 36 anno octavo post quam venerat est interfectus.
  2. Post is often omitted after an ablative of time, always after postero die, postridie.

    • L. 6, 29 die vicensimo quam creatus erat dictatura se abdicavit.
    • N. Ar. 1 post quam Xerxes in Graeciam descendit, sexto fere anno quam erat expulsus, in patriam restitutus est.
    • Or. 2, 3 postero die, quam illa erant acta, repente Catulus venit.
    • Fam. 14, 7 postridie intellexi, quam a vobis discessi.
  3. Post quam is regularly used of an actual, not of a contemplated, event. I will write to you after I reach Rome, Romam cum venero, scribam ad te.

    • Att. 9, 15 eum cum videro, Arpinum pergam (after I see him I will proceed to Arpinum).
  4. “After” as a transitional particle = now that, is usually rendered by quoniam, never by post quam.

    • Pomp. 8 quoniam de genere belli dixi, nunc de magnitudine pauca dicam (after speaking of the kind of war, I will now say a few words about its magnitude).
    • Off. 2, 21 sed, quoniam de eo genere beneficiorum dictum est, quae ad singulos spectant, deinceps de eis, quae ad universos pertinent, disputandum est.


Post or postea, afterwards; posthac or post hoc tempus (not post hoc), after this, the present time of the speaker being the starting point, accentuates the point of departure = beginning a new chapter, or turning over a new leaf. Docebo Rullum posthac tacere, I will teach Rullus to hold his tongue after this.

  • Ac. 1, 8, 32 Reid post argumentis quibusdam et rerum notis quasi ducibus utebantur.
  • Rosc. A. 30 de Capitone post viderimus.
  • Phil. 2, 42 quid evenerit postea, nescio.
  • Cat. 3, 12 vobis erit videndum qua condicione posthac eos esse velitis.
  • Att. 5, 21 sed posthac omnia, quae recta non erunt, pro certo negato.
  • Att. 4, 18, 3 (16, 11) sed omnes absolventur, nec posthac quisquam damnabitur, nisi qui hominem occiderit.
  • Brut. 11 ego cautius posthac historiam adtingam te audiente.
  • Fam. 7, 26 posthac igitur erimus cautiores.
  • Att. 1, 6, 1 non committam posthac, ut me accusare … possis.
  • Verg. E. 1, 75 non ego vos posthac … videbo.

Post, rarely postea, is used of a definite interval. Soon after, paulo post; two days after, biduo post. Clu. 47 “paucis postea mensibus”. R. P. 2, 35, 60 annis postea XX ex eo, quod …


Iterum, again, a second time; rursus, again, once more, twice, thrice, or any number of times. [The original difference may be expressed thus: If a man has travelled from a place A to a place B, a second journey from A to B is expressed by iterum, but a journey from B to A by rursus (= re-uorsus).] Iterum consul, twice consul, said of one who is in his second consulship, or about to enter on it, as he may be “consul designatus,” consul designate. Bis consul, twice consul, said of one who has been twice consul, but who is consul no longer. As large again, twice as large, altero tanto maior. England is twice as large as Scotland, Anglia altero tanto maior est quam Scotia.

  • Div. 2, 59 nonnumquam etiam iterum atque tertium.
  • Rosc. A. 22 iterum ac tertio Chrysogonum nominavi.
  • Brut. 18 Livianae fabulae non satis dignae quae iterum legantur (Livy’s plays are not well worth a second perusal).
  • L. 2, 28 prius itaque quam ultima experirentur, senatum iterum consulere placuit.
  • Sall. I. 97 rursus, uti antea, proximos eius donis corrupit.
  • Mur. 7 facis ut rursus plebs in Aventinum sevocanda esse videatur.
  • Ac. 2, 13 quae cum dixisset, sic rursus exorsus est.
  • N. D. 2, 20, 51 in his stellis, quas dicimus, quia tum occultantur, tum rursus aperiuntur.
  • Caes. 3, 12 rursus minuente aestu naves in vadis afflictabantur.
  • Caes. 2, 19 illi identidem se in silvas receperunt, ac rursus ex silva in nostros impetum fecerunt.
  • L. 2, 50, 1 rursus cum Fabiis erat Veienti populo … certamen.
  • L. 32, 21, 1 tum Aristaenus praetor rursus: “non magis …”.

Semel, once; iterum, a second time; bis, twice = semel atque iterum.

  • Div. 1, 25 quod semel ille iterumque neglexit (= quod bis ille neglexit).
  • Sest. 22 unus bis rem publicam servavi, semel gloria, iterum aerumna mea.
  • Inv. 2, 4, 14 comitem illum suum inclamavit semel et saepius.
  • Brut. 90, 308 Piso saepe dicebat, minus saepe Pomponius, raro Carbo, semel aut iterum Philippus.
  • Am. 3 factus consul est bis, primum ante tempus, iterum sibi suo tempore, rei publicae paene sero: (he was twice made consul, once before the regular time, again at the proper time as regards himself, almost too late as regards the republic). Semel here inadmissible. Suo tempore = at the earliest age prescribed by law; sero as always = too late.

Once or twice = semel atque iterum; twice or thrice = iterum atque tertium; again and again = iterum ac saepius (not iterum atque iterum). Never again, numquam postea. He never smiled again, numquam postea risit. If this were to do over again I would act differently, si res integra esset, aliter facerem.


Saeculum is used of an age, generation, or epoch, in a general sense, but not of the age or epoch of an individual man = aetas. The age of Pericles, aetas (not saeculum) Pericli.

  • R. P. 2, 10 in id saeculum Romuli cecidit aetas.
  • Tus. 1, 16 multa saecula postea sic viguit Pythagoreorum nomen, ut nulli alii docti viderentur.
  • Am. 4 ex omnibus saeculis vix tria aut quattuor nominantur paria amicorum.
  • Phil. 9, 6 Servius huius saeculi insolentiam vituperabat.
  • N. Alc. 1, 2 omnium aetatis suae multo formosissimus (by far the handsomest man of his day).
  • Fam. 4, 3, 3 te … ab initio aetatis … summe omnium doctrinarum studiosum fuisse.
  • Or. 1, 1, 1 si infinitus forensium rerum labor … etiam aetatis flexu constitisset.

Age = period of life is variously expressed. Twenty years of age, natus viginti annos; a boy of fifteen, puer quindecim annorum (unclassical); more than twenty years of age, annos natus maior (plus, amplius) viginti; under twenty years of age, annos natus minor (minus) viginti. The following variations are of less frequent occurrence: maior (minor) viginti annis natus (natu); maior (minor) viginti annorum. Quam is rarely inserted unless “maior” (minor) stands in a case other than the nominative, e.g., L. 45, 32 cum liberis maioribus quam quindecim annos natis.

  • Tus. 5, 20 quinque et viginti natus annos.
  • Rosc. A. 14 annos natus maior quadraginta.
  • N. Reg. 2 Dionysius maior annos sexaginta natus decessit.
  • Verr. 2, 49 minor triginta annis natus.
  • N. Han. 3 minor quinque et viginti annis natus.
  • L. 30, 37 novem annorum a vobis profectus post sextum et tricesimum annum redii.

Iniens aetas (iniens adulescentia, prima aetas, initium aetatis = early manhood, not childhood or boyhood, opposed to acta or exacta aetas. Boyhood, puerilis aetas; from boyhood, a puero or pueris, a pueritia. Of an advanced age, aetate provectus (not provecta).


Abhinc is used only of a point of past time reckoned from the present moment. It is regularly construed with the accusative (rarely ablative), and always precedes the word or words measuring the time. The numeral, which must be cardinal, not ordinal, stands either before or after the noun. Twenty years ago, abhinc viginti annos or annos viginti, not viginti abhinc annos or abhinc vicesimum annum. Twenty years hence, post (not abhinc) viginti annos.

  • Verr. 1, 12 quaestor fuisti abhinc quatuordecim annos (= it is now fourteen years since you were quaestor).
  • Verr. 2, 9 horum pater abhinc duo et viginti annos est mortuus.
  • Rosc. C. 13 repromittis tu abhinc triennium Roscio.
  • Balb. 6 si Pompeius abhinc annos quingentos fuisset (if Pompey had lived five hundred years ago).
  • Time measured backwards from a point in the past is expressed by ante, not abhinc. The latest critics propose the substitution of ante for abhinc in Verr. 2, 52 comitiis iam abhinc diebus triginta factis.

    • Phil. 5, 7 fecerat hoc idem maxima cum laude Piso triginta diebus ante (Piso had done the same thing with great credit thirty days before).
  • Abhinc is not used of duration of time. I have read all the books which have been written on that subject for twenty years back, legi omnes libros qui de ea re proximis (his) viginti annis scripti sunt; qui abhinc viginti annos scripti sunt = which were written twenty years ago.


Non tantum or non modo, not only; tantum non or modo non, all but = μόνον οὐ. He promised all but mountains of gold, modo non montes auri pollicitus est. The city was all but taken, urbs modo non capta est, but “non multum afuit quin urbs caperetur” is the more usual rendering. “Tantum non” and “modo non” in the sense of all but are not Ciceronian.

  • L. 34, 40 nuntii afferebant, tantum non iam captam Lacedaemonem esse.
  • L. 25, 15 tantum non ad portas et muros bellum est.
  • L. 4, 2 hostes tantum non arcessiverunt.
  • L. 10, 24 favet Fabi gloriae, quae modo non sua contumelia splendet.
  • Verr. 1, 45 tantum quod hominem non nominat.


Secundum flumen, along the banks or course of the river, either up or down; secundo flumine, down the stream or current = the river following or helping (secundus from sequor), opposed to adverso flumine, against the stream or current = the river opposing.

  • Caes. 2, 18 secundum flumen paucae stationes equitum videbantur (along the river a few picquets of cavalry were seen).
  • Caes. 7, 34 sex legiones ipse in Arvernos secundum flumen Elaver duxit (along (up) the river Elaver).
  • Att. 16, 8 tres legiones iter secundum mare superum faciunt.
  • Caes. C. 3, 65 castra secundum mare iuxta Pompeium munire iussit.
  • L. 5, 46 incubans cortici secundo Tiberi ad urbem defertur.
  • L. 45, 35 Paulus regia nave adverso Tiberi ad urbem est subvectus (was conveyed up the river in a royal galley).


Idem, meaning “also,” is distinguished from etiam in so far as it always refers to a person or thing already mentioned, and instead of gradation denotes the addition of something antithetical or simply different. Tu etiam = not only others, but you; tu idem = you further, you moreover, you at the same time.

  • Cat. 3, 5 cura ut omnium auxilia tibi adiungas, etiam infimorum.
  • Tus. 1, 10 Aristoxenus, musicus idemque philosophus.
  • N. D. 3, 32 cur avunculus meus, vir innocentissimus idemque doctissimus, in exsilio est?
  • Verr. 4, 21 dixi, iudices, multa fuisse fere apud omnes Siculos; ego idem confirmo, nunc ne unum quidem esse.
  • Tus. 3, 7 qui fortis est idem est fidens.
  • Sest. 42 quomodo igitur accusas Sestium, cum idem laudes Milonem?
  • Fin. 5, 29, 89 nec ego solus, sed tu etiam, Chrysippe.
  • Hor. E. 1, 18, 69 percontatorem fugito, nam garrulus idem est (shun an inquisitive person, for he is also a chatterbox).
  • Brut. 84, 291 non omnes, qui Attice, idem bene = sed omnes, qui bene, idem etiam Attice dicunt.
  • Top. 25, 94 quod idem (neut.) contingit in laudationibus.
  • Fam. 9, 2, 1 Caninius tuus idem et idem noster.
  • Att. 3, 12, 1 tu quidem sedulo argumentaris, quid sit sperandum …, idemque (and yet) caput rogationis proponi scribis …
  • Off. 1, 14, 43 nihil est enim liberale quod non idem iustum.
  • Tus. 3, 34, 84 quid autem praeclarum non idem arduum?

Item, also, at the same time, likewise, is opposed to idem in so far as it is always used of the same predicate. Cassinius, P. Clodius’ dearest friend and also travelling companion, made this statement also, dixit hoc item Cassinius, familiarissimus et idem comes P. Clodi.

  • Phil. 12, 1 auxerat meam quidem spem, credo, item vestram.
  • Cat. 3, 5 quaesivit a Gallis itemque a Volturcio.
  • Phil. 7, 8 magna pax Antonio cum eis, his item cum illo.
  • Leg. 2, 21 placuit Scaevolae et Coruncanio, itemque ceteris.
  • Verr. 5, 72 ceteros item deos deasque omnes imploro atque obtestor.

Non item often stands at the end of a sentence with the predicate omitted = but not so.

  • Att. 2, 21 spectaculum uni Crasso iucundum, ceteris non item.
  • Tus. 4, 14 corporum offensiones sine culpa. accidere possunt, animorum non item (= non possunt).
  • Tus. 4, 14, 32 inter acutos autem et inter hebetes interest, quod ingeniosi … in morbum et incidunt tardius et recreantur ocius, hebetes non item.
  • Or. 3, 48, 186 numerum in cadentibus guttis … notare possumus, in amni praecipitante non possumus.
  • Am. 20 Rupilium potuit consulem efficere, fratrem non potuit (= non item).

But if the negative statement precedes, the verb cannot be omitted in the positive clause. He blamed the son but not the father, filium reprehendit, patrem non item; he did not blame the father, but the son, patrem non reprehendit, filium reprehendit.

  • Fin. 2, 21 est aliquid quod nobis non liceat, liceat illis.
  • Fin. 2, 26, 82 quod, si sine ea tuto et sine metu vivi non posset, ne iucunde quidem posset.
  • Or. 1, 17, 79 nobis etiamsi ingenium non maxume defuit, doctrina certe et otium et hercule etiam studium illud discendi acerrimum defuit.


Ara is generic; altaria (altare rare) is specific = a high altar, erected (sometimes on an ara) for sacrifices to the superior divinities. Ara is always used if the sense is metaphorical.

  • Verg. E. 5, 65 en quatuor aras; ecce duas tibi, Daphni, duoque altaria Phoebo (“Daphnis as a hero has only libations offered to him, not victims; duo altaria Phoebo, two whereon to offer victims to Phoebus”. —Conington).
  • Tac. A. 16, 31 altaria et aram complexa (clasping the altar and altar-steps).
  • Verr. 2, 3 numquam ante hoc tempus ad aram legum confugerunt.
  • Att. 7, 11 “non est”; inquit, “in parietibus res publica”; at in aris et focis (“one’s country,” he retorts, “is not a matter of stone and lime”. No, but of hearths and homes.)


Quamquam is used where a concession is stated as a fact, and, unless for some collateral reason, invariably takes the indicative. Etsi, and the stronger tametsi (tamen etsi) and etiamsi are used where a concession is stated either as a fact or as a supposition, and follow the analogy of si. Quamvis (quam vis, as much as you will), though ever so much, introduces an imaginary concession, and naturally takes the subjunctive (generally the present). Licet is properly the impersonal verb = it is allowed or granted, and is joined with the present (and sometimes the perfect) subjunctive. The particle tamen, yet, still, which often appears in the principal clause, is used to strengthen the contrast involved in the concession.

  • Verr. 3, 68 quamquam merito sum iratus Metello, tamen haec, quae vera sunt, dicam.
  • L. 40, 15 haec sentit Perseus, etsi non dicit.
  • Pomp. 6 cum hostium copiae non longe absunt, etiamsi irruptio nulla facta est, tamen pecunia relinquitur, agri cultura, deseritur.
  • Div. 2, 22 quod crebro videt, non miratur, etiamsi, cur fiat, nescit.
  • Rosc. A. 27 tametsi statim vicisse debeo, tamen de meo iure decedam.
  • Fam. 16, 26 etiamsi, quod scribas, non habebis, scribito tamen.
  • Verr. 1, 9 aliter condemnari reus, quamvis sit nocens, non potest.
  • Phil. 2, 27 in qua (domo), quamvis nihil sapias, tamen nihil tibi potest esse iucundum.
  • Fam. 7, 32 illa, quamvis ridicula essent, sicut erant, mihi tamen risum non moverunt.
  • N. D. 2, 17 quam volet, iocetur (quamvis is here inflected).
  • Div. 1, 26 quam vellet cunctaretur, tamen eodem sibi leto, quo ipse interisset, esse pereundum.
  • Cael. 28 quam volent in conviviis faceti sint (be they ever so witty at dinner-parties).
  • Or. 1, 44 fremant omnes licet, dicam quod sentio.

Etsi with subj. L. 3, 68, 9 [in such passages the hypothetical idea is present even in the conditional clause].

  1. The verb in the quamquam clause is sometimes thrown into the subjunctive by what is called attraction, i.e., because the verbs in the other clauses are subjunctive: so etiamsi with subj. Cat. 1, 8, 19.

    • Phil. 6, 1 haec sententia sic per triduum valuit, ut, quamquam discessio facta non esset, tamen omnes mihi adsensuri viderentur.
  2. Quamquam (rarely etsi) is often used in an absolute sentence = “and yet,” to correct or modify a foregoing statement, e.g., quamquam quid loquor? quamquam quis ignorat?

    • Off. 1, 9 quamquam Terentianus ille Chremes, “humani nihil a se alienum putat”.
    • Ac. 1, 4, 13 Reid quamquam Antiochi magister Philo, magnus vir, ut tu existimas ipse, negat in libris cet.
    • Tus. 1, 39 quamquam non male ait Callimachus multo saepius lacrimasse Priamum quam Troilum.
    • Fam. 7, 24 etsi (and yet) quae est haec servitus?
    • Att. 9, 10 do, do poenas temeritatis meae. Etsi quae fuit illa temeritas? (and yet what was that rashness?).
    • Att. 8, 5, 1 etsi solet eum, cum aliquid furiose fecit, paenitere.
    • Att. 16, 7, 2 etsi, quamvis non fueris suasor …, adprobator certe fuisti.
  3. Quamvis is often used without a verb, quamquam and etsi only, at least in Cicero, when the verb can be supplied from the principal sentence.

    • Phil, 2, 45 res bello gesserat, quamvis rei publicae calamitosas, at tamen magnas.
    • Phil. 2, 15 qui si viverent, quamvis iniqua condicione pacis, rem publicam hodie teneremus.
    • Ac. 2, 7 in quibus intellegentia, etsi vitiosa, est quaedam tamen.
    • Fin. 5, 23 si omnia illa, quae sunt extra, quamquam expetenda, summo bono continerentur.
  4. Licet stands also as a finite verb in principal sentences, followed by the subjunctive with ut omitted = one may. Per me vel stertas licet, for all I care, you may even snore. But the infinitive only is admissible in general statements, e.g., peccare licet nemini (Par. 3).

    • Cat. 1, 3 (consilia tua) mecum licet recognoscas.
    • Att. 1, 16, 8 licet pauca degustes (you may taste a few samples).
    • Rosc. A. 48 facias licet; nemo prohibet (you may do it; no one prevents you).
    • R. P. 1, 40 licet enim lascivire (not lascivias), dum nihil metuas (provided one has nothing to fear).
  5. Ut with subjunctive has sometimes the signification of although = admitting that, even supposing that. Ut in this sense is consecutive, hence ut non (not ne) is the proper usage if the clause is negative.

    • Planc. 25 quotus quisque iuris peritus est, ut (even supposing that) eos numeres, qui volunt esse?
    • Att. 2, 15 verum, ut hoc non sit, tamen praeclarum spectaculum mihi propono.
    • Phil. 12, 3 exercitus si pacis nomen audierit, ut non referat pedem (even supposing it does not retreat), insistet certe.
    • Ov. P. 3, 4, 79 ut desint vires, tamen est laudanda voluntas (though strength fail, still good-will is to be praised).

In later Latin quamquam is constructed with the subjunctive, and quamvis and even licet with the indicative.


Iratus, angry, as a temporary state; iracundus, angry, as a habit, of an irascible disposition. A person may be iratus (in a passion) without being iracundus (passionate), or iracundus without being iratus. Irasci = to become angry, or to be angry.

  • Sen. Dial. 3, 4, 1 quid esset ira satis explicitum est, quo distet ab iracundia adparet = quo ebrius ab ebrioso et timens a timido. Iratus potest non esse iracundus: iracundus non potest aliquando iratus non esse.
  • Att. 6, 3, 6 abiit iratus (he went away in a rage).
  • Mur. 30 iratus dixisti; numquam, inquit, sapiens irascitur (you spoke in anger; a wise man, he says, never gets angry).
  • Tus. 4, 12 est aliud iracundum esse, aliud iratum.
  • Tus. 4, 24 sic iracundus non semper iratus est.
  • Caes. 1, 31 hominem esse barbarum iracundum temerarium.
  • Phil. 8, 5 irasci amicis non temere soleo (I am not in the habit of getting angry with friends for trifles).

Irasci has no perfect, but the defect is supplied both by suscensui and iratus fui (not sum), plup. iratus fueram. Iratus eram = irascebar, and iratus essem = irascerer.

  • Phil. 8, 6 Caesar ipse, qui illis fuerat iratissimus, cottidie aliquid iracundiae remittebat.

You cannot be angry with me, mihi irasci nescis, i.e., you cannot be angry with me whatever I do = generic; fieri not potest ut mihi irascaris, i.e., on this particular occasion = specific.


Animal, an animal as a living being, including man; bestia, an animal as an irrational being, in opposition to man; belua = bestia maior, as an elephant, a whale, a sea monster; pecus = bestia domestica, as a bullock, a sheep, in opposition to fera, an untamed animal, as a stag, a wolf.

  • Leg. 1, 7 animal hoc providum, acutum, plenum consilii et rationis, hominem vocamus.
  • Fin. 2, 14 homines hoc uno plurimum a bestiis differunt, quod rationem habent.
  • N. D. 1, 35 elephanto beluarum nulla prudentior.
  • Tus. 5, 13 natura alias bestias nantes esse voluit, alias volucres, alias cicures, alias feras.
  • Pis. 36 sescentos ad bestias misisti (always bestiae, not beluae, in reference to the ludi Romani).
  • Off. 3, 17 ferae saepe, nullo insequente, in plagas incidunt.


Annuus, that lasts a year, or continues through a year, e.g., annuus magistratus, an annual magistracy; annuus labor, a year’s toil; anniversarius, that returns at a stated period once a year, e.g., sacra anniversaria, an annual festival. Vicissitudines anniversariae (N. D. 2, 38) = the annual change or return of the seasons; annuae commutationes (Inv. 1, 34) = changes continuing through a year, the annual revolutions causing the seasons.

  • L. 5, 4, 7 annua aera habes, annuam operam ede (you have a year’s pay, give a year’s work).
  • L. 9, 41 indutiae annuae datae.
  • Caes. 1, 16 vergobretus creatur annuus (the vergobretus (judgment-dealer) is elected for a year).
  • Verr. 4, 57 Paean sacrificiis anniversariis apud illos colebatur.
  • Verr. 4, 48, 107 prope est spelunca quaedam, ubi Syracusani festos dies anniversarios agunt (there is a cave close by, where the Syracusans hold annual holidays).


Quisquam and ullus, any one exclusively, any one at all; quivis and quilibet, any one inclusively, any one you please = le premier venu. Nec Caesar nec Pompeius nec quisquam; aut Caesar aut Pompeius aut quilibet. What may happen to any one at all, may happen to any and every one, cuivis potest accidere, quod cuiquam potest.

  • N. D. 1, 14 neque Iovem neque Iunonem neque Vestam neque quemquam, qui ita appelletur, in deorum habet numero.
  • Att. 1, 17 neque me tibi neque quemquam antepono.
  • Or. 2, 19 quis est istorum Graecorum qui quemquam nostrum quicquam intellegere arbitretur?
  • Pis. 14 mihi quaevis fuga (inclusive) potius quam ulla provincia (exclusive) esset optatior.
  • Tus. 5, 16 omitto divitias quas, cum quivis quamvis indignus habere possit, in bonis non numero.
  • N. Con. 3 non est grave quemvis honorem habere regi.
  • Phil. 12, 2 cuiusvis hominis est errare (any man may make a mistake).
  • Hor. Ep. 1, 17, 36 non cuivis homini contingit adire Corinthum (it is not granted to any chance man to visit Corinth).
  • Brut. 34 Scipio Latine loquendo cuivis erat par (equal to any one in speaking Latin).
  • Fam. 16, 12 quidvis est melius quam sic esse ut sumus.
  • Ac. 2, 43, 132 ad vos nunc refero, quem sequar, modo ne quis … respondeat: “Quemlibet, modo aliquem”.
  • Iuv. Sat. 14, 205 lucri bonus est odor ex re qualibet.
  1. Quivis* and quilibet are opposed to “certus” or “quidam,” a certain (definite) one. Vita agenda est certo genere quodam, non quolibet, we should conduct our life in a definite way, not in any way we please (Fin. 3, 7). See Caes. 3, 13.

    * “‘Quivis’ expresses a more deliberate, ‘quilibet’ a more blind and capricious choice = ‘voluntas’ compared with ‘libido’.”—(Bradley.)

  2. Quisquam is substantival, but, like nemo, may be joined with words denoting persons or with collective words referring to persons, e.g., homo quisquam (Verr. 2, 52, 127), quisquam civis, cuiquam generi hominum. It is rarely used adjectively with things.—The oft-quoted passage from Cicero (Att. 5, 10, rumor quisquam) is doubtful [see C. F. W. Müller’s critical note].—It has no plural and no feminine, and is rare in the ablative, ullus being used substantively as well as adjectively in the defective parts. Hence the masculine form is sometimes found with a feminine substantive, e.g., cuiquam legationi. Cf. Plaut. Most. 608 quemquam beluam; Mil. Glor. 1060 quemquam porcellam; Cist. 66 quisquam mulier.

    • Verr. 3, 93 num arator quisquam dedit?
    • Fat. 9 quod nec ipsi nec cuiquam physico placet.
    • Rosc. A. 27 numquam cum homine quoquam collocutum esse.
    • Fam. 3, 10, 6 ubi cuiquam legationi fui impedimento?
    • Verr. 2, 6 si cuiquam generi hominum, si cuiquam ordini aratorum probatus sit.
    • Phil. 2, 15 an ille quemquam plus dilexit? cum ullo aut sermones aut consilia contulit saepius?
    • Verr. 1, 43, 111 ne metuit quidem quisquam, ne quis ediceret.
    • Or. 2, 37, 154 certe non tulit ullos haec civitas aut gloria clariores aut cet.
  3. Quisquam (ullus) is used in negative or quasi-negative sentences, or in sentences where an affirmative idea is pushed to its narrowest limits.

    The negative may be expressed by a special word or phrase (neque, numquam, vix, parum, quasi, or by the preposition sine) which is always prefixed, e.g., neque quisquam potest (quisquam non is not Latin); by a verb of negative meaning, e.g., cave quicquam facias; or in the form of a question or a comparison implying a negative, e.g., estne quisquam? = nemo est; he was braver than any of his predecessors, fortior erat quam quisquam superiorum (the invariable construction). Tus. 1, 41, 99 nec enim cuiquam bono mali quicquam evenire potest.

    In its minimised affirmative sense, quisquam (ullus) is common in senteuces introduced by si, quam diu, quoad, dum, donec, and in general expressions of reproach or regret, when something has happened which ought not to have happened, e.g., if any one is miserable, it is I, si quisquam est miser, is ego sum (almost = ego sum miserior quam quisquam alius); it makes me indignant to hear any one blamed, indignor quemquam reprehendi (almost = ferre non possum).

    • Fin. 1, 16 iustitia numquam nocet cuiquam.
    • Caes. 7, 28 nec fuit quisquam, qui praedae studeret.
    • L. 32, 18 cum parum quicquam succederet.
    • Fam. 9, 17, 1 quasi ego quicquam sciam, quod iste nesciat.
    • Off. 1, 9, 30 qui vetant quicquam agere, quod dubites aequum sit an iniquum.
    • Fam. 14, 7, 2 cohortarer vos, … nisi vos fortiores cognossem quam quemquam virum.
    • Sall. I. 11, 7 quod verbum in pectus Iugurthae altius, quam quisquam ratus erat, descendit.
    • L. 2, 59 nemo ullius nisi fugae memor.
    • Caes. C. 3, 71 pars magna sine ullo vulnere interiit.
    • Sall. I. 45 (Metellus edixit), ne quisquam (no one, whoever he may be) in castris panem aut quem alium coctum cibum venderet.
    • Caes. 7, 40 interdicit omnibus, ne quemquam (no one on any pretext whatever) interficiant.
    • Off. 2, 8 desitum est videri quicquam in socios iniquum (= nihil iam iniquum videbatur).
    • Verr. 1, 10 nego esse quicquam a testibus dictum, quod aut vestrum cuiquam esset obscurum, aut cuiusquam oratoris eloquentiam quaereret.
    • Or. 3, 7, 26 neque eorum quisquam est cui quicquam in arte sua deesse videatur.
    • Am. 11, 39 ne suspicari quidem possumus, quemquam horum ab amico quidpiam contendisse, quod contra rem publicam esset.
    • L. 5, 3 an est quisquam, qui dubitet? (= nemo dubitat).
    • Att. 4, 5 me existimas ab ullo malle mea legi probarique quam a te?
    • Phil. 10, 7 ab hoc igitur viro quisquam bellum timet? (= nemo timet).
    • L. 3, 47 comitatus muliebris plus tacito fletu quam ulla vox movebat.
    • Verr. 4, 55 taetrior hic tyrannus Syracusanis fuit quam quisquam superiorum umquam.
    • L. 33, 3 milites, quibus modo quicquam reliqui roboris erat, ad signa revocabantur.
    • L. 39, 28 mei regni tantum aberat ut ulla pars in discrimine fuerit.
    • Caes. 1, 19 priusquam quicquam conaretur, Divitiacum ad se vocari iubet.
    • Am. 2 aut nemo, aut si quisquam, ille sapiens fuit (or if there really was any one, it was he).
    • Ac. 2, 32, 101 si ullum sensus visum falsum est, nihil percipi potest.
    • Fam. 6, 14 si quisquam est timidus, is ego sum.
    • Att. 14, 1 si quisquam est facilis, hic est.
    • Brut. 33 legendus est hic orator, si quisquam alius, iuventuti.
    • Fam. 13, 40 si ulla mea apud te commendatio valuit, haec ut valeat rogo (if any recommendation of mine has ever had any weight with you, I beg that this may).
    • Mil. 4 si tempus est ullum iure hominis necandi, certe illud est iustum, cum vi vis illata defenditur (if there be any time whatever for justly killing a man, certainly that is the just time when violence is repelled by violence).
    • Verr. 4, 22 si quicquam caelati aspexerat, manus abstinere non poterat (if he saw any piece of chased plate whatever, he could not keep his hands from it).
    • L. 5, 33 (Camillo) manente, si quicquam humanorum certi est, capi Roma non potuerat.
    • Att. 12, 23 enitar, si quo modo (in one way or another) potero, ut praeter te nemo dolorem meum sentiat, si ullo modo poterit (if it is at all possible), ne tu quidem.
    • Cat. 1, 2 quamdiu quisquam erit, qui te defendere audeat, vives (as long as there is a single man who dares to defend you, you shall live).
    • L. 42, 34 ipse me, quoad quisquam idoneum militem iudicabit, numquam sum excusaturus.
    • Rosc. A. 43 dum ulla praesidia fuerunt, in Sullae praesidiis fuit (while there was a camp at all, he was in Sulla’s camp).
    • L. 35, 30 quoad lucis superfuit quicquam.
    • L. 24, 31 nec umquam Syracusas quieturas, donec quicquam externorum auxiliorum aut in urbe aut in exercitu suo esset.
    • Phil. 8, 4 laberis, quod quicquam stabile aut iucundum in regno putas.
    • Verr. 5, 63 in crucem tu agere ausus es quemquam, qui se civem Romanum esse diceret?
    • Att. 15, 9 o rem miseram! primum ullam ab istis, dein, si aliquam, hanc provinciam.
    • Caes. 1, 40 cur hunc tam temere quisquam ab officio discessurum iudicaret?
  4. Quisquam (ullus) cannot be used with two negatives which cancel each other. He is a man without any virtue, homo est sine ulla virtute; there is no one without any virtue, nemo est sine aliqua virtute = every one has some virtue or other; he escaped without a wound, sine ullo vulnere effugit; no one escaped without a wound, nemo sine (aliquo) vulnere effugit.

    • Caes. C. 2, 9 ita tuto ac sine ullo vulnere sex tabulata exstruxerunt.
    • Caes. C. 3, 73, 3 habendam Fortunae gratiam, quod Italiam sine aliquo vulnere cepissent.
    • Verr. 5, 5, 11 iste nihil umquam fecit sine aliquo quaestu aut praeda.
    • Senat. 12, 30 difficile est non aliquem, nefas quemquam praeterire.
    • N. D. 2, 66, 167 nemo igitur vir magnus sine aliquo adflatu divino umquam fuit.
    • Am. 12 sine sociis nemo quicquam tale conatur (without (some) associates no one attempts any such thing; “sine ullis sociis” inadmissible here).
    • N. D. 2, 15 nullus ignis sine pastu aliquo (not ullo) potest permanere.
  5. He is braver than any one else, fortior est quam quisquam alius (always quisquam); the braver any one is, quo quis or quisque est fortior (never quisquam). Any one may say, dicat quispiam, quis, or aliquis (never quisquam).

Note.Umquam and usquam are used in the same way as quisquam and ullus.


Appenninus, in sing., but Alpes (-ium, the Alps).

  • Fam. 11, 13 hic locus iacet inter Appenninum et Alpes. [Cf. L. 21, 58, 3.]


Appellare (appellatio) is used of an appeal to a magistrate, especially to a tribune, in any matter in which the appellant thought himself wronged. Provocare (provocatio) is used of an appeal to the populus (ad populum) in a matter affecting life. Under the emperors, who were invested with supreme power, the distinction virtually ceased.

  • L. 3, 56 Appius tamen et tribunos appellavit et nullo morante arreptus a viatore “Provoco” inquit.
  • L. 8, 33 tribunos plebis appello et provoco ad populum.
  • L. 2, 29 agedum, inquit, dictatorem, a quo provocatio non est, creemus.
  • R. P. 2, 36 decemviri maxima potestate sine provocatione creati sunt.

I appeal to your humanity, humanitatem tuam appello, or ad humanitatem tuam confugio. They appealed to arms, ad arma confugerunt.


Apparere, to appear, to be evident = φαίνεται ὤν; videri, to appear, to seem = φαίνεται εἶναι. It appears (is evident) you do not know, apparet te nescire; it appears (seems) you do not know, nescire videris.

  • Ac. 2, 27, 88 quia, cum experrectus esset Ennius, non diceret se vidisse Homerum, sed visum esse.
  • Sen. 19, 71 Reid quasi terram videre videar.
  • N. Att. 4 (Atticus) sic Graece loquebatur, ut Athenis natus videretur: tanta autem erat suavitas sermonis Latini, ut appareret in eo nativum quendam leporem esse, non adscitum.
  • L. 6, 30 apparuit nescire eos victoria et tempore uti.
  • L. 2, 30 multis, ut erat (as it really was), horrida et atrox videbatur Appi sententia.
  • N. Ep. 6 tum perfecit, quod post apparuit, ut auxilio sociorum (Lacedaemonii) privarentur (he succeeded then, as was afterwards apparent, in depriving the Lacedaemonians of the help of their allies).
  • L. 28, 27 (nescire) videmini quo amentiae progressi sitis (you seem not to know to what a degree of madness you have advanced).
  • Verr. 5, 6, 14 FECISSE VIDERI pronuntiat (he declares him “Guilty”).
  • Att. 2, 15 Romae videor esse cum tuas litteras lego.
  • Caes. C. 1, 2 haec Scipionis oratio ex ipsius ore Pompei mitti videbatur.
  • Ac. 2, 16 visus sum mihi cum Galba ambulare.
  • Fin. 1, 6, 17 ita, ut ea, quae corrigere vult, mihi quidem depravare videatur.
  1. Videri followed by a dative is often stronger than seem = δοκεῖν, to think, believe. The dative, however, of the first person is sometimes omitted. Ut (mihi) videor, ut videmur = as I think, as I flatter myself, is a phrase inserted to tone down a categorical statement.

    • Tus. 1, 9 Zenoni Stoico animus ignis videtur.
    • Tus. 5, 21, 62 fortunatus sibi Damocles videbatur.
    • Off. 1, 1 quam quidem ad rem nos, ut videmur, magnum attulimus adiumentum hominibus nostris.
    • Att. 5, 18 consiliis, ut videmur, bonis utimur.
  2. Videri is used personally, unless where it means to seem good, fit, proper, etc.

    • Am. 2 sed, ut mihi videris (as it seems to me), non recte iudicas.
    • Att. 16, 8, 2 videtur enim mihi et plebeculam urbanam, et, si fidem fecerit, etiam bonos viros secum habiturus.
    • Fam. 2, 17 his (litteris) ego ordine, ut videris velle, respondebo.
    • Att. 8, 2 ignorare mihi videris haec quanta sit clades.
    • Caes. 4, 8 ad haec, quae visum est, Caesar respondit.
    • Off. 1, 32 imitamur quos cuique visum est (we imitate such as we severally think proper to imitate).
    • L. 26, 16 si ei videretur, integram rem ad senatum reiceret.
    • Att. 6, 3, 2 quem videbitur, praeficies (you will give the charge of the business to whom you think proper).
  3. The impersonal construction is sometimes found in the sense of I am of opinion, and in parenthetic sentences, e.g., ut mihi videtur, as I think, in my opinion.

    • Fin. 1, 20 seque facile, ut mihi videtur, expediunt (and in my opinion easily escape criticism).
    • Tus. 5, 5 non mihi videtur ad beate vivendum satis posse virtutem.
    • L. 36, 13 quia videbatur et Limnaeum eodem tempore oppugnari posse.
  4. The impersonal is the normal construction in the case of a second clause containing a new subject or involving a new relation. “Dicere” is construed in the same way.

    • Ac. 2, 23 furere tibi Empedocles videtur, at mihi dignissimum rebus eis, de quibus loquitur.
    • Tus. 5, 8 mihi non videbatur quisquam esse beatus posse, cum in malis esset; in malis autem sapientem esse posse.
    • Sen. 18 consurrexisse illi dicuntur—dixisse ex eis quendam.

    Cf. Ac. 2, 25 videsne navem illam? stare nobis videtur; at eis, qui in navi sunt, moveri haec villa.

Videri also = to be seen. Secundum flumen paucae stationes equitum videbantur, a few pickets of cavalry were seen along the river (Caes. 2, 18).


Malum is an apple, not pomum, which = a fruit tree; pl. poma = fruit, or fruit trees.

  • Verg. G. 2, 426 poma quoque ad sidera nituntur (fruit trees, too, force their way to the sky).
  • Ov. F. 2, 253 stabat adhuc duris ficus densissima pomis.
  • Verg. E. 3, 71 puero silvestri ex arbore lecta aurea mala decem misi.
  • Hor. S. 1, 3, 7 ab ovo usque ad mala (from the preliminary course to the dessert = from beginning to end).


In times of emergency the Senate passed a senatus consultum* that one of the consuls should nominate a dictator. The technical word for this nomination was dicere, though the fact, apart from the formality of the appointment, was sometimes expressed by “creare,” “nominare,” or “facere”. Nam dictator quidem ab eo appellatur, quia dicitur (R. P. 1, 40). If the reference is to the institution of the office, creare, not “dicere,” is used, the mode of selection being a matter of subsequent detail. In hac tantarum exspectatione rerum dictatoris primum creandi mentio orta. Consulares legere; ita lex iubebat de dictatore creando lata (L. 2, 18). Eligere does not imply popular election = creare, but only selection on whose part so-ever (cf. Tac. H. 1, 16 adoptandi iudicium integrum, et si velis eligere, consensu monstratur).

* “In the election of dictator the community bore no part at all; his nomination proceeded solely from one of the consuls for the time being. There lay no appeal from his sentences any more than from those of the King, unless he chose to allow it. As soon as he was nominated, all the other magistrates became legally powerless, and entirely subject to his authority. To him, as to the King, was assigned a ‘master of the horse,’ such appointment forming as it were a constitutional accompaniment to that of dictator. The intention in all probability was that the dictator’s authority should be distinguished from that of the King only by its limitation in point of time, the maximum duration of his office being six months.”—Mommsen.

  • L. 23, 22 nocte proxima, ut mos erat, M. Fabium Buteonem ex senatus consulto dictatorem in sex menses dixit.
  • L. 4, 26 sors ut dictatorem diceret Quinctio evenit.
  • Sen. 16 Cincinnato nuntiatum est eum dictatorem esse factum.
  • L. 2, 18 nec quis primum dictator creatus sit, satis constat.
  • L. 9, 28 nominatus dictator C. Poetilius exercitum accepit.
  • L. 22, 31 uni consuli Servilio ius fuit dicendi dictatoris (Servilius as consul alone had the right of naming a dictator).


Bracchium, the under or fore arm; lacertus, the upper arm; cubitus, the joint between the two, the elbow = Fr. coude. But either bracchium or lacertus may be used in a general sense for the arm, the latter especially of the brawny, muscular arm, the arm of the athlete.

  • Ov. M. 1, 500 laudat digitosque manusque bracchiaque et nudos media plus parte lacertos.
  • Tac. G. 17 feminae nudae bracchia ac lacertos.
  • Curt. 8, 9 bracchia quoque et lacertos auro colunt.
  • L. 25, 16 paludamento circum laevum bracchium intorto in hostes impetum fecit.
  • Tus. 2, 16 nam scutum gladium galeam in onere nostri milites non plus numerant quam umeros lacertos manus.
  • Sen. 9 qui cum iam senex esset athletasque se exercentes in curriculo videret, aspexisse lacertos suos dicitur illacrimansque dixisse “at hi quidem mortui iam sunt”.

To die in one’s ams, in alicuius complexu mori (or extremum spiritum edere); to snatch from the arms of one, ex alicuius complexu evellere; he is carried off in their arms, eorum inter manus aufertur; the arm of the law, potestas magistratuum.


Arma atque tela, ams defensive and offensive = ὅπλα καὶ παντά. Arma as well as tela may be applied to offensive weapons used in close contest, as a sword, dagger, poniard, axe; but missiles used in a contest at a distance are expressed by “tela” only.

  • Caecin. 21 arma alia ad tegendum alia ad nocendum.
  • Sall. I. 101 solus inter tela hostium vitabundus erumpit.
  • Caes. 1, 26 e loco superiore in nostros venientes tela coniciebant.
  • Mil. 4 esse cum telo hominis occidendi causa lex vetat.
  • L. 26, 14 arma telaque quae Capuae erant ad se conferenda curavit.

Arma capere or sumere, to take up arms; arma abicere, to throw away arms; arma ponere or deponere, to lay down arms; in armis or sub armis esse, to be under arms; ad arma conclamare, to raise the cry “to arms”.


Exercitus is the generic word for an army = a body of men trained for war; agmen, an army in order of march, which deploys into acies, an army in line of battle.

  • Pomp. 21 Pompeius adulescentulus exercitum confecit eique praefuit.
  • L. 25, 34 agmina magis quam acies pugnabant (the armies fought rather in marching order than in battle array).
  • Exercitum conscribere, to enrol an army; exercitum contrahere or cogere, to collect an army; exercitum dimittere, to disband an army.
  • Agmen primum or acies prima, the van; agmen novissimum or acies novissima, the rear; agmen claudere, to close the train, bring up the rear.


“As” = in the capacity or character of, when, is usually omitted in Latin. Cicero as (in the capacity of) consul crushed Catiline’s conspiracy, Cicero consul coniurationem Catilinae oppressit; as (in the character of) a philosopher I address a philosopher, philosophus philosophum alloquor; my authority as master, mea praeceptoris auctoritas; your diligence as scholars, vestra discipulorum industria; Cato as (when) an old man resolved upon writing history, Cato senex scribere historias instituit.

  • Verr. 1, 13 profectus est quaestor (as quaestor) in provinciam.
  • Fam. 13, 1, 2 meme habuit suorum defensorum et amicorum fere principem.
  • L. 5, 53, 5 non enim reliquisse victores, sed amisisse victi patriam videbimur.
  • Par. 3, 24 Saguntini, qui parentes suos liberos emori quam servos vivere maluerunt, parricidae fuerunt.
  • N. Att. 2, 1 ipse adulescentulus … non expers fuit illius periculi.
  • Sen. 4, 10 Reid adulescentulus miles ad Capuam profectus sum.
  • Sen. 6 qui et miles et tribunus et legatus et consul versatus sum in vario genere bellorum (as common soldier, as military tribune, as lieutenant-general, and as consul).
  • L. 10, 1 aedem Salutis, quam consul voverat, censor locaverat, dictator dedicavit.
  • Pis. 39 L. Opimius eiectus est e patria, is qui … consul maximis rem publicam periculis liberarat.
  • Am. 1 Catonem induxi senem disputantem (Cato in the character of an old man, not the old man Cato).
  • Phil. 2, 46 defendi rem publicam adulescens; non deseram senex (as a young man (i.e., as consul), I defended the republic, I will not abandon it in my old age).
  1. Ut, however, or some equivalent is required before an imputed title or designation. He loved him as a brother, eum ut fratrem (in fratris loco) amavit; they regarded him as a tyrant, eum pro tyranno habuerunt.

    • L. 2, 7 matronae ut parentem (Brutum) luxerunt.
    • Phil. 2, 41 iste operta lectica latus per oppidum est, ut mortuus.
    • N. Att. 16 Cicero ea, quae nunc usu veniunt, cecinit ut vates.
    • Verr. 1, 15 habuit honorem ut proditori, non ut amico fidem.
    • Planc. 12 (parentem) veretur ut deum, amat vero ut sodalem, ut fratrem, ut aequalem.
    • Fam. 13, 71 sic tibi eum commendo, ut unum de meis domesticis (as if he were one of my household).
    • R. P. 1, 12 militiae Africanum ut deum colebat Laelius, domi vicissim Laelium observabat in parentis loco Scipio.
    • Sen. 2 naturam optumam ducem tamquam deum sequimur.
  2. Ut is also used before a title or designation, when “as” can be rendered by “for” or “considering”; but it conveys two totally different meanings, the expected and the unexpected, which are determined by the context or the nature of the case. Pythius erat, ut argentarius, apud omnes ordines gratiosus (Off. 3, 14), Pythius as (inasmuch as he was) a banker was popular with all classes. But on the hypothesis that bankers are unpopular, “ut argentarius” = notwithstanding the fact of his being a banker, despite his being a banker. See Reid, Sen. § 12. Pro is used in this sense, Caes. 6, 19, 4; in Caes. 3, 18, 3; 5, 7, 7 pro = in the character of.

    • Att. 4, 18, 4 (16, 12) id ego puto ut multa eiusdem ad nihil recasurum.
    • Ribbeck trag. incert.3 260 (ap. Att. 4, 1, 8; 4, 2, 1; epp. ad Brut. 1, 10, 2) (ita sunt res nostrae), “ut in secundis fluxae, ut in aduorsis bonae.”
    • Fam. 4, 9, 3 et factum tuum probatur, et ut in tali re etiam fortuna laudatur.
    • Ac. 2, 31 homo et acutus, ut Poenus (like a Carthaginian), et valde studiosus.
    • Tus. 1, 8 tu mihi videris Epicharmi acuti nec insulsi hominis, ut Siculi, sententiam sequi (Cf. Verr. 4, 43 numquam tam male est Siculis, quin aliquid facete et commode dicant).
    • Tus. 1, 43 Diogenes, ut Cynicus, proici se iussit inhumatum.
    • Brut. 85, 294 ego enim Catonem tuum ut civem, ut senatorem, ut imperatorem, ut virum denique cum prudentia et diligentia tum omni virtute excellentem probo.
    • Brut. 28, 108 Flacci scripta sunt, sed ut studiosi litterarum.
    • Brut. 26, 102 scriptor fuit ut temporibus illis luculentus.
    • L. 30, 6, 4 extemplo Scipio neglectas ut in tali tumultu portas invadit.
    • N. Att. 1, 2 patre … ut tum erant tempora diti.
    • L. 5, 50, 1 omnium primum, ut erat diligentissimus religionum cultor, quae ad deos immortales pertinebant rettulit.
    • Brut. 7 Clisthenes multum, ut temporibus illis, valuit dicendo (a powerful speaker for those days).
    • Or. 2, 1 quos tum, ut pueri, refutare solebamus (as well as boys could).
    • Sen. 4 multae etiam, ut in homine Romano, litterae (for a Roman; litterae here = Greek literature).
    • N. Ep. 5 satis exercitatus in dicendo, ut Thebanus scilicet (for a Theban at least).
    • Verr. 1, 52 respondit illa, ut meretrix, non inhumaniter.
    • L. 32, 33 vir ut inter Aetolos facundus (an eloquent man as compared with other Ætolians).
    • L. 1, 57 Ardeam Rutuli habebant, gens, ut in ea regione atque in ea aetate, divitiis praepollens.
    • Fam. 12, 2 non nihil ut in tantis malis est profectum (some progress has been made, considering the unfortunate position we are in).

    Cf. Caes. 6, 19 funera sunt pro cultu Gallorum magnifica et sumptuosa.

  3. So also, ut is analogously used for “as,” when it explains a natural result or course of action = nam or enim.

    • Tus. 1, 45 permulta alia colligit Chrysippus, ut est in omni historia curiosus.
    • Verr. 1, 26 magnifice et ornate, ut erat copiosus, convivium apparat.
    • L. 21, 12, 4 condiciones tristes ut ab irato victore ferebantur.
    • Mur. 25 atque ille, ut semper fuit apertissimus, non se purgavit (unabashed as he always was).
    • Rosc. A. 12 aiunt hominem, ut erat furiosus, respondisse (like the madman he was).
    • Caes. 3, 8 horum auctoritate finitimi adducti, ut sunt Gallorum subita et repentina consilia, Trebium retinent.
    • Pis. 25 dices enim, ut es homo facetus ad persuadendum; “quid est, Caesar …?”
    • Caes. 7, 45 haec procul ex oppido videbantur, ut erat a Gergovia despectus in castra.
  4. But when “as” assigns a reason explicitly, it is made by cum, quod, quia, quippe (utpote) qui. They as Christians preferred dying at the stake to worshipping images, illi, cum Christiani essent, igni necari maluerunt, quam imagines colere; Paul as a Roman citizen appealed to Caesar, Paulus, quia civis Romanus erat, Caesarem appellavit; the Fidenates, as Roman colonists, knew Latin, Fidenates, quippe qui coloni Romani essent, Latine sciebant; as the eldest he succeeded his father on the throne, patri in regnum successit utpote maximus natu.

    • Sen. 18 qui legati cum essent, certo in loco consederant (who as ambassadors had taken their seats in the places reserved for them).
    • Off. 1, 4 homo autem, quod rationis est particeps, facile totius vitae cursum videt.
    • Sall. C. 46 consul Lentulum, quod praetor erat, ipse manu tenens in senatum perducit.
    • Verr. 4, 22 ille, civis Romanus quod erat, impunius id se facturum putavit.
    • Caes. C. 3, 107 controversias regum ad populum Romanum et ad se, quod esset consul, pertinere existimans.
    • L. 39, 36 Lycortas, et quia praetor, et quia Philopoemenis factionis erat, respondit.
    • Phil. 5, 11 Lucius, utpote qui peregre depugnarit, familiam ducit (Lucius as having fought abroad heads the gang).


Quod restricting a general assertion = as far as, takes the subjunctive, quantum, which of itself implies limitation, takes the indicative. Sestius had not come, as far as I know, Sestius non venerat, quod sciam, or quantum scio. But we can say “quod scire possum,” because of the restrictive force of possum; so always “quod ad me attinet”.

  • Fin. 2, 3 Epicurus se unus, quod sciam, sapientem profiteri ausus est.
  • Am. 27 numquam illum ne minima quidem re offendi, quod quidem senserim (at least as far as I perceived).
  • Off. 3, 10 sed suae cuique utilitati, quod sine alterius iniuria fiat, serviendum est.
  • Fam. 4, 2 tu, quod tuo commodo fiat, quam primum velim venias.
  • Verr. 5, 4 quid igitur? nulline motus in Sicilia servorum facti esse dicuntur? nihil sane, quod ad senatum populumque Romanum pervenerit, nihil quod ipse publice Romam scripserit.
  • Ac. 2, 46 de quo Chrysippo fuit, quantum ego sentio, non magna contentio.
  • Att. 16, 4 deinde, quantum intellego, tarde est navigaturus, consistens in locis pluribus.
  • Brut. 68 Pompeius, qui Bithynicus dictus est, summo studio dicendi, quod scire possum.
  • Att. 10, 2 tu, quod poteris, nos consiliis iuvabis (you will help me with your advice, as far as you can).
  • Tus. 1, 16 sed, quod litteris exstet proditum, Pherecydes Syrius primus dixit, animos hominum esse sempiternos.
  • Fam. 3, 1 homo non modo prudens, verum etiam, quod iuvet, curiosus.
  • Att. 1, 1 petitionis nostrae huius modi ratio est, quod adhuc coniectura. provideri possit (so far as one can form a conjecture at present).
  • Ter. And. 423 erus, quantum audio, uxore excidit (master, from what I hear, has lost his wife).


Quod ad me attinet, as to me, as far as I am concerned subjectively; quod ad me pertinet, as to me, as far as I am concerned objectively, as far as my character, duty, claims, or interests are concerned, as far as I am affected; quod ad te attinet, as to you = as far as I take you into account; quod ad te pertinet, as to you = as far as you are affected. As for me, I will fight, quod ad me attinet, pugnabo; as far as I am concerned (as far as you deal with me), you prove nothing, quod ad me pertinet, nihil probas. As to the gods, quod ad deos pertinet = the rightful homage due to the gods. “Quod ad deos attinet” would be irreverent = as far as we take the gods into account, as far as we trouble ourselves about them.

  • Caes. C. 3, 17, 3 (or. obliq.) quod ad indutias pertineret, sic belli rationem esse divisam, ut …
  • L. 2, 37 quod ad me attinet, extemplo hinc domum abire in animo est.
  • L. 30, 31 quod ad me attinet, et humanae infirmitatis memini, et vim fortunae reputo.
  • Clu. 1 equidem, quod ad me attinet, quo me vertam, nescio.
  • Rosc. A. 32 qui omnes, quod ad me attinet, vellem viverent.
  • L. 28, 29 quod ad universos vos attinet, si erroris paenitet, satis superque poenarum habeo.
  • L. 9, 9 quod ad tribunos attinet, consulite, utrum praesens deditio eorum fieri possit an in diem differatur.
  • L. 6, 23 itaque se quod ad exercitum attineat regere consuesse, non regi.
  • L. 6, 6 quod ad bellum atque Antiates attineat, plus ibi minarum quam periculi esse.
  • L. 10, 6 simulabant ad deos id magis quam ad se pertinere.
  • Planc. 3 nam quod ad populum pertinet, semper dignitatis iniquus iudex est, qui aut invidet aut favet (for as to the public (as to the character of the public), one who is influenced either by prejudice or partiality is a bad judge of merit).
  • Verr. 1, 39 cui (pecunia) sit data, nihil ad me, nihil ad rem pertinere arbitror.
  1. “As to” in connection with verbs is made by quod, when a previous reference is recalled for the purpose of answering it = as to the matter of, as to the fact that, whereas. As to your boasting, quod gloriaris = quod attinet ad id quod gloriaris; as to your writing, quod scribis. He said that, as to their complaining, that stood for nothing, dixit quod ii quererentur id nihili esse.

    • Att. 13, 6 quod epistulam meam ad Brutum poscis, non habeo eius exemplum.
    • N. Ep. 5 quod autem me Agamemnonem aemulari putas, falleris.
    • Verr. 3, 68 quod scribit Metelli filium puerum esse, vehementer errat.
    • Or. 1, 55 quod ius civile tam vehementer amplexus es, video quid egeris.
  2. “As to” in connexion with nouns is often rendered by de. As to Bibulus, de Bibulo = quod ad Bibulum attinet.

    • Att. 9, 7, 5 de triumpho tibi adsentior (about the triumph I agree with you).
    • Att. 14, 18, 2 de Patulciano nomine … gratissimum est.
    • Ac. 2, 46, 140 de quo Chrysippo fuit, quantum ego sentio, non magna contentio.
    • Fam. 14, 1 de familia quo modo placuisse scribis amicis, faciemus (as to our slaves, we will follow the course you say your friends advise).
    • Fam. 14, 1 de Quinto fratre nihil ego te accusavi (as to my brother Quintus, I made no complaint of your conduct).
    • Att. 7, 19 de pueris quid agam, non habeo (= quid agam nescio, I know not what to do; quod agam non habeo, I can do nothing).
    • Att. 15, 2, 2 de Menedemo probe.
    • Att. 3, 22 de Metello scripsit ad me frater quantum speraret profectum esse per te (with regard to Metellus my brother tells me you have done all that he hoped).
  3. “As to” (in respect of) is expressed with adjectives by ad, when mention is made of something external to the subject, in reference to which the judgment is expressed (Madvig, Lat. Gramm., § 253 obs.).

    • Cat. 1, 5 quod est ad severitatem (in respect of severity) lenius et ad communem salutem utilius.
    • Or. 2, 49 nihil mihi ad existimationem (in respect of my reputation) turpius, nihil ad dolorem acerbius accidere posse.


Hoc ego feci tam bene quam tu, I did this as well as you, i.e., my perfomance was equal to yours = Fr., j’ai fait ceci aussi bien que toi; hoc ego feci aeque ac tu, I did this as well as you, i.e., both you and I did this; ego et tu hoc fecimus = Fr., j’ai fait ceci comme toi.

  • Brut. 24 nec enim est eadem causa non scribendi et non tam bene scribendi, quam dixerint.
  • Catull. 3, 7 suamque norat ipsam (mistress) tam bene quam puella matrem.
  • Fam. 16, 21 me tum tibi defuisse aeque ac tu doleo.
  • Cat. 3, 12 vestra tecta, quamquam iam periculum est depulsum, tamen aeque ac priore nocte custodiis vigiliisque defendite.


Convocare, to call together; convenire, to meet together. He assembled the conspirators in his house, coniuratos in domum suam convocavit; the conspirators assembled in his house, coniurati in domum eius convenerunt.

  • Sall. C. 17 in unum omnes convocat.
  • Caes. 6, 13 huc omnes undique, qui controversias habent, conveniunt.
  • L. 1, 50, 1 in diem certam ut ad lucum Ferentinae conveniant indicit.
  1. Convenire aliquem, to call upon one, accost, address; convenire alicui, in or ad aliquem or aliquid (without personal subject), to suit, e.g., convenit ei or eius aetati, it suits him or his age; cum aliquo, to agree with, e.g., alicui convenit cum aliquo de aliqua re; aliquid (rarely de aliqua re) convenit, something is agreed upon, or arranged beforehand, e.g., signum quod convenerat, the preconcerted signal.

    • Fam. 11, 6, 1 Lupus noster … postridie me mane convenit (called on me on the following morning).
    • Verr. 2, 23 Epicratem conveniunt (they have an interview with Epicrates).
    • Sen. 10 nemo me adhuc convenire voluit cui fuerim occupatus.
    • Fin. 3, 22 quid posterius priori non convenit?
    • Fin. 3, 14 si cothurni laus illa esset, ad pedem apte convenire (if the great merit of a buskin is exactly to fit the foot).
    • L. 1, 24 tempus et locus convenit.
    • Tus. 5, 13 hoc quidem mihi cum Bruto convenit.
    • L. 7, 15 eis qui in monte erant signum quod convenerat dedit.
  2. Convenire (neuter), to meet, assemble, is construed as a verb of motion; convenire (transitive), to meet, call upon, is construed as a verb of rest.

    • L. 2, 49 quo iussi erant conveniunt.
    • Verr. 3, 48 aratores unum in locum convenerunt.
    • Att. 7, 13a ibi Pompeium consulesque convenit.
    • Fam. 3, 7 Bruti pueri Laudiceae (not Laudiceam) me convenerunt.


Concilium (from calare, to summon), an assembly which accepts or refuses the proposals of one or more chief speakers; consilium, an assembly where each member gives his opinion, a deliberative body, consilium publicum, the senate, the parliament; contio* (from couentio), an assembly simply addressed by speakers (by metonymy, the speech itself) = our public meeting, except that it could only be convened by a constituted authority, and no one had a right to speak without the leave of the presiding magistrate. Coetus is the most general expression for a meeting or gathering of people without reference to its object.

* “While in the voting assemblies, the comitia, it was on the whole burgesses alone that appeared, in the more popular assemblies, the contiones, every one in the shape of a man was entitled to take his place and to shout—Egyptians and Jews, street-boys and slaves. Such a meeting certainly had no significance in the eyes of the law; it could neither vote nor decree. But it practically ruled the street, and the opinion of the street came to be a power in Rome, so that it was of some importance whether this confused mass received the communications made to it with silence or shouts, whether it applauded or rejoiced, or hissed and howled at the orator.”—Mommsen.

  • Leg. 2, 12, 31 a summis imperiis et summis potestatibus comitiatus et concilia vel instituta (pcpl.) dimittere vel habita rescindere.
  • L. 5, 43, 8 cum se in mediam contionem intulisset, abstinere suetus ante talibus conciliis.
  • Caes. C. 2, 32, 1 dimisso consilio contionem aduocat militum.
  • Sest. 14 nullum collegium aut concilium aut omnino aliquod commune consilium.
  • Rosc. A. 52 di prohibeant, ut hoc quod maiores consilium publicum (senate) vocari voluerunt, praesidium sectorum existimetur.
  • Caes. 6, 20 de re publica nisi per concilium loqui non conceditur.
  • Caes. 1, 33 hac oratione habita concilium dimisit.
  • N. Tim. 4 veniebat autem in theatrum, cum ibi concilium populi haberetur.
  • Caes. 5, 24 concilio (general assembly) Gallorum Samarobrivae peracto.
  • Phil. 4, 6 senatum, id est orbis terrae consilium, delere gestit.
  • Caes. 3, 3 consilio (council of war) celeriter convocato sententias exquirere coepit.
  • Fam. 5, 2 atque me abeuntem magistratu contionis habendae potestate privavit. (It was usual for magistrates on retiring from office to address the people on the events of the year. The “ius contionis habendae” was a common but not an absolute right of all magistrates.)
  • N. Them. 1 saepe in contionem populi prodibat.
  • Fam. 9, 14 legi contionem tuam.
  • L. 2, 32 timor patres incessit ne rursus coetus occulti coniurationesque fierent.


Profecto, assuredly, certainly, in any case, is subjective, never objective, i.e., it always expresses the conviction or assurance of the speaker: it never intensifies a quality = truly (Müller, Off. 1, 1).

  • Fam. 1, 9, 22 quae me moverunt, movissent eadem te profecto.
  • N. D. 1, 2 alterum fieri profecto potest, ut earum (opinionum) nulla, alterum certe non potest, ut plus una vera sit.
  • Att. 6, 5 nunc quidem profecto Romae es. Quo te, si ita est, salvum venisse gaudeo.
  • Fam. 1, 5A quoquo modo se res habet, profecto resistemus.


Sequi, to aim at, to try to attain; persequi, to aim at perseveringly, to follow out in detail; adsequi and consequi, to aim at successfully, to attain, the former rather with the idea of exertion or trouble, the latter with reference to the result.

  • N. D. 2, 32 natura declarat quid sequatur (nature shows what is the end she aims at).
  • Off. 1, 31 neque enim attinet quicquam sequi quod adsequi non queas (for it is idle to aim at what you cannot accomplish).
  • Tus. 5, 34 tum intelleges, qui voluptatem maxime sequantur, eos minime consequi.
  • N. D. 2, 64 longum est mulorum persequi utilitates et asinorum (it would take too long to recount the advantages of mules and asses).
  • Sen. 16 possum persequi multa oblectamenta rerum rusticarum (possum, I could = praeteritio).
  • N. D. 1, 5 cuius rei tantae tamque difficilis facultatem consecutum esse me non profiteor, secutum esse prae me fero.
  • Att. 7, 2 omnia experiar, et, ut spero, adsequar.
  • Fam. 1, 7 omnia quae ne per populum quidem sine seditione se adsequi arbitrabantur, per senatum consecuti sunt.

Hence it follows, sequitur, not hinc (inde, ex eo, ex quo) sequitur, but we can say “hinc consequitur,” “ex quo efficitur,” etc.


Audientiam facere = to procure an attentive hearing. It was the custom in public assemblies for the praeco to command silence on behalf of the speaker = facere audientiam alicui or alicuius orationi. Audientia is not used for audience in the sense of listeners (auditores or audientes), or in the expression to give audience (admittere, conveniendi facultatem facere, etc.).

  • L. 43, 16 audientiam facere praeconem iussit.
  • Caecil. 13 iam nunc prospicio, quantam auditorum multitudinem infamia C. Verris concitatura, quantam denique audientiam orationi meae improbitas illius factura sit.
  • Tus. 2, 1 effectus eloquentiae est audientium approbatio.
  • Phil. 8, 10 memoria teneo Scaevolam, cum esset summa senectute, cotidie facere omnibus conveniendi potestatem sui.
  • Q. F. 1, 1, 11 facilem se in hominibus audiendis admittendisque praebere praeclarum magis est quam difficile.

To give an audience of the senate to one, senatum alicui dare. They gave him an audience of the senate, senatum ei dederunt. He demanded an audience of the senate, petiit ut senatus sibi daretur.

  • L. 21, 12 senatus Alorco datus est (Alorcus had an audience of the senate).
  • L. 30, 40 legatis petentibus, ut senatus sibi daretur, responsum ab dictatore est, consules novos eis senatum daturos esse.


Scriptor, the author or writer of a book; auctor, an author, so far as he is an authority for a particular statement or a particular style. The ancient authors, scriptores veteres; Greek and Latin authors, scriptores Graeci et Latini.

  • Arch. 10 quam multos scriptores rerum suarum Magnus ille Alexander secum habuisse dicitur!
  • L. 8, 40, 5 nec quisquam aequalis temporibus illis scriptor extat, quo satis certo auctore stetur.
  • L. 6, 42 bellatum cum Gallis eo anno circa Anienem flumen, auctor est Claudius (Claudius asserts).
  • Att. 7, 3 Caecilius malus auctor Latinitatis est (a bad authority for Latin style).

Auctor is used of any one whose authority determines our action or our belief. Auctor sum, I advise, takes “ut” or “ne”; auctor sum, I assure, takes infinitive.

  • Att. 15, 5 mihi ut absim, vehementer auctor est.
  • Verr. 2, 14, 37 auctor est ut quam primum agere incipiant.
  • Att. 15, 11, 1 auctor non sum ut te urbi committas.
  • L. 2, 48 auctores sumus, tutam ibi maiestatem Romani nominis fore.
  • L. 10, 26, 10 deletam quoque ibi legionem, ita ut nuntius non superesset, quidam auctores sunt.
  • L. 22, 36, 1 quantae … copiae peditum equitumque additae sint … et numero et genere copiarum variant auctores.
  • L. 4, 26, 6 sunt qui male pugnatum ab his consulibus in Algido auctores sint.

On whose authority did you do this? quo auctore hoc fecisti? I did this at your instigation, te auctore hoc feci.


Sarcinae, the light baggage carried by each soldier = modern knapsack; impedimenta, the baggage of the whole army, the heavy baggage conveyed in waggons.

  • Caes. 3, 24 impeditos in agmine et sub sarcinis adoriri cogitabant.
  • Caes. 2, 19 post eas (legiones) totius exercitus impedimenta collocarat.
  1. It was customary for the soldiers to put their sarcinae together before a battle began = sarcinas colligere.

    • Caes. 1, 24 sarcinas in unum locum conferri iussit.
    • L. 9, 31 dum arma capiunt, sarcinas congerunt in medium.
    • L. 9, 43, 12 raptim conlatae sarcinae in medium.
  2. Colligere vasa, to pack up. Having collected the baggage, they prepared to depart, vasis collectis discedere parabant.

    • Verr. 4, 19 ille ex Sicilia iam castra commoverat et vasa collegerat (had packed up).
    • Caes. C. 1, 66 signum dari iubet, et vasa militari more conclamari.


Argentarius, a banker, a money-dealer; faenerator, a capitalist, a money-lender, with odious accessory idea, a usurer.

  • Off. 3, 14 Pythius erat, ut argentarius, apud omnes ordines gratiosus.
  • Liv. 10, 23 eodem anno aediles curules aliquot faeneratoribus diem dixerunt (because they had exacted more than the legal rate of interest).

Argentariam facere, to carry on the business of a banker, or money-changer; is quem ille argentariam Lepti fecisse dicit (Verr. 5, 59).


Paciscor is the common word for to bargain, or bargain for. They bargained that the river should be the boundary, pacti sunt ut flumen terminus esset; they bargained for their lives, pacti sunt vitam; they bargained that their lives should be spared, pacti sunt ut vitae suae parceretur. A bargain = pactio or pactum.

  • Or. 2, 86 Simonidi dixit se dimidium eius ei, quod pactus esset, pro illo carmine daturum.
  • L. 9, 11 pacem nobiscum pepigistis, ut legiones vobis restitueremus.
  • L. 25, 33 paciscitur magna mercede cum Celtiberorum principibus, ut copias abducant.
  • L. 9, 11 recipiant arma, quae per pactionem tradiderunt.
  • L. 9, 11 numquamne causa defiet, cur victi pacto non stetis?

The perfect participle is used in a passive as well as an active sense.

  • Off. 3, 29 si praedonibus pactum pro capite pretium non attuleris.
  • L. 28, 21 pacto inter se ut victorem res sequeretur (having bargained that the property should belong to the victor; the use of the neuter part. pass. for the ablat. absol. begins with Livy).


Quod, because, inasmuch as, is the most common causal particle = Fr. parce que. Id quod (= ob eam rem, for the reason, quod, that) occurs in Terence, Hec. 368, id quod me repente aspexerant. There is no distinction between quod and quia [see, however, Gildersleeve and Lodge’s Latin Grammar, § 538, n. 2]: the former is more common in classical Latin, the latter in early and later Latin. Quoniam = quom (cum) iam is used of an evident or acknowledged reason known to the person addressed, when now = Fr. puisque, and, like quando (quando quidem), now then since, is always followed by the indicative.

Quod takes the indicative when it assigns the actual reason, and the subjunctive when it assigns a reason which, though probable or conceivable, is asserted to be other than the actual one. He was silent, because he was angry, tacuit, quod iratus fuit; he was silent, not because he was angry, but because he could not speak, tacuit, non quod (non quo, rarely non non quia) iratus esset, sed quia (quod) loqui non potuit; he threw me into the water, not because he was angry with me, but because he wished to see if I knew how to swim, me in aquam coniecit, non quod mihi irasceretur, sed quia videre voluit num nare scirem. The true reason, following the rejected one, is sometimes expressed in an independent clause, or by the subjunctive with ut.

  • Cat. 3, 12 vos, Quirites, quoniam iam nox est, in vestra tecta discedite.
  • L. 27, 28, 16 magis quia improviso id fecerat, quam quod par viribus esset, anceps certamen erat.
  • Or. 2, 75 ego, non quo libenter male audiam, sed quia causam non libenter relinquo, nimium patiens et lentus existimor.
  • Tus. 2, 23 pugiles in iactandis caestibus ingemescunt, non quod doleant, sed quia profundenda voce omne corpus intenditur (not that they are pained, but because in such utterance every muscle of the body is strained).
  • Mil. 22 maiores nostri in dominum noluerunt, non quin posset verum inveniri, sed quia videbatur indignum (not that the truth could not be discovered, but because they thought it degrading).
  • Fam. 16, 24 isdem de rebus volui ad te saepius scribere, non quin (= non quo non) confiderem diligentiae tuae (not that I did not trust your care), sed rei me magnitudo movebat.
  • L. 10, 41, 12 ad urbem Scipioni maiore resistitur vi, non quia plus animi victis est, sed melius muri quam vallum armatos arcent.
  • Tac. A. 13, 1 (with Draeger-Becher’s note, ed. 1899) non quia ingenii violentia exitium inritaverat …: verum Agrippina … ultorem metuebat.
  • Sall. C. 34, 1 (orat. obliq.) se … Massiliam in exilium proficisci, non quo sibi tanti sceleris conscius esset, sed uti res publica quieta foret … Verr. 1, 9, 24 utar oratione perpetua, non quo iam hoc sit necesse, verum ut experiar, utrum …
  • Att. 12, 14, 3 totos dies scribo, non quo proficiam quid, sed tantisper impedior.
  1. By a curious usage, verbs of “saying” and “thinking” are sometimes put in the subjunctive instead of the thing said or thought.

    • Off. 1, 13 rediit, quod se oblitum esse nescio quid diceret (in loose English = he returned because he said he forgot something).
    • Caes. 7, 75, 5 ex his Bellovaci suum numerum non contulerunt, quod se suo nomine atque arbitrio cum Romanis bellum esse gesturos dicerent.
    • Planc. 33, 82 petam a vobis, iudices, ut eum beneficio complectamini, quem qui reprehendit, in eo reprehendit, quod gratum praeter modum dicat esse.
    • Caes. 5, 6, 3 ille omnibus primo precibus petere contendit, ut in Gallia relinqueretur, partim quod insuetus navigandi mare timeret, partim quod religionibus impediri sese diceret.
  2. The subjunctive is of course always used in oratio obliqua. He said that he was silent because you were silent, dixit se tacere, quod tu taceres. A clause may be virtually, though not formally, in oratio obliqua, i.e., what appears to be the reporter’s statement may be the opinion or assertion of some one else. Socrates was accused of corrupting the young men, Socrates accusatus est, quod iuventutem corrumperet, i.e., his accusere said so.

    • Off. 2, 22 laudat Africanum Panaetius, quod fuerit abstinens (Panaetius praises Africanus for his self-control, i.e., Panaetius alleged that ground).
    • Tus. 5, 36 Aristides expulsus est patria, quod praeter modum iustus esset (i.e., his countrymen alleged that he was too just).
    • L. 6, 1 Marcio dicta dies est, quod legatus in Gallos pugnasset.
    • N. D. 3, 36 num quis, quod bonus vir esset, gratias dis egit umquam? (i.e., alleged the fact of his being a good man as a ground for thanksgiving).
    • Or. 3, 14 nemo umquam est oratorem, quod (on the alleged ground that) Latine loqueretur, admiratus.
  3. Quod, signifying because, introduces an adverbial clause, and has for its correlatives “eo,” “ideo,” “idcirco,” etc. Quod introducing a noun-clause = the fact that, the circumstance that, has for its correlatives “hoc,” “illud,” “id,” “ea res,” etc., and, unless for some collateral reason, always takes the indicative. The fact that you sent me no letter did not deter me from sending one to you, non ea res me deterruit, quo minus ad te litteras mitterem, quod tu ad me nullas miseras. Here the quod clause is substantival and stands in opposition to ea res. I was not deterred from sending a letter to you because you did not send one to me, but because I had nothing to write about, non eo (ea re) deterritus sum quo minus ad te litteras mitterem, quod tu ad me nullas misisses, sed quia non habebam quod scriberem. Here the quod clauses are adverbial.

    • Quinct. 2 non eo dico, quo mihi veniat in dubium tua fides (I do not say this because I doubt your word).
    • N. Eu. 1 multum Eumeni detraxit inter Macedones viventi, quod alienae erat civitatis (the fact of his being of a foreign state).
    • Verr. 5, 19, 48 perspicio, id quod ostendam, cum ipsos produxero, ipsorum ex litteris, multas pecunias … falsas atque inanes esse perscriptas.
    • Off. 3, 31 quod rediit, nobis mirabile videtur.
    • Mil. 36 nunc me una consolatio sustentat, quod tibi nullum a me pietatis officium defuit.
    • Off. 3, 31 ex tota laude Reguli illud est admiratione dignum, quod captivos retinendos censuit.
    • Att. 16, 15 non pigritia facio, quod (substantival) non mea manu scribo (that I do not write with my own hand does not proceed from laziness = non pigritia est factum quod).
    • Or. 1, 8 hoc enim uno praestamus feris, quod (adverbial) colloquimur inter nos.
    • L. 4, 3, 8 quod spiratis, quod vocem mittitis, quod formas hominum habetis, indignantur.
  4. The substantival quod clause can only be used of an existing relation concerning which a judgment is expressed (Madvig, § 398). It would be incorrect to say accidit quod non abiit for accidit ut non abiret, but we can say bene (commode) accidit quod non abiit, bene facis quod me adiuvas.

    • Att. 1, 17, 2 accidit perincommode, quod eum nusquam vidisti (it happened very inconveniently, that you saw him nowhere).
  5. Accedit, to this is to be added, is construed with ut in an objective sense, and by quod in a subjective sense. Ut introduces the addition as a historical statement; quod implies that the remaining circumstance is a fact which has come under the speaker’s notice or experience. Hence, unless the circumstance is stated as an actual fact, quod is inadmissible.

    • Sall. C. 11, 5 huc adcedebat quod L. Sulla, exercitum … luxuriose … habuerat (to this was to be added the fact that Lucius Sulla had treated the army in a lavish manner).
    • Or. 2, 4, 15 sed hoc tamen cecidit mihi peroportune, quod … ad Antonium audiendum venistis.
    • Sen. 6 ad Appi Claudi senectutem accedebat, ut caecus esset.
    • Att. 13, 21 accedit, quod patrem plus etiam, quam tu scis, amo.
    • Rosc. A. 31 quid, si accedit eodem, ut tenuis antea fueris? (what, if it is to be added to this that you were poor before?).
    • Balb. 28 accedat etiam illud, ut (not quod) statuatis.


Evadere, step by step with reference to the process, especially as implying effort to become; fieri, with reference to the result, especially as contrasted with the antecedent state; exsistere, to come forward as, show oneself to be, more than esse, simply to be. He became a great orator, magnus orator evasit; from a shepherd he became a king, ex pastore rex factus est.

  • Mur. 13 nonnullos videmus, qui oratores evadere non potuerunt.
  • Brut. 35 fuit autem Athenis adulescens, perfectus Epicureus evaserat.
  • Brut. 47 item in iure C. Bellienus homo per se magnus prope simili ratione summus evaserat.
  • L. 1, 39 iuvenis evasit vere indolis regiae.
  • Caecil. 17 repente ex homine, tamquam aliquo Circaeo poculo, factus est Verres.
  • Fam. 2, 9 dum illum rideo, paene sum factus ille.
  • Sall. I. 85 nemo ignavia immortalis factus est.
  • L. 21, 12, 4 transfuga ex oratore factus.
  • Phil. 3, 9 magister eius ex oratore arator factus est.
  • Phil. 8, 3 viderunt enim ex mendicis fieri repente divites.
  • L. 3, 24 quaestores Volscio, quod falsus haud dubie testis in Caesonem exstitisset, diem dixerant.
  • R. P. 2, 26 videtisne, ut de rege dominus exstiterit?
  • Caes. C. 3, 104 plerumque in calamitate ex amicis inimici exsistunt.

“Become,” transitive = decere. He did not think that these things were becoming in a soldier, non putavit haec militem decere; it ill became him to be so engaged, eum ita occupatum esse minime decebat.


The distinction between indicative and subjunctive after ante quam and prius quam (prior quam in L. 39, 32 prior tamen Claudius quam Sempronius … Romam venit) generally stated is this: the indicative expresses the fact that of two events one occurs subsequently to the other, while the subjunctive implies that their sequence is purposed or conceived.

He returned before the ambassador departed, rediit prius quam legatus discessit, or discederet; discessit points out the fact, discederet the purpose = should depart.

He crossed the river before he came to the cave, flumen transiit, prius quam ad speluncam venit, or veniret; venit points out the fact that he came to the cave after crossing the river, veniret implies that he crossed the river before going as far as the cave.

The imperfect indicative is rarely used, the pluperfect scarcely ever.

  • (With definite interval) Am. 25, 96 id actum est … quinquennio ante quam consul sum factus (five years before).
  • Brut. 94 annis ante sedecim causas agere coepit, quam tu es natus.
  • Fin. 5, 20 membris utimur prius, quam didicimus, cuius ea causa utilitatis habeamus.
  • Verr. 2, 66 omnia ista ante facta sunt, quam Verres Italiam attigit.
  • Caes. 1, 53 neque prius fugere destiterunt, quam ad flumen Rhenum pervenerunt.
  • L. 41, 2 non ante finitum est proelium, quam tribunus militum interfectus est.
  • L. 7, 14, 10 prius pugna coepit, quam signum a ducibus daretur.
  • Caes. C. 1, 22, 2 neque ab eo prius Domitiani milites discedunt, quam in conspectum Caesaris deducatur.
  • N. Them. 8, 4 inde non prius egressus est, quam rex eum … in fidem reciperet.
  • Caes. C. 1, 54 collem, prius quam sentiatur, communit (he fortifies the hill before he can be perceived).
  • Caes. 2, 12 prius quam se hostes ex terrore ac fuga reciperent (should recover), in fines Suessionum exercitum duxit.
  • L. 9, 2 ante quam venias ad campum, intrandae angustiae sunt.
  • Ter. Ad. 4, 2, 44 prius quam ad portam venias, apud ipsum lacum est pistrilla.
  1. In Livy, Nepos, and later writers, the subjunctive is sometimes irregularly used in a simple statement of fact.

    • L. 25, 31 paucis ante diebus, quam Syracusae caperentur (= captae sunt), Otacilius Uticam transmisit (a few days before Syracuse was taken, Otacilius crossed to Utica).
    • L. 5, 33 ducentis annis ante, quam Clusium oppugnarent, urbemque Romam caperent, in Italiam Galli transcenderunt.
    • N. Ar. 2 Aristides interfuit pugnae navali apud Salamina, quae facta est prius quam poena liberaretur.
    • (Pluperfect subjunctive) L. 24, 16, 11 priusquam omnes iure libertatis aequassem, neminem nota strenui aut ignavi militis notasse volui.
  2. The future perfect, unless after a negative = until, is rare. The simple future is almost unknown, the present indicative and (sometimes) the present subjunctive being used instead.

    Before replying to you, I will say a few words about myself, ante quam tibi respondeo or respondeam (not respondebo), de me pauca dicam.

    • Deiot. 2 ante quam de accusatione ipsa dico, de accusatorum spe pauca dicam.
    • Att. 5, 14, 1 antequam aliquo loco consedero, neque longas a me neque semper mea manu litteras expectabis (until I settle down in some place, …).
    • Mil. 36, 99 praeclare enim vixero, si quid mihi acciderit, priusquam hoc tantum mali videro.
    • Ter. Heaut. 584 hic prius se indicarit quam ego argentum effecero.
    • Phil. 1, 4 prius quam de re publica dicere incipio, pauca querar.
    • Att. 16, 5 circumspice, sed ante quam erubesco.
    • L. 2, 40 sine, prius quam complexum accipio, sciam, ad hostem an ad filium venerim.
    • Agr. 2, 20 is videlicet, ante quam veniat in Pontum, litteras ad Pompeium mittet (he will, of course, send a despatch to Pompey before coming (= he can come) into Pontus).
    • L. 45, 12 prius quam hoc circulo excedas, redde responsum, senatui quod referam.
    • Att. 10, 15 si quemquam nanctus eris, qui perferat, litteras des, ante quam discedimus.
    • Fam. 7, 14 dabo operam, ut istuc veniam, ante quam plane ex animo tuo effluo.
    • Sen. 6 de Carthagine vereri non ante desinam, quam illam excisam esse cognovero.
  3. The subjunctive is used in the case in which an event occurs before another event could occur, so that the expected event is prevented, or becomes unnecessary. Vergil died before completing the Aeneid, Vergilius prius mortuus est, quam Aeneidam absolveret (not absolvisset).

    • L. 3, 58, 6 priusquam prodicta dies adesset, Appius mortem sibi conscivit.
    • Verr. 4, 65 ante quam verbum facerem, de sella surrexit atque abiit.
    • L. 1, 14 Romanus prius quam fores portarum obicerentur velut agmine uno inrumpit.
    • L. 7, 26 alia multitudo, prius quam ad coniectum teli veniret, terga vertit.
    • L. 2, 61 ante tamen, quam prodicta dies veniret, morbo moritur.
    • L. 35, 27 multi prius incendio absumpti sunt, quam hostium adventum sentirent.
    • L. 27, 24 principes, prius quam custodiae in portis locarentur, evaserunt.
    • Tac. H. 4, 66 Labeo ante quam circumveniretur, profugit.
    • N. Dat. 9 prius quam pervenirent ad eum quem aggredi volebant, confixi conciderunt.
    • Sall. I. 54 Numidae prius quam ex castris subveniretur in proxumos collis discedunt.
  4. The subjunctive is used in maxims expressed in general terms.

    Farmers plough long before they sow, agricolae arant multo ante quam serant; these farmers (A. B. C.) plough long before they sow = hi agricolae arant multo ante quam serunt.

    • Sen. Ep. 103 tempestas minatur, ante quam surgat (a tempest threatens before it rises).
    • Or. 1, 59 tragoedi cotidie, ante quam pronuntient, vocem cubantes sensim excitant.
    • Sall. C. 1 prius quam incipias consulto opus est.
    • Off. 1, 21 in omnibus negotiis, prius quam adgrediare, adhibenda est praeparatio diligens.
    • Or. 34 nescire quid ante quam natus sis acciderit, id est semper esse puerum.

Ante quam, though the favourite word with Tacitus, is less common than prius quam in Livy and antecedent authors. It is not found in Nepos, and occurs only once in Sallust (I. 97). Cicero, however, seldom uses prius quam with the present indicative.

Ante quam is invariably used in connexion with an ablative of time. Six years before I was born, sex annis ante (not prius) quam ego natus sum; a year before he died, anno ante quam est mortuus.

BEFORE (adverb).

Antea is not used of a future event, or of a specified interval; e.g., ante (not antea) praedico; decem annis ante (not antea).

Antea occurs rarely in early Latin, never in Plautus, only once in Terence (And. 52). Ante, though far commoner in Cicero’s earlier writings, gradually gives place to antea in his later works.

  • Ac. 2, 20, 64 Reid adgrediar igitur, si pauca ante quasi de fama mea dixero.
  • Ac. 2, 41, 128 paulum ante dicendum est.
  • L. 31, 1, 8 coeptum bellum adversus Philippum decem ferme ante annis triennio prius depositum erat.
  • Pomp. 5 hunc audiebant antea, nunc praesentem vident.
  • Caes. 6, 24 fuit antea tempus, cum Germanos Galli virtute superarent.
  • Rosc. A. 23 non ita multis ante annis.
  • Verr. 12 moneo, praedico, ante (not antea) denuntio.

Ante scripsi, I wrote before, i.e., on a previous occasion; supra scripsi = in a previous part of a letter or book.

BEFORE (of place).

Apud iudicem, before the judge, implying that the judge is addressed; coram iudice, in presence of the judge; ante iudicem, in front of the judge; pro, immediately before, or on the front part of something; pro castris, before the camp; pro tectis, on the front of the roofs; prae, in advance of. Coram in good prose is almost entirely used as an adverb.

  • Clu. 22 apud eosdem iudices reus est factus.
  • L. 35, 49 Archidamus coram quibus magis, quam apud quos verba faceret, rationem habuit.
  • Iuv. 10, 22 cantabit vacuus coram latrone viator.
  • Fam. 13, 6 (a) credo te memoria tenere me coram P. Cuspio tecum locutum esse.
  • Mil. 10 fit obviam Clodio ante fundum eius (just in front of his farm).
  • L. 9, 43 statua equestris ante templum Castoris posita est.
  • Caes. C. 1, 47 eum tumulum, pro quo pugnatum est, magnis operibus munierunt.
  • Caes. 4, 35 legiones in acie pro castris constituit.
  • Rosc. A. 5 ante tribunal tuum, Fanni, ante pedes vestros, iudices, caedes futurae sunt.
  • Serv. ap. Fam. 4, 5 post me erat Aegina, ante me Megara, dextra Piraeus, sinistra Corinthus.
  • L. 1, 7, 4 prope Tiberim fluvium, qua prae se armentum agens nando traiecerat.
  • Att. 16, 7, 6 sed haec hactenus; reliqua coram.

He was summoned before a court of justice, in ius vocatus est.

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